19. Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhiniddeso

Paccayapariggahakathā

678. Etasseva pana nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṇena tīsu addhāsu kaṅkhaṃ vitaritvā ṭhitaṃ ñāṇaṃ kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi nāma.

Taṃ sampādetukāmo bhikkhu yathā nāma kusalo bhisakko rogaṃ disvā tassa samuṭṭhānaṃ pariyesati. Yathā vā pana anukampako puriso daharaṃ kumāraṃ mandaṃ uttānaseyyakaṃ rathikāya nipannaṃ disvā ‘‘kassa nu kho ayaṃ puttako’’ti tassa mātāpitaro āvajjati, evameva tassa nāmarūpassa hetupaccayapariyesanaṃ āpajjati.

So āditova iti paṭisañcikkhati ‘‘na tāvidhaṃ nāmarūpaṃ ahetukaṃ, sabbattha sabbadā sabbesañca ekasadisabhāvāpattito, na issarādihetukaṃ, nāmarūpato uddhaṃ issarādīnaṃ abhāvato. Yepi nāmarūpamattameva issarādayoti vadanti, tesaṃ issarādisaṅkhātanāmarūpassa ahetukabhāvappattito. Tasmā bhavitabbamassa hetupaccayehi, ke nu kho te’’ti.

679. So evaṃ nāmarūpassa hetupaccaye āvajjetvā imassa tāva rūpakāyassa evaṃ hetupaccaye pariggaṇhāti – ‘‘ayaṃ kāyo nibbattamāno neva uppalapadumapuṇḍarīkasogandhikādīnaṃ abbhantare nibbattati, na maṇimuttāhārādīnaṃ, atha kho āmāsayapakkāsayānaṃ antare udarapaṭalaṃ pacchato piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ purato katvā antaantaguṇaparivārito sayampi duggandhajegucchapaṭikkūlo duggandhajegucchapaṭikkūle paramasambādhe okāse pūtimacchapūtikummāsaoḷigallacandanikādīsu kimiva nibbattati. Tassevaṃ nibbattamānassa ‘avijjā taṇhā upādānaṃ kamma’nti ime cattāro dhammā nibbattakattā hetu, āhāro upatthambhakattā paccayoti pañca dhammā hetupaccayā honti. Tesupi avijjādayo tayo imassa kāyassa mātā viya dārakassa upanissayā honti. Kammaṃ pitā viya puttassa janakaṃ . Āhāro dhāti viya dārakassa sandhārako’’ti. Evaṃ rūpakāyassa paccayapariggahaṃ katvā, puna ‘‘cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇa’’ntiādinā (saṃ. ni. 2.43) nayena nāmakāyassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti.

So evaṃ paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi paccayato pavattissatīti samanupassati.

680. Tassevaṃ samanupassato yā sā pubbantaṃ ārabbha ‘‘ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, na nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kathaṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ hutvā kiṃ ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhāna’’nti (ma. ni. 1.18; saṃ. ni. 2.20) pañcavidhā vicikicchā vuttā, yāpi aparantaṃ ārabbha ‘‘bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ, na nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kathaṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ, kiṃ hutvā kiṃ bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhāna’’nti pañcavidhā vicikicchā vuttā, yāpi paccuppannaṃ ārabbha ‘‘etarahi vā pana paccuppannaṃ addhānaṃ ajjhattaṃ kathaṃkathī hoti – ahaṃ nu khosmi, no nu khosmi, kiṃ nu khosmi, kathaṃ nu khosmi, ayaṃ nu kho satto kuto āgato, so kuhiṃ gāmī bhavissatī’’ti (ma. ni. 1.18) chabbidhā vicikicchā vuttā, sā sabbāpi pahīyati.

681. Aparo sādhāraṇāsādhāraṇavasena duvidhaṃ nāmassa paccayaṃ passati, kammādivasena catubbidhaṃ rūpassa. Duvidho hi nāmassa paccayo sādhāraṇo asādhāraṇo ca. Tattha cakkhādīni cha dvārāni, rūpādīni cha ārammaṇāni nāmassa sādhāraṇo paccayo, kusalādibhedato sabbappakārassāpi tato pavattito. Manasikārādiko asādhāraṇo. Yoniso manasikārasaddhammassavanādiko hi kusalasseva hoti, viparīto akusalassa, kammādiko vipākassa, bhavaṅgādiko kiriyassāti.

Rūpassa pana kammaṃ cittaṃ utu āhāroti ayaṃ kammādiko catubbidho paccayo. Tattha kammaṃ atītameva kammasamuṭṭhānassa rūpassa paccayo hoti . Cittaṃ cittasamuṭṭhānassa uppajjamānaṃ. Utuāhārā utuāhārasamuṭṭhānassa ṭhitikkhaṇe paccayā hontīti. Evameveko nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti.

So evaṃ paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi paccayato pavattissatīti samanupassati. Tassevaṃ samanupassato vuttanayeneva tīsupi addhāsu vicikicchā pahīyati.

682. Aparo tesaṃyeva nāmarūpasaṅkhātānaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ jarāpattiṃ jiṇṇānañca bhaṅgaṃ disvā idaṃ saṅkhārānaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ nāma jātiyā sati hoti, jāti bhave sati, bhavo upādāne sati, upādānaṃ taṇhāya sati, taṇhā vedanāya sati, vedanā phasse sati, phasso saḷāyatane sati, saḷāyatanaṃ nāmarūpe sati, nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇe sati, viññāṇaṃ saṅkhāresu sati, saṅkhārā avijjāya satīti evaṃ paṭilomapaṭiccasamuppādavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. Athassa vuttanayeneva vicikicchā pahīyati.

683. Aparo ‘‘iti kho avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā’’ti (saṃ. ni. 2.2) pubbe vitthāretvā dassitaanulomapaṭiccasamuppādavaseneva nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. Athassa vuttanayeneva kaṅkhā pahīyati.

684. Aparo ‘‘purimakammabhavasmiṃ moho avijjā, āyūhanā saṅkhārā, nikanti taṇhā, upagamanaṃ upādānaṃ, cetanā bhavoti ime pañca dhammā purimakammabhavasmiṃ idha paṭisandhiyā paccayā, idha paṭisandhi viññāṇaṃ, okkanti nāmarūpaṃ, pasādo āyatanaṃ, phuṭṭho phasso, vedayitaṃ vedanāti ime pañca dhammā idhūpapattibhavasmiṃ purekatassa kammassa paccayā. Idha paripakkattā āyatanānaṃ moho avijjā…pe… cetanā bhavoti ime pañca dhammā idha kammabhavasmiṃ āyatiṃ paṭisandhiyā paccayā’’ti (paṭi. ma. 1.47) evaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti.

685. Tattha catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ, upapajjavedanīyaṃ, aparāpariyavedanīyaṃ, ahosikammanti. Tesu ekajavanavīthiyaṃ sattasu cittesu kusalā vā akusalā vā paṭhamajavanacetanā diṭṭhidhammavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. Taṃ imasmiññeva attabhāve vipākaṃ deti. Tathā asakkontaṃ pana ‘‘ahosikammaṃ nāhosi kammavipāko, na bhavissati kammavipāko, natthi kammavipāko’’ti (paṭi. ma. 1.234) imassa tikassa vasena ahosikammaṃ nāma hoti. Atthasādhikā pana sattamajavanacetanā upapajjavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. Taṃ anantare attabhāve vipākaṃ deti. Tathā asakkontaṃ vuttanayeneva ahosikammaṃ nāma hoti. Ubhinnaṃ antare pañca javanacetanā aparāpariyavedanīyakammaṃ nāma. Taṃ anāgate yadā okāsaṃ labhati, tadā vipākaṃ deti. Sati saṃsārappavattiyā ahosikammaṃ nāma na hoti.

686. Aparampi catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – yaṃ garukaṃ, yaṃ bahulaṃ, yadāsannaṃ, kaṭattā vā pana kammanti. Tattha kusalaṃ vā hotu akusalaṃ vā, garukāgarukesu yaṃ garukaṃ mātughātādikammaṃ vā mahaggatakammaṃ vā, tadeva paṭhamaṃ vipaccati. Tathā bahulābahulesupi yaṃ bahulaṃ hoti susīlyaṃ vā dussīlyaṃ vā, tadeva paṭhamaṃ vipaccati. Yadāsannaṃ nāma maraṇakāle anussaritakammaṃ. Yañhi āsannamaraṇo anussarituṃ sakkoti, teneva upapajjati. Etehi pana tīhi muttaṃ punappunaṃ laddhāsevanaṃ kaṭattā vā pana kammaṃ nāma hoti, tesaṃ abhāve taṃ paṭisandhiṃ ākaḍḍhati.

687. Aparampi catubbidhaṃ kammaṃ – janakaṃ, upatthambhakaṃ, upapīḷakaṃ, upaghātakanti. Tattha janakaṃ nāma kusalampi hoti akusalampi. Taṃ paṭisandhiyampi pavattepi rūpārūpavipākakkhandhe janeti. Upatthambhakaṃ pana vipākaṃ janetuṃ na sakkoti, aññena kammena dinnāya paṭisandhiyā janite vipāke uppajjamānakasukhadukkhaṃ upatthambheti, addhānaṃ pavatteti. Upapīḷakaṃ aññena kammena dinnāya paṭisandhiyā janite vipāke uppajjamānakasukhadukkhaṃ pīḷeti bādhati, addhānaṃ pavattituṃ na deti. Upaghātakaṃ pana sayaṃ kusalampi akusalampi samānaṃ aññaṃ dubbalakammaṃ ghātetvā tassa vipākaṃ paṭibāhitvā attano vipākassa okāsaṃ karoti. Evaṃ pana kammena kate okāse taṃ vipākaṃ uppannaṃ nāma vuccati.

Iti imesaṃ dvādasannaṃ kammānaṃ kammantarañceva vipākantarañca buddhānaṃ kammavipākañāṇasseva yāthāvasarasato pākaṭaṃ hoti, asādhāraṇaṃ sāvakehi. Vipassakena pana kammantarañca vipākantarañca ekadesato jānitabbaṃ. Tasmā ayaṃ mukhamattadassanena kammaviseso pakāsitoti.

688. Iti imaṃ dvādasavidhaṃ kammaṃ kammavaṭṭe pakkhipitvā evaṃ eko kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ karoti. So evaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena paccayato nāmarūpassa pavattiṃ disvā ‘‘yathā idaṃ etarahi, evaṃ atītepi addhāne kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena paccayato pavattittha, anāgatepi kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavaseneva paccayato pavattissatī’’ti. Iti kammañceva kammavipāko ca, kammavaṭṭañca vipākavaṭṭañca, kammapavattañca vipākapavattañca, kammasantati ca vipākasantati ca, kiriyā ca kiriyāphalañca.

Kammā vipākā vattanti, vipāko kammasambhavo;

Kammā punabbhavo hoti, evaṃ loko pavattatīti. –

Samanupassati. Tassevaṃ samanupassato yā sā pubbantādayo ārabbha ‘‘ahosiṃ nu kho aha’’ntiādinā nayena vuttā soḷasavidhā vicikicchā, sā sabbā pahīyati. Sabbabhavayonigatiṭṭhitinivāsesu hetuphalasambandhavasena pavattamānaṃ nāmarūpamattameva khāyati. So neva kāraṇato uddhaṃ kārakaṃ passati, na vipākappavattito uddhaṃ vipākapaṭisaṃvedakaṃ. Kāraṇe pana sati ‘‘kārako’’ti, vipākappavattiyā sati ‘‘paṭisaṃvedako’’ti samaññāmattena paṇḍitā voharanticcevassa sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhaṃ hoti.

689. Tenāhu porāṇā –

‘‘Kammassa kārako natthi, vipākassa ca vedako;

Suddhadhammā pavattanti, evetaṃ sammadassanaṃ.

‘‘Evaṃ kamme vipāke ca, vattamāne sahetuke;

Bījarukkhādikānaṃva, pubbā koṭi na nāyati;

Anāgatepi saṃsāre, appavattaṃ na dissati.

‘‘Etamatthaṃ anaññāya, titthiyā asayaṃvasī;

Sattasaññaṃ gahetvāna, sassatucchedadassino;

Dvāsaṭṭhidiṭṭhiṃ gaṇhanti, aññamaññavirodhitā.

‘‘Diṭṭhibandhanabaddhā te, taṇhāsotena vuyhare;

Taṇhāsotena vuyhantā, na te dukkhā pamuccare.

‘‘Evametaṃ abhiññāya, bhikkhu buddhassa sāvako;

Gambhīraṃ nipuṇaṃ suññaṃ, paccayaṃ paṭivijjhati.

‘‘Kammaṃ natthi vipākamhi, pāko kamme na vijjati;

Aññamaññaṃ ubho suññā, na ca kammaṃ vinā phalaṃ.

‘‘Yathā na sūriye aggi, na maṇimhi na gomaye;

Na tesaṃ bahi so atthi, sambhārehi ca jāyati.

‘‘Tathā na anto kammassa, vipāko upalabbhati;

Bahiddhāpi na kammassa, na kammaṃ tattha vijjati.

‘‘Phalena suññaṃ taṃ kammaṃ, phalaṃ kamme na vijjati;

Kammañca kho upādāya, tato nibbattate phalaṃ.

‘‘Na hettha devo brahmā vā, saṃsārassatthikārako;

Suddhadhammā pavattanti, hetusambhārapaccayā’’ti.

690. Tassevaṃ kammavaṭṭavipākavaṭṭavasena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahaṃ katvā tīsu addhāsu pahīnavicikicchassa sabbe atītānāgatapaccuppannadhammā cutipaṭisandhivasena viditā honti, sāssa hoti ñātapariññā.

So evaṃ pajānāti – ye atīte kammapaccayā nibbattā khandhā, te tattheva niruddhā, atītakammapaccayā pana imasmiṃ bhave aññe nibbattā, atītabhavato imaṃ bhavaṃ āgato ekadhammopi natthi, imasmimpi bhave kammapaccayena nibbattā khandhā nirujjhissanti, punabbhave aññe nibbattissanti, imamhā bhavā punabbhavaṃ ekadhammopi na gamissati. Apica kho yathā na ācariyamukhato sajjhāyo antevāsikassa mukhaṃ pavisati, na ca tappaccayā tassa mukhe sajjhāyo na vattati, na dūtena mantodakaṃ pītaṃ rogino udaraṃ pavisati, na ca tassa tappaccayā rogo na vūpasammati, na mukhe maṇḍanavidhānaṃ ādāsatalādīsu mukhanimittaṃ gacchati, na ca tattha tappaccayā maṇḍanavidhānaṃ na paññāyati, na ekissā vaṭṭiyā dīpasikhā aññaṃ vaṭṭiṃ saṅkamati, na ca tattha tappaccayā dīpasikhā na nibbattati, evameva na atītabhavato imaṃ bhavaṃ, ito vā punabbhavaṃ koci dhammo saṅkamati, na ca atītabhave khandhāyatanadhātupaccayā idha, idha vā khandhāyatanadhātupaccayā punabbhave khandhāyatanadhātuyo na nibbattantīti.

Yatheva cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, manodhātuanantaraṃ;

Na ceva āgataṃ nāpi, na nibbattaṃ anantaraṃ.

Tatheva paṭisandhimhi, vattate cittasantati;

Purimaṃ bhijjate cittaṃ, pacchimaṃ jāyate tato.

Tesaṃ antarikā natthi, vīci tesaṃ na vijjati;

Na cito gacchati kiñci, paṭisandhi ca jāyatīti.

691. Evaṃ cutipaṭisandhivasena viditasabbadhammassa sabbākārena nāmarūpassa paccayapariggahañāṇaṃ thāmagataṃ hoti, soḷasavidhā kaṅkhā suṭṭhutaraṃ pahīyati. Na kevalañca sā eva, ‘‘satthari kaṅkhatī’’ti (dha. sa. 1008) ādinayappavattā aṭṭhavidhāpi kaṅkhā pahīyatiyeva, dvāsaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni vikkhambhanti. Evaṃ nānānayehi nāmarūpapaccayapariggahaṇena tīsu addhāsu kaṅkhaṃ vitaritvā ṭhitaṃ ñāṇaṃ kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhīti veditabbaṃ. Dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇantipi yathābhūtañāṇantipi sammādassanantipi etassevādhivacanaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Avijjā paccayo, saṅkhārā paccayasamuppannā. Ubhopete dhammā paccayasamuppannāti paccayapariggahe paññā dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇa’’nti (paṭi. ma. 1.46).

‘‘Aniccato manasikaronto katame dhamme yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, kathaṃ sammādassanaṃ hoti, kathaṃ tadanvayena sabbe saṅkhārā aniccato sudiṭṭhā honti, kattha kaṅkhā pahīyati? Dukkhato…pe… anattato manasikaronto katame dhamme yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati…pe… kattha kaṅkhā pahīyatīti?

‘‘Aniccato manasikaronto nimittaṃ yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, tena vuccati sammādassanaṃ. Evaṃ tadanvayena sabbe saṅkhārā aniccato sudiṭṭhā honti. Ettha kaṅkhā pahīyati. Dukkhato manasikaronto pavattaṃ yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati…pe… anattato manasikaronto nimittañca pavattañca yathābhūtaṃ jānāti passati, tena vuccati sammādassanaṃ. Evaṃ tadanvayena sabbe dhammā anattato sudiṭṭhā honti. Ettha kaṅkhā pahīyati.

‘‘Yañca yathābhūtañāṇaṃ yañca sammādassanaṃ yā ca kaṅkhāvitaraṇā, ime dhammā nānatthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca, udāhu ekatthā byañjanameva nānanti? Yañca yathābhūtañāṇaṃ yañca sammādassanaṃ yā ca kaṅkhāvitaraṇā, ime dhammā ekatthā, byañjanameva nāna’’nti (paṭi. ma. 1.227).

Iminā pana ñāṇena samannāgato vipassako buddhasāsane laddhassāso laddhapatiṭṭho niyatagatiko cūḷasotāpanno nāma hoti.

Tasmā bhikkhu sadā sato, nāmarūpassa sabbaso;

Paccaye pariggaṇheyya, kaṅkhāvitaraṇatthikoti.

Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge

Paññābhāvanādhikāre

Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhiniddeso nāma

Ekūnavīsatimo paricchedo.

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