4. Samathakkhandhako

Sativinayakathādivaṇṇanā

195. Samathakkhandhake khīṇāsavassa vipulasatiṃ nissāya dātabbo vinayo codanādiasāruppānaṃ vinayanupāyo sativinayo.

196.Cittavipariyāsakatoti katacittavipariyāso. Gaggaṃ bhikkhuṃ…pe… codentīti ettha pana ummattakassa idaṃ ummattakaṃ, ajjhāciṇṇaṃ. Tadeva cittavipariyāsena katanti cittavipariyāsakataṃ. Tena ummattakena cittavipariyāsakatena ajjhāciṇṇena anācārena āpannāya āpattiyā gaggaṃ bhikkhuṃ codentīti evamattho daṭṭhabbo. Paṭhamaṃ mūḷho hutvā pacchā amūḷhabhāvaṃ upagatassa dātabbo vinayo amūḷhavinayo.

202. Dhammavādīnaṃ yebhuyyabhāvasampādikā kiriyā yebhuyyasikāti imasmiṃ atthe sa-kārāgamasahito ika-paccayantoyaṃ saddoti dassetuṃ āha ‘‘yassā’’tiādi. Tattha yassā kiriyāyāti gūḷhakavivaṭṭakādinā salākaggāhāpakakiriyāya. Yebhuyyabhāvaṃ nissitasamathakiriyā yebhuyyasikāti evaṃ yebhuyyasikāsaddassa attho gahetabbo. Evañhi ayaṃ adhikaraṇasamatho nāma hoti. Yathāvuttasalākaggāhena hi dhammavādīnaṃ yebhuyyabhāve siddhe pacchā taṃ yebhuyyabhāvaṃ nissāyeva adhikaraṇavūpasamo hoti, na dhammavādīnaṃ bahutarabhāvasādhakakiriyāmattena.

207.‘‘Sesamettha tajjanīyādīsu vuttanayamevā’’ti etena tajjanīyādisattakammāni viya idampi tassapāpiyasikākammaṃ asucibhāvādidosayuttassa, saṅghassa ca vinicchaye atiṭṭhamānassa kattabbaṃ visuṃ ekaṃ niggahakammanti dasseti. Etasmiñhi niggahakamme kate so puggalo ‘‘ahaṃ suddho’’ti attano suddhiyā sādhanatthaṃ saṅghamajjhaṃ otarituṃ, saṅgho cassa vinicchayaṃ dātuṃ na labhati, taṃ kammakaraṇamatteneva ca taṃ adhikaraṇaṃ vūpasantaṃ hoti.

Kathaṃ panetaṃ kammaṃ paṭippassambhatīti? Keci panettha ‘‘so tathā niggahito niggahitova hoti, osāraṇaṃ na labhati. Teneva pāḷiyaṃ osāraṇā na vuttā’’ti vadanti. Aññe pana ‘‘pāḷiyaṃ na upasampādetabbantiādinā sammāvattanassa vuttattā sammāvattitvā lajjidhamme okkantassa osāraṇā avuttāpi tajjanīyādīsu viya nayato kammavācaṃ yojetvā osāraṇā kātabbā evā’’ti vadanti, idaṃ yuttaṃ. Teneva aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vakkhati ‘‘sace sīlavā bhavissati, vattaṃ paripūretvā paṭippassaddhiṃ labhissati. No ce, tathānāsitakova bhavissatī’’ti (cūḷava. aṭṭha. 238). Tassapāpiyasikākammanti ca aluttasamāsoyeva. Tenāha ‘‘idaṃ hī’’ti ādi.

Sativinayakathādivaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Adhikaraṇakathāvaṇṇanā

215. Virūpato vipariṇāmaṭṭhena cittaṃ dukkhaṃ vipaccatīti āha ‘‘cittadukkhatthaṃ vohāro’’tiādi. Upavadanāti codanā. Tatthevāti anuvadane.

Ādito paṭṭhāya ca tassa tassa kammassa viññātattāti vitthārato āgatakammavaggassa ādito paṭṭhāya vaṇṇanāmukhena viññātattā vinicchayo bhavissatīti yojanā.

216. Pāḷiyaṃ ajjhattaṃ vāti attani vā attano parisāya vā. Bahiddhā vāti parasmiṃ vā parassa parisāya vā. Anavassavāyāti anuppādāya.

220.‘‘Vivādādhikaraṇaṃ kusalaṃ akusalaṃ abyākata’’nti idaṃ pucchāvacanaṃ. Vivādādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusalantiādi visajjanaṃ. Esa nayo sesesupi.

222. Sammutisabhāvāyapi āpattiyā kāraṇūpacārena akusalābyākatabhāvena vuccamāne kusalassāpi āpattikāraṇattā tadupacārena ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusala’’nti vattabbaṃ bhaveyya , tathā avatvā ‘‘natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’’nti evaṃvacanassa kāraṇaṃ dassetuṃ ‘‘ettha sandhāyabhāsitavasena attho veditabbo’’ti vuttaṃ. Ettha cāyamadhippāyo – yadi hi āpatti nāma paramatthadhammasabhāvā bhaveyya, tadā ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusala’’ntiādivacanaṃ yujjeyya. Yasmā duṭṭhadosasikkhāpadaṭṭhakathādīsu dassitadosappasaṅgato paramatthasabhaāvatā na yuttā, ekantasammutisabhāvā eva sā hoti, tasmā ‘‘siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākata’’ntipi nippariyāyato na vattabbā. Yadi pana akusalaabyākatadhammasamuṭṭhitattameva upādāya pariyāyato ‘‘siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākata’’nti vuttaṃ. Tadā kusaladhammasamauṭṭhitattampi upādāya pariyāyato ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusala’’ntipi vattabbaṃ bhaveyya. Yato cetaṃ vacanaṃ āpattiyā akusalābyākatūpacārārahattassa kusalūpacārānārahattassa visuṃ kāraṇasabbhāvaṃ sandhāya bhāsitaṃ, tasmā yaṃ taṃ kāraṇavisesaṃ sandhāya idaṃ bhāsitaṃ, tassa vasenevettha attho veditabbo.

Idāni pana yo aṅgappahonakacittameva sandhāya āpattiyā akusalādibhāvo vutto, nāññaṃ visesakāraṇaṃ sandhāyāti gaṇheyya, tassa gāhe dosaṃ dassento ‘‘yasmiṃ hī’’tiādimāha. Tattha pathavīkhaṇanādiketi pathavīkhaṇanādinimitte paṇṇattivajje. Āpattādhikaraṇe kusalacittaṃ aṅganti paṇṇattiṃ ajānitvā kusalacittena cetiyaṅgaṇādīsu bhūmisodhanādivasena pathavībhūtagāmavikopanādikāle kusalacittaṃ kāraṇaṃ hoti. Tasmiṃ satīti tasmiṃ āpattādhikaraṇe vijjamāne kusalacittasamuṭṭhitattena kusalavohārārahāya āpattiyā vijjamānāyāti adhippāyo. Sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. cūḷavagga 3.222) pana ‘‘tasmiṃ satī’’ti imassa ‘‘tasmiṃ kusalacitte āpattibhāvena gahite’’ti attho vutto, taṃ na yujjati ‘‘yasmi’’nti ya-saddena parāmaṭṭhasseva āpattādhikaraṇassa ‘‘tasmi’’nti parāmasitabbato.

Na sakkā vattunti yadi sammutisabhāvāyapi āpattiyā akusalādisamuṭṭhitattena akusalādivohāro karīyati, tadā kusalavohāropi kattabboti ‘‘natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’’nti na sakkā vattuṃ, aññathā akusalādibhāvopissa paṭikkhipitabboti adhippāyo. Tasmāti yasmā kusalādīnaṃ tiṇṇaṃ samānepi āpattiyā aṅgappahonakatte kusalavohārova āpattiyā paṭikkhitto, na akusalādivohāro, tasmā nayidaṃ aṅgappahonakaṃ cittaṃ sandhāya vuttanti ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākataṃ, natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’’nti idaṃ āpattiyā samuṭṭhāpakattena aṅgappahonakaṃ kāraṇabhūtaṃ cittamattaṃ sandhāya na vuttaṃ , aññathā ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusala’’ntipi vattabbatoti adhippāyo. Etena āpattiyā akusalādibhāvopi kenaci nimittena pariyāyatova vutto, na paramatthatoti dasseti. Yathāha ‘‘yaṃ kusalacittena āpajjati, taṃ kusalaṃ, itarehi itara’’nti.

Idaṃ panātiādīsu ayaṃ adhippāyo – ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākata’’nti idañhi yaṃ kiñci kadāci katthaci kāraṇaṃ bhavantaṃ aniyatakāraṇaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ na hoti. Yaṃ pana sabbasikkhāpadesu āpattiyā kāraṇaṃ bhavitumarahati, idameva kāraṇaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Akusalañhi paṇṇattiṃ ñatvā vītikkamantassa sabbāpattiyā kāraṇaṃ hoti, lokavajjāpattiyā pana paṇṇattiṃ ajānantassapi kāraṇaṃ hoti. Kevalaṃ paṇṇattivajjāpattīsu kusalābyākatacittapavattikkhaṇe eva akusalaṃ na vattati, tadaññattha sayameva pavattati. Abyākataṃ pana kāyavacībhūtaṃ kusalākusalādīnaṃ pavattikkhaṇe nirodhasamāpannassa sahaseyyāpattiyanti sabbāpattiyā aṅgameva hoti channaṃ āpattisamuṭṭhānānaṃ kāyavācaṅgavirahitattābhāvā. Tasmā imesaṃ akusalābyākatānaṃ sabbāpattimūlakattameva sandhāya idaṃ āpattiyā akusalattaṃ, abyākatattañca vuttaṃ. Yattha pana pathavīkhaṇanādīsu kusalampi āpattiyā kāraṇaṃ hoti, tatthāpi āpattiyā tadupacārena kusalattavohāro ayutto sāvajjānavajjānaṃ ekattavohārassa viruddhattā. Yadaggena aññamaññaṃ viruddhā, tadaggena kāraṇakāriyavohāropi nesaṃ ayutto. Tasmā tattha vijjamānampi kusalaṃ abbohārikaṃ, kāyavacīdvārameva āveṇikaṃ kāraṇanti.

Tattha ekantato akusalamevāti akusalacittena samuṭṭhahanato kāraṇūpacārato evaṃ vuttaṃ. Tatthāti lokavajje. Vikappo natthīti siyā-saddassa vikappanatthataṃ dasseti. Akusalaṃ hotīti akusalasamuṭṭhitāya kāraṇūpacārena akusalaṃ hoti. Sahaseyyādivasena āpajjanatoabyākataṃ hotīti itthiyādīhi saha piṭṭhipasāraṇavasappavattakāyadvārasaṅkhātarūpābyākatavaseneva āpajjitabbato kāraṇūpacāreneva āpatti abyākataṃ hoti. Tatthāti tasmiṃ paṇṇattivajjāpattādhikaraṇe. Sañciccāsañciccavasenāti paṇṇattiṃ ñatvā, aññatvā ca āpajjanavasena imaṃ vikappabhāvaṃ sandhāya akusalattaabyākatattasaṅkhātaṃ yathāvuttaṃ imaṃ vikappasabhāvaṃ sandhāya idaṃ vacanaṃ vuttaṃ.

Yadi evaṃ asañciccāpajjanapakkhe kusalenāpi āpajjanato tampi vikappaṃ sandhāya ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusala’’ntipi kasmā na vuttanti āha ‘‘sace panā’’tiādi. ‘‘Acittakāna’’nti vuttamevatthaṃ samuṭṭhānavasena vibhāvetuṃ ‘‘eḷakalomapadasodhammādisamuṭṭhānānampī’’ti vuttaṃ. Acittakasamuṭṭhānānaṃ ‘‘kusalacittaṃ āpajjeyyā’’ti etena sāvajjabhūtāya āpattiyā kāraṇūpacārenāpi anavajjabhūtakusalavohāro ayuttoti dasseti. ‘‘Na ca tatthā’’tiādinā kusalassa āpattiyā kāraṇattaṃ vijjamānampi tathā voharituṃ ayuttanti paṭikkhipitvā kāyavācāsaṅkhātaṃ abyākatasseva kāraṇattaṃ dasseti. Tattha calitappavattānanti calitānaṃ, pavattānañca. Calito hi kāyo, pavattā vācā. Ettha ca kāyavācānamaññatarameva aṅgaṃ. Tañca…pe… abyākatanti evaṃ abyākatassa āpattikāraṇabhāveneva vuttattā. ‘‘Āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākata’’nti idaṃ kāraṇūpacārena pariyāyato vuttaṃ, na nippariyāyatoti sijjhati.

Yaṃ pana sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. cūḷava. 3.222) āpattiyā nippariyāyatova akusalādisabhāvataṃ samatthetuṃ bahuṃ papañcitaṃ, taṃ na sārato paccetabbaṃ duṭṭhadosasikkhāpadaṭṭhakathāyameva paṭikkhittattā. Tenevetthāpi ‘‘yaṃ cittaṃ āpattiyā aṅgaṃ hotī’’tiādinā akusalacittassāpi āpattiyā kāraṇattena bhinnatāva dassitā. Yaṃ panettha vattabbaṃ, taṃ heṭṭhā dassitamevāti idha na vitthārayimha. Evaṃ vītikkamato yo vītikkamoti ettha akusalacittena ñatvā vītikkamantassa kāyavacīvītikkamasamuṭṭhitā āpattivītikkamoti vutto. Esa nayo abyākatavārepi.

Adhikaraṇakathāvaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Adhikaraṇavūpasamanasamathakathādivaṇṇanā

228. Pāḷiyaṃ vivādādhikaraṇaṃ ekaṃ samathaṃ anāgammātiādi pucchā. Siyātiādi vissajjanaṃ. Siyātissa vacanīyanti eteneva vūpasamaṃ siyāti vattabbaṃ bhaveyyāti attho. Sammukhāvinayasminti sammukhāvinayattasminti bhāvappadhāno niddeso daṭṭhabbo. Evaṃ sabbavāresu. ‘‘Kārako ukkoṭetī’’ti idaṃ upalakkhaṇamattaṃ, yassa kassaci ukkoṭentassa pācittiyameva. Ubbāhikāya khīyanake pācittiyaṃ na vuttaṃ tattha chandadānassa natthitāya.

235.Vaṇṇāvaṇṇāyo katvāti khuddakamahantehi saññāṇehi yuttāyo katvā. Tenāha ‘‘nimittasaññaṃ āropetvā’’ti.

242.Kiccādhikaraṇaṃ …pe… sammatīti ettha sammukhāvinayena apalokanādikammaṃ sampajjatīti attho daṭṭhabbo.

Adhikaraṇavūpasamanasamathakathādivaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Samathakkhandhakavaṇṇanānayo niṭṭhito.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā) >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

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* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

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