Sāsanappavattikkamo

Bhagavato hi parinibbutikālato pacchā vassasatabbhantare buddhasāsane kocipi vādabhedo nāma natthi. Vassasatakāle pana dutiyasaṅgītikārehi therehi nikkaḍḍhitā vajjiputtakā bhikkhū pakkhaṃ labhitvā dhammañca vinayañca aññathā katvā mahāsaṅgītināmena visuṃ saṅgītimakaṃsu. Tadā saṅgītidvayārūḷhapurāṇadhammavinayameva sampaṭicchantānaṃ therānaṃ gaṇo theravādoti ca tadaññesaṃ mahāsaṅghikoti ca voharīyanti.

Puna mahāsaṅghikato (1) gokuliko (2) ekabyohārikoti dve ācariyagaṇā uppannā. Puna gokulikato (3) paññattivādo (4) bāhuliko (bahussutiko)ti dve uppannā. Puna bāhulikatopi (5) cetiyavādigaṇo uppannoti ete pañca mūlabhūtena mahāsaṅghikena saha cha pāṭiyekkā ācariyagaṇā ahesuṃ.

Visuddhattheravādatopi (1) mahisāsako (2) vajjiputtakoti dve ācariyagaṇā uppannā. Puna mahisāsakato (3) sabbatthivādo (4) dhammaguttikoti dve uppannā. Puna sabbatthivādatopi (5) kassapiyo, tatopi (6) saṅkantiko, tatopi (7) suttavādīti tayo uppannā. Vajjiputtakatopi (8) dhammottariyo (9) bhaddayāniko (10) channāgāriko (11) sammitiyoti cattāro uppannāti te ekādasa mūlabhūtena visuddhattheravādena saha dvādasa ācariyagaṇā ahesuṃ. Iti ime ca dvādasa purimā ca chāti aṭṭhārasa ācariyagaṇā dutiyatatiyasaṅgītīnaṃ antare jātā ahesuṃ.

Tesu mūlabhūto theravādagaṇoyeva porāṇadhammavinayagaruko hutvā anūnamanadhikaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ porāṇikaṃ dhammavinayaṃ dhāresi. Itare pana sattarasa bhinnagaṇā porāṇikaṃ dhammavinayaṃ aññathā akaṃsu. Tena tesaṃ dhammavinayo katthaci ūno katthaci adhiko hutvā aparipuṇṇo ceva ahosi aparisuddho ca. Tena vuttaṃ dīpavaṃse pañcamaparicchede –

30.

‘‘Nikkaḍḍhitā pāpabhikkhū, therehi vajjiputtakā;

Aññaṃ pakkhaṃ labhitvāna, adhammavādī bahū janā.

31.

Dasasahassā samāgantvā, akaṃsu dhammasaṅgahaṃ;

Tasmāyaṃ dhammasaṅgīti, mahāsaṅgītīti vuccati.

32.

Mahāsaṅgītikā bhikkhū, vilomaṃ akaṃsu sāsane;

Bhinditvā mūlasaṅgahaṃ, aññaṃ akaṃsu saṅgahaṃ.

33.

Aññatra saṅgahitaṃ suttaṃ, aññatra akariṃsu te;

Atthaṃ dhammañca bhindiṃsu, vinaye nikāyesu ca pañcasu…pe…

49.

Atthaṃ dhammañca bhindiṃsu, ekadesañca saṅgahaṃ;

Ganthañca ekadesañhi, chaḍḍetvā aññaṃ akaṃsu te.

50.

Nāmaṃ liṅgaṃ parikkhāraṃ, ākappakaraṇīyāni ca;

Pakatibhāvaṃ jahitvā, tañca aññaṃ akaṃsu te.

51.

Sattarasa bhinnavādā, ekavādo abhinnako;

Sabbevaṭṭhārasa honti, bhinnavādena te saha.

52.

Nigrodhova mahārukkho, thera vādānamuttamo;

Anūnaṃ anadhikañca, kevalaṃ jinasāsanaṃ;

Kaṇṭakā viya rukkhamhi, nibbattā vādasesakā.

53.

Paṭhame vassasate natthi, dutiye vassasatantare;

Bhinnā sattarasa vādā, uppannā jinasāsane’’ti [kathā. aṭṭha. nidānakathā].

Asokarañño ca kāle parihīnalābhasakkārā aññatitthiyā lābhasakkāraṃ patthayamānā bhikkhūsu pabbajitvā sakāni sakāni diṭṭhigatāni dīpenti ‘‘ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsana’’nti. Bhikkhūnaṃ santike pabbajjaṃ alabhamānāpi sayameva kese chinditvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā vihāresu vicarantā uposathakammādikaraṇakāle saṅghamajjhaṃ pavisanti, te bhikkhusaṅghena dhammena vinayena satthusāsanena niggayhamānāpi dhammavinayānulomāya paṭipattiyā asaṇṭhahantā anekarūpaṃ sāsanassa abbudañca malañca kaṇṭakañca samuṭṭhāpenti. Keci aggiṃ paricaranti, keci pañcātape tapanti, keci ādiccaṃ anuparivattanti, keci dhammañca vinayañca vobhindissāmāti tathā tathā paggaṇhanti. Tadā bhikkhusaṅgho na tehi saddhiṃ uposathaṃ vā pavāraṇaṃ vā akāsi, asokārāme satta vassāni uposatho upacchijji [kathā. aṭṭha. nidānakathā; pārā. aṭṭha. 1.tatiyasaṅgītikathā].

Imañca pana pavattiṃ upādāya evampi sakkā gahetuṃ ‘‘sattarasannaṃ bhinnavādagaṇānaṃ dhammavinayassa pacchimakālesu aparisuddhatarabhāvo īdisenapi kāraṇena ahosī’’ti. Kiñcāpi hi buddhasāsanabhūte parisuddhadhammavinaye ‘‘kocipi nicco dhuvo sassato nāma natthi aññatra nibbānadhātuyā, paramatthato attāpi natthi, sabbepi saṅkhārā aniccā addhuvā asassatā anattāyevā’’ti attho ativiya pākaṭo hoti, tathāpi dāni atheravādikānaṃ ganthesu ca pubbe vetullavādādīsu ca ‘‘buddho nicco dhuvo sassato attā’’ti ca, ‘‘sabbepi sattā niccā dhuvā sassatā attā’’ti ca attho dissati.

Atha asoko dhammarājā sāsanaṃ visodhetukāmo moggaliputtatissattherassa santike paṭhamameva samayaṃ uggaṇhitvā ekaladdhike ekaladdhike bhikkhū ekato kāretvā ekamekaṃ bhikkhusamūhaṃ pakkosāpetvā pucchi ‘‘kiṃ vādī bhante sammāsambuddho’’ti. Tato ye ye ‘‘sammāsambuddho sassatavādī’’ti vā, ‘‘ekaccasassatavādī’’ti vā evamādinā attano attano vādānurūpaṃ micchāvādaṃ āhaṃsu, te te ‘‘nayime bhikkhū, aññatitthiyā ime’’ti tathato ñatvā tesaṃ setakāni vatthāni datvā uppabbājesi. Te sabbepi saṭṭhisahassamattā ahesuṃ.

Athaññe bhikkhū pucchitvā tehi ‘‘vibhajjavādī mahārāja sammāsambuddho’’ti vutte ‘‘suddhaṃ dāni bhante sāsanaṃ, karotu bhikkhusaṅgho uposatha’’nti vatvā ārakkhañca datvā nagaraṃ pāvisi. Samaggo saṅgho sannipatitvā uposathaṃ akāsi. Tasmiṃ samāgame moggaliputtatissatthero yāni ca tadā uppannāni vatthūni yāni ca āyatiṃ uppajjissanti, sabbesampi tesaṃ paṭibāhanatthaṃ satthārā dinnanayavaseneva tathāgatena ṭhapitamātikaṃ vibhajanto parappavādamaddanaṃ kathāvatthuṃ nāma abhidhammapiṭake pañcamaṃ pakaraṇaṃ abhāsi. Tato moggaliputtatissattherappamukhā tipiṭakapariyattidharā pabhinnapaṭisambhidāpattā sahassaṃ bhikkhū theravādino saṅgītidvayārūḷhaṃ parisuddhaṃ porāṇadhammavinayaṃ puna saṅgāyitvā surakkhitaṃ rakkhiṃsu [pārā. aṭṭha. 1.tatiyasaṅgītikathā].

Atha moggaliputtatissatthero navasu paccantaṭṭhānesu sāsanapatiṭṭhāpanatthaṃ nava nāyakatthere uccinitvā pesesi. Tesu aṭṭhahi therehi attano attano pattaṭṭhānaṃ gantvā buddhasāsane patiṭṭhāpite mahāmahindatthero chattiṃsādhikadvisate (236) buddhavasse jambudīpato sīhaḷadīpaṃ gantvā devānaṃpiyatissarājappamukhaṃ dīpakajanasamūhaṃ pasādetvā buddhasāsanaṃ sampatiṭṭhāpesi, tena ca raññā dinnaṃ mahāmeghavanuyyānaṃ paṭiggahetvā tattha mahāvihāraṃ nāma saṅghārāmaṃ patiṭṭhāpesi [pārā. aṭṭha. 1.tatiyasaṅgītikathā]. Tato pabhuti sīhaḷadīpe buddhasāsanaṃ yāva vaṭṭagāmaṇirājakālā nikāyantaravādākularahitaṃ nimmalaṃ suparisuddhaṃ hutvā samujjalittha. Vaṭṭagāmaṇirājakālato pana paṭṭhāya nikāyantaravādāpi sīhaḷadīpamupāgamiṃsu. Tadā visuddhattheravādino yathā purāṇadhammavinayo tehi nikāyantaravādehi asammisso amalīno pakatiparisuddho hutvā tiṭṭheyya, tathā taṃ mahussāhena surakkhitaṃ rakkhiṃsu. Kathaṃ?

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* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

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