16. Indriyasaccaniddeso

Indriyavitthārakathā

525. Dhātūnaṃ anantaraṃ uddiṭṭhāni pana indriyānīti bāvīsatindriyāni – cakkhundriyaṃ sotindriyaṃ ghānindriyaṃ jivhindriyaṃ kāyindriyaṃ manindriyaṃ itthindriyaṃ purisindriyaṃ jīvitindriyaṃ sukhindriyaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ domanassindriyaṃ upekkhindriyaṃ saddhindriyaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ satindriyaṃ samādhindriyaṃ paññindriyaṃ anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ aññindriyaṃ aññātāvindriyanti. Tattha –

Atthato lakkhaṇādīhi, kamato ca vijāniyā;

Bhedābhedā tathā kiccā, bhūmito ca vinicchayaṃ.

Tattha cakkhādīnaṃ tāva cakkhatīti cakkhūtiādinā nayena attho pakāsito. Pacchimesu pana tīsu paṭhamaṃ pubbabhāge anaññātaṃ amataṃ padaṃ catusaccadhammaṃ vā jānissāmīti evaṃ paṭipannassa uppajjanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca anaññātaññassāmītindriyanti vuttaṃ. Dutiyaṃ ājānanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca aññindriyaṃ. Tatiyaṃ aññātāvino catūsu saccesu niṭṭhitaññāṇakiccassa khīṇāsavassa uppajjanato indriyaṭṭhasambhavato ca aññātāvindriyaṃ.

Ko pana nesaṃ indriyaṭṭho nāmāti? Indaliṅgaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. Indadesitaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. Indadiṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. Indasiṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. Indajuṭṭhaṭṭho indriyaṭṭho. So sabbopi idha yathāyogaṃ yujjati. Bhagavā hi sammāsambuddho paramissariyabhāvato indo. Kusalākusalañca kammaṃ, kammesu kassaci issariyābhāvato. Tenevettha kammasañjanitāni tāva indriyāni kusalākusalakammaṃ ulliṅgenti. Tena ca siṭṭhānīti indaliṅgaṭṭhena indasiṭṭhaṭṭhena ca indriyāni. Sabbāneva panetāni bhagavatā yathābhūtato pakāsitāni abhisambuddhāni cāti indadesitaṭṭhena indadiṭṭhaṭṭhena ca indriyāni. Teneva bhagavatā munindena kānici gocarāsevanāya kānici bhāvanāsevanāya sevitānīti indajuṭṭhaṭṭhenāpi indriyāni.

Apica ādhipaccasaṅkhātena issariyaṭṭhenāpi etāni indriyāni. Cakkhuviññāṇādippavattiyañhi cakkhādīnaṃ siddhaṃ ādhipaccaṃ, tasmiṃ tikkhe tikkhattā mande ca mandattāti. Ayaṃ tāvettha atthato vinicchayo.

Lakkhaṇādīhīti lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānehipi cakkhādīnaṃ vinicchayaṃ vijāniyāti attho. Tāni ca nesaṃ lakkhaṇādīni khandhaniddese vuttāneva. Paññindriyādīni hi cattāri atthato amohoyeva. Sesāni tattha sarūpeneva āgatāni.

526.Kamatoti ayampi desanākkamova. Tattha ajjhattadhamme pariññāya ariyabhūmipaṭilābho hotīti attabhāvapariyāpannāni cakkhundriyādīni paṭhamaṃ desitāni. So pana attabhāvo yaṃ dhammaṃ upādāya itthīti vā purisoti vā saṅkhaṃ gacchati, ayaṃ soti nidassanatthaṃ tato itthindriyaṃ purisindriyañca. So duvidhopi jīvitindriyapaṭibaddhavuttīti ñāpanatthaṃ tato jīvitindriyaṃ. Yāva tassa pavatti, tāva etesaṃ vedayitānaṃ anivatti. Yañca kiñci vedayitaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dukkhanti ñāpanatthaṃ tato sukhindriyādīni. Taṃnirodhatthaṃ pana ete dhammā bhāvetabbāti paṭipattidassanatthaṃ tato saddhādīni. Imāya paṭipattiyā esa dhammo paṭhamaṃ attani pātubhavatīti paṭipattiyā amoghabhāvadassanatthaṃ tato anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ. Tasseva phalattā tato anantaraṃ bhāvetabbato ca tato aññindriyaṃ. Tato paraṃ bhāvanāya imassa adhigamo, adhigate ca pana imasmiṃ natthi kiñci uttari karaṇīyanti ñāpanatthaṃ ante paramassāsabhūtaṃ aññātāvindriyaṃ desitanti ayamettha kamo.

Bhedābhedāti jīvitindriyasseva cettha bhedo. Tañhi rūpajīvitindriyaṃ arūpajīvitindriyanti duvidhaṃ hoti. Sesānaṃ abhedoti evamettha bhedābhedato vinicchayaṃ vijāniyā.

527.Kiccāti kiṃ indriyānaṃ kiccanti ce. Cakkhundriyassa tāva ‘‘cakkhāyatanaṃ cakkhuviññāṇadhātuyā taṃsampayuttakānañca dhammānaṃ indriyapaccayena paccayo’’ti vacanato yaṃ taṃ indriyapaccayabhāvena sādhetabbaṃ attano tikkhamandādibhāvena cakkhuviññāṇādidhammānaṃ tikkhamandādisaṅkhātaṃ attākārānuvattāpanaṃ, idaṃ kiccaṃ. Evaṃ sotaghānajivhākāyānaṃ. Manindriyassa pana sahajātadhammānaṃ attano vasavattāpanaṃ. Jīvitindriyassa sahajātadhammānupālanaṃ. Itthindriyapurisindriyānaṃ itthipurisaliṅganimittakuttākappākārānuvidhānaṃ. Sukhadukkhasomanassadomanassindriyānaṃ sahajātadhamme abhibhavitvā yathāsakaṃ oḷārikākārānupāpanaṃ. Upekkhindriyassa santapaṇītamajjhattākārānupāpanaṃ. Saddhādīnaṃ paṭipakkhābhibhavanaṃ sampayuttadhammānañca pasannākārādibhāvasampāpanaṃ. Anaññātaññassāmītindriyassa saṃyojanattayappahānañceva sampayuttānañca tappahānābhimukhabhāvakaraṇaṃ. Aññindriyassa kāmarāgabyāpādāditanukaraṇappahānañceva sahajātānañca attano vasānuvattāpanaṃ. Aññātāvindriyassa sabbakiccesu ussukkappahānañceva amatābhimukhabhāvapaccayatā ca sampayuttānanti evamettha kiccato vinicchayaṃ vijāniyā.

528.Bhūmitoti cakkhusotaghānajivhākāyaitthipurisasukhadukkhadomanassindriyāni cettha kāmāvacarāneva. Manindriyajīvitindriyaupekkhindriyāni saddhāvīriyasatisamādhipaññindriyāni ca catubhūmipariyāpannāni. Somanassindriyaṃ kāmāvacararūpāvacaralokuttaravasena bhūmittayapariyāpannaṃ. Avasāne tīṇi lokuttarānevāti evamettha bhūmitopi vinicchayaṃ vijāneyya. Evaṃ hi vijānanto –

Saṃvegabahulo bhikkhu, ṭhito indriyasaṃvare;

Indriyāni pariññāya, dukkhassantaṃ karissatīti.

Idaṃ indriyānaṃ vitthārakathāmukhaṃ.

Saccavitthārakathā

529. Tadanantarāni pana saccānīti cattāri ariyasaccāni – dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ, dukkhasamudayo ariyasaccaṃ, dukkhanirodho ariyasaccaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccanti. Tattha –

Vibhāgato nibbacana, lakkhaṇādippabhedato;

Atthatthuddhārato ceva, anūnādhikato tathā.

Kamato jātiādīnaṃ, nicchayā ñāṇakiccato;

Antogadhānaṃ pabhedā, upamāto catukkato.

Suññatekavidhādīhi, sabhāgavisabhāgato;

Vinicchayo veditabbo, viññunā sāsanakkame.

Tattha vibhāgatoti dukkhādīnaṃ hi cattāro cattāro atthā vibhattā tathā avitathā anaññathā, ye dukkhādīni abhisamentehi abhisametabbā. Yathāha – ‘‘dukkhassa pīḷanaṭṭho saṅkhataṭṭho santāpaṭṭho vipariṇāmaṭṭho, ime cattāro dukkhassa dukkhaṭṭhā tathā avitathā anaññathā. Samudayassa āyūhanaṭṭho nidānaṭṭho saṃyogaṭṭho palibodhaṭṭho. Nirodhassa nissaraṇaṭṭho vivekaṭṭho asaṅkhataṭṭho amataṭṭho. Maggassa niyyānaṭṭho hetuṭṭho dassanaṭṭho adhipateyyaṭṭho. Ime cattāro maggassa maggaṭṭhā tathā avitathā anaññathā’’ti (paṭi. ma. 2.8). Tathā ‘‘dukkhassa pīḷanaṭṭho saṅkhataṭṭho santāpaṭṭho vipariṇāmaṭṭho abhisamayaṭṭho’’ti (paṭi. ma. 2.11) evamādi. Iti evaṃ vibhattānaṃ catunnaṃ catunnaṃ atthānaṃ vasena dukkhādīni veditabbānīti. Ayaṃ tāvettha vibhāgato vinicchayo.

530. Nibbacanalakkhaṇādippabhedatoti ettha pana nibbacanato tāva idha du-iti ayaṃ saddo kucchite dissati. Kucchitaṃ hi puttaṃ dupputtoti vadanti. Khaṃ-saddo pana tucche. Tucchaṃ hi ākāsaṃ ‘‘kha’’nti vuccati. Idañca paṭhamasaccaṃ kucchitaṃ anekaupaddavādhiṭṭhānato. Tucchaṃ bālajanaparikappitadhuvasubhasukhattabhāvavirahitato. Tasmā kucchitattā tucchattā ca dukkhanti vuccati.

Saṃ-iti ca ayaṃ saddo ‘‘samāgamo sameta’’ntiādīsu (dī. ni. 2.396; vibha. 199) saṃyogaṃ dīpeti. U-iti ayaṃ ‘‘uppannaṃ udita’’ntiādīsu (dha. sa. 1; mahāva. 84) uppattiṃ. Aya-saddo kāraṇaṃ dīpeti. Idañcāpi dutiyasaccaṃ avasesapaccayasamāyoge sati dukkhassuppattikāraṇaṃ. Iti dukkhassa saṃyoge uppattikāraṇattā dukkhasamudayanti vuccati.

Tatiyasaccaṃ pana yasmā ni-saddo abhāvaṃ, rodha-saddo ca cārakaṃ dīpeti. Tasmā abhāvo ettha saṃsāracārakasaṅkhātassa dukkharodhassa sabbagatisuññattā, samadhigate vā tasmiṃ saṃsāracārakasaṅkhātassa dukkharodhassa abhāvo hoti, tappaṭipakkhattātipi dukkhanirodhanti vuccati. Dukkhassa vā anuppādanirodhapaccayattā dukkhanirodhanti.

Catutthasaccaṃ pana yasmā etaṃ dukkhanirodhaṃ gacchati ārammaṇavasena tadabhimukhabhūtattā, paṭipadā ca hoti dukkhanirodhappattiyā. Tasmā dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti vuccati.

531. Yasmā panetāni buddhādayo ariyā paṭivijjhanti, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccanti. Yathāha ‘‘cattārimāni, bhikkhave, ariyasaccāni. Katamāni…pe… imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri ariyasaccāni. Ariyā imāni paṭivijjhanti, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti. Apica ariyassa saccānītipi ariyasaccāni. Yathāha ‘‘sadevake, bhikkhave, loke…pe… manussāya tathāgato ariyo, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1098). Atha vā etesaṃ abhisambuddhattā ariyabhāvasiddhitopi ariyasaccāni. Yathāha – ‘‘imesaṃ kho, bhikkhave, catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ abhisambuddhattā tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho ariyoti vuccatī’’ti. Apica kho pana ariyāni saccānītipi ariyasaccāni. Ariyānīti tathāni avitathāni avisaṃvādakānīti attho. Yathāha – ‘‘imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri ariyasaccāni tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1097) evamettha nibbacanato vinicchayo veditabbo.

532. Kathaṃ lakkhaṇādippabhedato? Ettha hi bādhanalakkhaṇaṃ dukkhasaccaṃ, santāpanarasaṃ, pavattipaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Pabhavalakkhaṇaṃ samudayasaccaṃ, anupacchedakaraṇarasaṃ, palibodhapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Santilakkhaṇaṃ nirodhasaccaṃ, accutirasaṃ, animittapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Niyyānalakkhaṇaṃ maggasaccaṃ, kilesappahānarasaṃ, vuṭṭhānapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Apica pavattipavattananivattinivattanalakkhaṇāni paṭipāṭiyā. Tathā saṅkhatataṇhā asaṅkhatadassanalakkhaṇāni cāti evamettha lakkhaṇādippabhedato vinicchayo veditabbo.

533.Atthatthuddhāratocevāti ettha pana atthato tāva ko saccaṭṭhoti ce? Yo paññācakkhunā upaparikkhamānānaṃ māyāva viparīto, marīciva visaṃvādako, titthiyānaṃ attāva anupalabbhasabhāvo ca na hoti, atha kho bādhanappabhavasantiniyyānappakārena tacchāviparītabhūtabhāvena ariyañāṇassa gocaro hotiyeva. Esa aggilakkhaṇaṃ viya, lokapakati viya ca tacchāviparītabhūtabhāvo saccaṭṭhoti veditabbo. Yathāha – ‘‘idaṃ dukkhanti, bhikkhave, tathametaṃ avitathametaṃ anaññathameta’’nti (saṃ. ni. 5.1090) vitthāro. Apica –

Nābādhakaṃ yato dukkhaṃ, dukkhā aññaṃ na bādhakaṃ;

Bādhakattaniyāmena, tato saccamidaṃ mataṃ.

Taṃ vinā nāññato dukkhaṃ, na hoti na ca taṃ tato;

Dukkhahetuniyāmena, iti saccaṃ visattikā.

Nāññā nibbānato santi, santaṃ na ca na taṃ yato;

Santabhāvaniyāmena, tato saccamidaṃ mataṃ.

Maggā aññaṃ na niyyānaṃ, aniyyāno na cāpi so;

Tacchaniyyānabhāvattā, iti so saccasammato.

Iti tacchāvipallāsa, bhūtabhāvaṃ catūsvapi;

Dukkhādīsvavisesena, saccaṭṭhaṃ āhu paṇḍitāti.

Evaṃ atthato vinicchayo veditabbo.

534. Kathaṃ atthuddhārato? Idhāyaṃ sacca-saddo anekesu atthesu dissati. Seyyathidaṃ – ‘‘saccaṃ bhaṇe na kujjheyyā’’tiādīsu (dha. pa. 224) vācāsacce. ‘‘Sacce ṭhitā samaṇabrāhmaṇā cā’’tiādīsu (jā. 2.21.433) viratisacce. ‘‘Kasmā nu saccāni vadanti nānā pavādiyāse kusalāvadānā’’tiādīsu (su. ni. 891) diṭṭhisacce. ‘‘Ekaṃ hi saccaṃ na dutiya’’ntiādīsu (su. ni. 890) paramatthasacce nibbāne ceva magge ca. ‘‘Catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ kati kusalā’’tiādīsu (vibha. 216) ariyasacce. Svāyamidhāpi ariyasacce vattatīti evamettha atthuddhāratopi vinicchayo veditabbo.

535.Anūnādhikatoti kasmā pana cattāreva ariyasaccāni vuttāni anūnāni anadhikānīti ce? Aññassāsambhavato aññatarassa ca apaneyyābhāvato. Na hi etehi aññaṃ adhikaṃ vā, etesaṃ vā ekampi apanetabbaṃ sambhoti. Yathāha – ‘‘idha, bhikkhave, āgaccheyya samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ‘netaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ, aññaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ. Ahametaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ ṭhapetvā aññaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ paññapessāmī’ti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī’’tiādi. Yathā cāha – ‘‘yo hi koci, bhikkhave, samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā evaṃ vadeyya ‘netaṃ dukkhaṃ paṭhamaṃ ariyasaccaṃ yaṃ samaṇena gotamena desitaṃ, ahametaṃ dukkhaṃ paṭhamaṃ ariyasaccaṃ paccakkhāya aññaṃ dukkhaṃ paṭhamaṃ ariyasaccaṃ paññapessāmī’ti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī’’tiādi (saṃ. ni. 5.1086).

Apica pavattimācikkhanto bhagavā sahetukaṃ ācikkhi, nivattiñca saupāyaṃ. Iti pavattinivattitadubhayahetūnaṃ etaparamato cattāreva vuttāni. Tathā pariññeyyapahātabbasacchikātabbabhāvetabbānaṃ, taṇhāvatthutaṇhātaṇhānirodhataṇhānirodhupāyānaṃ, ālayaālayārāmatāālayasamugghātaālayasamugghātupāyānañca vasenāpi cattāreva vuttānīti evamettha anūnādhikato vinicchayo veditabbo.

536.Kamatoti ayampi desanākkamova. Ettha ca oḷārikattā, sabbasattasādhāraṇattā ca suviññeyyanti dukkhasaccaṃ paṭhamaṃ vuttaṃ. Tasseva hetudassanatthaṃ tadanantaraṃ samudayasaccaṃ. Hetunirodhā phalanirodhoti ñāpanatthaṃ tato nirodhasaccaṃ. Tadadhigamupāyadassanatthaṃ ante maggasaccaṃ. Bhavasukhassādagadhitānaṃ vā sattānaṃ saṃvegajananatthaṃ paṭhamaṃ dukkhamāha. Taṃ neva akataṃ āgacchati , na issaranimmānādito hoti, ito pana hotīti ñāpanatthaṃ tadanantaraṃ samudayaṃ. Tato sahetukena dukkhena abhibhūtattā saṃviggamānasānaṃ dukkhanissaraṇagavesīnaṃ nissaraṇadassanena assāsajananatthaṃ nirodhaṃ. Tato nirodhādhigamatthaṃ nirodhasampāpakaṃ magganti evamettha kamato vinicchayo veditabbo.

537.Jātiādīnaṃ nicchayāti ye te ariyasaccāni niddisantena bhagavatā ‘‘jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, maraṇampi dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsāpi dukkhā, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo dukkho, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā’’ti (vibha. 190) dukkhaniddese dvādasa dhammā, ‘‘yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī. Seyyathidaṃ, kāmataṇhā, bhavataṇhā, vibhavataṇhā’’ti (vibha. 203) samudayaniddese tividhā taṇhā, ‘‘yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo’’ti (vibha. 204) evaṃ nirodhaniddese atthato ekameva nibbānaṃ, ‘‘katamaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ, ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṃ – sammādiṭṭhi…pe… sammāsamādhī’’ti (vibha. 205) evaṃ magganiddese aṭṭha dhammāti iti catunnaṃ saccānaṃ niddese jātiādayo dhammā vuttā, tesaṃ jātiādīnaṃ nicchayāpi ettha vinicchayo veditabbo.

Dukkhaniddesakathā

Jātiniddeso

Seyyathidaṃ, ayañhi jāti-saddo anekattho. Tathā hesa ‘‘ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo’’ti (dī. ni. 1.244; pārā. 12) ettha bhave āgato. ‘‘Atthi, visākhe, nigaṇṭhā nāma samaṇajātī’’ti (a. ni. 3.71) ettha nikāye. ‘‘Jāti dvīhi khandhehi saṅgahitā’’ti (dhātu. 71) ettha saṅkhatalakkhaṇe. ‘‘Yaṃ mātukucchismiṃ paṭhamaṃ cittaṃ uppannaṃ, paṭhamaṃ viññāṇaṃ pātubhūtaṃ, tadupādāya sāvassa jātī’’ti (mahāva. 124) ettha paṭisandhiyaṃ. ‘‘Sampatijāto, ānanda, bodhisatto’’ti (ma. ni. 3.207) ettha pasūtiyaṃ. ‘‘Akkhitto anupakuṭṭho jātivādenā’’ti (dī. ni. 1.331) ettha kule. ‘‘Yatohaṃ, bhagini, ariyāya jātiyā jāto’’ti (ma. ni. 2.351) ettha ariyasīle.

538. Svāyamidha gabbhaseyyakānaṃ paṭisandhito paṭṭhāya yāva mātukucchimhā nikkhamanaṃ, tāva pavattesu khandhesu. Itaresaṃ paṭisandhikhandhesvevāti daṭṭhabbo. Ayampi ca pariyāyakathāva. Nippariyāyato pana tattha tattha nibbattamānānaṃ sattānaṃ ye ye khandhā pātubhavanti, tesaṃ tesaṃ paṭhamapātubhāvo jāti nāma.

Sā panesā tattha tattha bhave paṭhamābhinibbattilakkhaṇā, niyyātanarasā, atītabhavato idha ummujjanapaccupaṭṭhānā, dukkhavicittatāpaccupaṭṭhānā vā.

539. Kasmā panesā dukkhāti ce? Anekesaṃ dukkhānaṃ vatthubhāvato. Anekāni hi dukkhāni. Seyyathidaṃ – dukkhadukkhaṃ, vipariṇāmadukkhaṃ, saṅkhāradukkhaṃ, paṭicchannadukkhaṃ, appaṭicchannadukkhaṃ, pariyāyadukkhaṃ, nippariyāyadukkhanti.

Tattha kāyikacetasikā dukkhā vedanāsabhāvato ca nāmato ca dukkhattā dukkhadukkhanti vuccati.

Sukhā vedanā vipariṇāmena dukkhuppattihetuto vipariṇāmadukkhaṃ.

Upekkhā vedanā ceva avasesā ca tebhūmakā saṅkhārā udayabbayappaṭipīḷitattā saṅkhāradukkhaṃ. Kaṇṇasūladantasūlarāgajapariḷāhadosajapariḷāhādi kāyikacetasiko ābādho pucchitvā jānitabbato upakkamassa ca apākaṭabhāvato paṭicchannadukkhaṃ nāma. Apākaṭadukkhantipi vuccati.

Dvattiṃsakammakāraṇādisamuṭṭhāno ābādho apucchitvāva jānitabbato upakkamassa ca pākaṭabhāvato appaṭicchannadukkhaṃ nāma. Pākaṭadukkhantipi vuccati.

Ṭhapetvā dukkhadukkhaṃ sesaṃ dukkhasaccavibhaṅge āgataṃ jātiādi sabbampi tassa tassa dukkhassa vatthubhāvato pariyāyadukkhaṃ. Dukkhadukkhaṃ pana nippariyāyadukkhanti vuccati.

Tatrāyaṃ jāti yaṃ taṃ bālapaṇḍitasuttādīsu (ma. ni. 3.246 ādayo) bhagavatāpi upamāvasena pakāsitaṃ āpāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ, yañca sugatiyampi manussaloke gabbhokkantimūlakādibhedaṃ dukkhaṃ uppajjati, tassa vatthubhāvato dukkhā.

540. Tatridaṃ gabbhokkantimūlakādibhedaṃ dukkhaṃ – ayaṃ hi satto mātukucchimhi nibbattamāno na uppalapadumapuṇḍarīkādīsu nibbattati, atha kho heṭṭhā āmāsayassa upari pakkāsayassa udarapaṭalapiṭṭhikaṇṭakānaṃ vemajjhe paramasambādhe tibbandhakārenānākuṇapagandhaparibhāvitaparamaduggandhapavanavicarite adhimattajegucche kucchipadese pūtimacchapūtikummāsacandanikādīsu kimi viya nibbattati. So tattha nibbatto dasa māse mātukucchisambhavena usmanā puṭapākaṃ viya paccamāno piṭṭhapiṇḍi viya sediyamāno samiñjanapasāraṇādirahito adhimattaṃ dukkhamanubhotīti, idaṃ tāva gabbhokkantimūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Yaṃ pana so mātu sahasā upakkhalanagamananisīdanavuṭṭhānaparivattanādīsu surādhuttahatthagato eḷako viya ahituṇḍikahatthagato sappapotako viya ca ākaḍḍhanaparikaḍḍhanaodhūnananiddhūnanādinā upakkamena adhimattaṃ dukkhamanubhavati, yañca mātu sītūdakapānakāle sītanarakupapanno viya, uṇhayāgubhattādiajjhoharaṇakāle aṅgāravuṭṭhisamparikiṇṇo viya, loṇambilādiajjhoharaṇakāle khārāpaṭicchakādikammakāraṇapatto viya tibbaṃ dukkhamanubhoti, idaṃ gabbhapariharaṇamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Yaṃ panassa mūḷhagabbhāya mātuyā mittāmaccasuhajjādīhipi adassanārahe dukkhuppattiṭṭhāne chedanaphālanādīhi dukkhaṃ uppajjati, idaṃ gabbhavipattimūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Yaṃ vijāyamānāya mātuyā kammajehi vātehi parivattetvā narakapapātaṃ viya atibhayānakaṃ yonimaggaṃ paṭipātiyamānassa paramasambādhena yonimukhena tāḷacchiggaḷena viya nikkaḍḍhiyamānassa mahānāgassa narakasattassa viya ca saṅghātapabbatehi vicuṇṇiyamānassa dukkhaṃ uppajjati, idaṃ vijāyanamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Yaṃ pana jātassa taruṇavaṇasadisasukhumālasarīrassa hatthagahaṇanahāpanadhovanacoḷaparimajjanādikāle sūcimukhakhuradhārāhi vijjhanaphālanasadisaṃ dukkhaṃ uppajjati, idaṃ mātukucchito bahinikkhamanamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ.

Yaṃ tato paraṃ pavattiyaṃ attanāva attānaṃ vadhentassa acelakavatādivasena ātāpanaparitāpanānuyogamanuyuttassa, kodhavasena abhuñjantassa, ubbandhantassa ca dukkhaṃ uppajjati, idaṃ attūpakkamamūlakaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yaṃ pana parato vadhabandhanādīni anubhavantassa uppajjati, idaṃ parūpakkamamūlakaṃ dukkhanti.

Iti imassa sabbassāpi dukkhassa ayaṃ jāti vatthumeva hoti.

541. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

Jāyetha no ce narakesu satto,

Tattaggidāhādikamappasayhaṃ;

Labhetha dukkhaṃ nu kuhiṃ patiṭṭhaṃ,

Iccāha dukkhāti munīdha jātiṃ.

Dukkhaṃ tiracchesu kasāpatoda-

Daṇḍābhighātādibhavaṃ anekaṃ;

Yaṃ taṃ kathaṃ tattha bhaveyya jātiṃ,

Vinā tahiṃ jāti tatopi dukkhā.

Petesu dukkhaṃ pana khuppipāsā-

Vātātapādippabhavaṃ vicittaṃ;

Yasmā ajātassa na tattha atthi,

Tasmāpi dukkhaṃ muni jātimāha.

Tibbandhakāre ca asayhasīte,

Lokantare yaṃ asuresu dukkhaṃ;

Na taṃ bhave tattha na cassa jāti,

Yato ayaṃ jāti tatopi dukkhā.

Yañcāpi gūthanarake viya mātugabbhe,

Satto vasaṃ ciramato bahi nikkhamañca;

Pappoti dukkhamatighoramidampi natthi,

Jātiṃ vinā itipi jāti ayañhi dukkhā.

Kiṃ bhāsitena bahunā nanu yaṃ kuhiñci,

Atthīdha kiñcidapi dukkhamidaṃ kadāci;

Nevatthi jātivirahena yato mahesi,

Dukkhāti sabbapaṭhamaṃ imamāha jātinti.

Ayaṃ tāva jātiyaṃ vinicchayo.

Jarāniddeso

542.Jarāpi dukkhāti ettha duvidhā jarā saṅkhatalakkhaṇañca, khaṇḍiccādisammato santatiyaṃ ekabhavapariyāpannakhandhapurāṇabhāvo ca, sā idha adhippetā. Sā panesā jarā khandhaparipākalakkhaṇā, maraṇūpanayanarasā, yobbanavināsapaccupaṭṭhānā. Dukkhā saṅkhāradukkhabhāvato ceva dukkhavatthuto ca . Yaṃ hi aṅgapaccaṅgasithilībhāvaindriyavikāravirūpatāyobbanavināsabalūpaghātasatimativippavāsaparaparibhavādianekapaccayaṃ kāyikacetasikadukkhaṃ uppajjati, jarā tassa vatthu. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Aṅgānaṃ sithilībhāvā, indriyānaṃ vikārato;

Yobbanassa vināsena, balassa upaghātato.

‘‘Vippavāsā satādīnaṃ, puttadārehi attano;

Apasādanīyato ceva, bhiyyo bālattapattiyā.

‘‘Pappoti dukkhaṃ yaṃ macco, kāyikaṃ mānasaṃ tathā;

Sabbametaṃ jarāhetu, yasmā tasmā jarā dukhā’’ti.

Ayaṃ jarāyaṃ vinicchayo.

Maraṇaniddeso

543.Maraṇampi dukkhanti etthāpi duvidhaṃ maraṇaṃ saṅkhatalakkhaṇañca, yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ ‘‘jarāmaraṇaṃ dvīhi khandhehi saṅgahita’’nti (dhātu. 71). Ekabhavapariyāpannajīvitindriyappabandhavicchedo ca, yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ ‘‘niccaṃ maraṇato bhaya’’nti (su. ni. 581). Taṃ idha adhippetaṃ. Jātipaccayā maraṇaṃ upakkamamaraṇaṃ sarasamaraṇaṃ āyukkhayamaraṇaṃ puññakkhayamaraṇantipi tasseva nāmaṃ. Tayidaṃ cutilakkhaṇaṃ, viyogarasaṃ, gativippavāsapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Dukkhassa pana vatthubhāvato dukkhanti veditabbaṃ. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Pāpassa pāpakammādi-nimittamanupassato;

Bhaddassāpasahantassa, viyogaṃ piyavatthukaṃ;

Mīyamānassa yaṃ dukkhaṃ, mānasaṃ avisesato.

Sabbesañcāpi yaṃ sandhi-bandhanacchedanādikaṃ;

Vitujjamānamammānaṃ, hoti dukkhaṃ sarīrajaṃ.

Asayhamappatikāraṃ, dukkhassetassidaṃ yato;

Maraṇaṃ vatthu tenetaṃ, dukkhamicceva bhāsita’’nti.

Ayaṃ maraṇe vinicchayo.

Sokādiniddesā

544. Sokādīsu soko nāma ñātibyasanādīhi phuṭṭhassa cittasantāpo. So kiñcāpi atthato domanassameva hoti. Evaṃ santepi antonijjhānalakkhaṇo, cetaso parijjhāpanaraso, anusocanapaccupaṭṭhāno. Dukkho pana dukkhadukkhato dukkhavatthuto ca. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Sattānaṃ hadayaṃ soko, visasallaṃva tujjati;

Aggitattova nārāco, bhusaṃva dahate puna.

‘‘Samāvahati ca byādhi-jarāmaraṇabhedanaṃ;

Dukkhampi vividhaṃ yasmā, tasmā dukkhoti vuccatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ soke vinicchayo.

Paridevo

545.Paridevo nāma ñātibyasanādīhi phuṭṭhassa vacīpalāpo. So lālappanalakkhaṇo, guṇadosakittanaraso, sambhamapaccupaṭṭhāno. Dukkho pana saṅkhāradukkhabhāvato dukkhavatthuto ca. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Yaṃ sokasallavihato paridevamāno,

Kaṇṭhoṭṭhatālutalasosajamappasayhaṃ;

Bhiyyodhimattamadhigacchatiyeva dukkhaṃ,

Dukkhoti tena bhagavā paridevamāhā’’ti.

Ayaṃ parideve vinicchayo.

Dukkhaṃ

546.Dukkhaṃ nāma kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ, taṃ kāyapīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ, duppaññānaṃ domanassakaraṇarasaṃ, kāyikābādhapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Dukkhaṃ pana dukkhadukkhato mānasadukkhāvahanato ca. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Pīḷeti kāyikamidaṃ, dukkhañca mānasaṃ bhiyyo;

Janayati yasmā tasmā, dukkhanti visesato vutta’’nti.

Ayaṃ dukkhe vinicchayo.

Domanassaṃ

547.Domanassaṃ nāma mānasaṃ dukkhaṃ. Taṃ cittapīḷanalakkhaṇaṃ, manovighātarasaṃ, mānasabyādhipaccupaṭṭhānaṃ. Dukkhaṃ pana dukkhadukkhato kāyikadukkhāvahanato ca. Cetodukkhasamappitā hi kese pakiriya kandanti, urāni paṭipisanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti, uddhaṃpādaṃ papatanti, satthaṃ āharanti, visaṃ khādanti, rajjuyā ubbandhanti, aggiṃ pavisantīti taṃ nānappakārakaṃ dukkhamanubhavanti. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Pīḷeti yato cittaṃ, kāyassa ca pīḷanaṃ samāvahati;

Dukkhanti domanassaṃ, vidomanassā tato āhū’’ti.

Ayaṃ domanasse vinicchayo.

Upāyāso

548.Upāyāso nāma ñātibyasanādīhi phuṭṭhassa adhimattacetodukkhappabhāvito dosoyeva. Saṅkhārakkhandhapariyāpanno eko dhammoti eke. So cittaparidahanalakkhaṇo, nitthunanaraso , visādapaccupaṭṭhāno. Dukkho pana saṅkhāradukkhabhāvato cittaparidahanato kāyavisādanato ca. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Cittassa ca paridahanā, kāyassa visādanā ca adhimattaṃ;

Yaṃ dukkhamupāyāso, janeti dukkho tato vutto’’ti.

Ayaṃ upāyāse vinicchayo.

Ettha ca mandagginā antobhājane pāko viya soko. Tikkhagginā paccamānassa bhājanato bahinikkhamanaṃ viya paridevo. Bahinikkhantāvasesassa nikkhamituṃ appahontassa antobhājaneyeva yāva parikkhayā pāko viya upāyāso daṭṭhabbo.

Appiyasampayogo

549.Appiyasampayogo nāma amanāpehi sattasaṅkhārehi samodhānaṃ. So aniṭṭhasamodhānalakkhaṇo, cittavighātakaraṇaraso, anatthabhāvapaccupaṭṭhāno. Dukkho pana dukkhavatthuto. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Disvāva appiye dukkhaṃ, paṭhamaṃ hoti cetasi;

Tadupakkamasambhūta-mathakāye yato idha.

‘‘Tato dukkhadvayassāpi, vatthuto so mahesinā;

Dukkho vuttoti viññeyyo, appiyehi samāgamo’’ti.

Ayaṃ appiyasampayoge vinicchayo.

Piyavippayogo

550.Piyavippayogo nāma manāpehi sattasaṅkhārehi vinābhāvo. So iṭṭhavatthuviyogalakkhaṇo , sokuppādanaraso, byasanapaccupaṭṭhāno. Dukkho pana sokadukkhassa vatthuto. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Ñātidhanādiviyogā,

Sokasarasamappitā vitujjanti;

Bālā yato tato yaṃ,

Dukkhoti mato piyavippayogo’’ti.

Ayaṃ piyavippayoge vinicchayo.

Icchitālābho

551.Yampicchaṃ na labhatīti ettha ‘‘aho vata mayaṃ na jātidhammā assāmā’’tiādīsu (dī. ni. 2.398; vibha. 201) alabbhaneyyavatthūsu icchāva yampicchaṃ na labhati, tampi dukkhanti vuttā. Sā alabbhaneyyavatthuicchanalakkhaṇā, tappariyesanarasā, tesaṃ appattipaccupaṭṭhānā. Dukkhā pana dukkhavatthuto. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Taṃ taṃ patthayamānānaṃ, tassa tassa alābhato;

Yaṃ vighātamayaṃ dukkhaṃ, sattānaṃ idha jāyati.

‘‘Alabbhaneyyavatthūnaṃ, patthanā tassa kāraṇaṃ;

Yasmā tasmā jino dukkhaṃ, icchitālābhamabravī’’ti.

Ayaṃ icchitālābhe vinicchayo.

Pañcupādānakkhandhā

552.Saṃkhittenapañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhāti ettha pana –

Jātippabhutikaṃ dukkhaṃ, yaṃ vuttamidha tādinā;

Avuttaṃ yañca taṃ sabbaṃ, vinā ete na vijjati.

Yasmā tasmā upādāna-kkhandhā saṅkhepato ime;

Dukkhāti vuttā dukkhanta-desakena mahesinā.

Tathā hi indhanamiva pāvako, lakkhamiva paharaṇāni, gorūpaṃ viya ḍaṃsamakasādayo, khettamiva lāyakā, gāmaṃ viya gāmaghātakā upādānakkhandhapañcakameva jātiādayo nānappakārehi vibādhentā tiṇalatādīni viya bhūmiyaṃ, pupphaphalapallavāni viya rukkhesu upādānakkhandhesuyeva nibbattanti. Upādānakkhandhānañca ādidukkhaṃ jāti, majjhedukkhaṃ jarā, pariyosānadukkhaṃ maraṇaṃ, māraṇantikadukkhābhighātena pariḍayhanadukkhaṃ soko, tadasahanato lālappanadukkhaṃ paridevo, tato dhātukkhobhasaṅkhātaaniṭṭhaphoṭṭhabbasamāyogato kāyassa ābādhanadukkhaṃ dukkhaṃ, tena bādhiyamānānaṃ puthujjanānaṃ tattha paṭighuppattito cetobādhanadukkhaṃ domanassaṃ, sokādivuddhiyā janitavisādānaṃ anutthunanadukkhaṃ upāyāso, manorathavighātappattānaṃ icchāvighātadukkhaṃ icchitālābhoti evaṃ nānappakārato upaparikkhiyamānā upādānakkhandhāva dukkhāti. Yadetaṃ ekamekaṃ dassetvā vuccamānaṃ anekehipi kappehi na sakkā asesato vattuṃ, tasmā taṃ sabbampi dukkhaṃ ekajalabindumhi sakalasamuddajalarasaṃ viya yesu kesuci pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu saṃkhipitvā dassetuṃ ‘‘saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā’’ti bhagavā avocāti. Ayaṃ upādānakkhandhesu vinicchayo.

Ayaṃ tāva dukkhaniddese nayo.

Samudayaniddesakathā

553. Samudayaniddese pana yāyaṃ taṇhāti yā ayaṃ taṇhā. Ponobbhavikāti punabbhavakaraṇaṃ punobbhavo, punobbhavo sīlametissāti ponobbhavikā. Nandīrāgena sahagatāti nandīrāgasahagatā, nandīrāgena saddhiṃ atthato ekattameva gatāti vuttaṃ hoti. Tatra tatrābhinandinīti yatra yatra attabhāvo nibbattati, tatra tatrābhinandinī. Seyyathidanti nipāto , tassa sā katamāti ceti attho. Kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhāti imā paṭiccasamuppādaniddese āvibhavissanti. Idha panāyaṃ tividhāpi dukkhasaccassa nibbattakaṭṭhena ekattaṃ upanetvā dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccanti vuttāti veditabbā.

Ayaṃ samudayaniddese nayo.

Nirodhaniddesakathā

554. Dukkhanirodhaniddese yo tassāyeva taṇhāyātiādinā nayena samudayanirodho vutto, so kasmāti ce? Samudayanirodhena dukkhanirodho. Samudayanirodhena hi dukkhaṃ nirujjhati, na aññathā. Tenāha –

‘‘Yathāpi mūle anupaddave daḷhe,

Chinnopi rukkho punadeva rūhati;

Evampi taṇhānusaye anūhate,

Nibbattatī dukkhamidaṃ punappuna’’nti. (dha. pa. 338);

Iti yasmā samudayanirodheneva dukkhaṃ nirujjhati, tasmā bhagavā dukkhanirodhaṃ desento samudayanirodheneva desesi. Sīhasamānavuttino hi tathāgatā. Te dukkhaṃ nirodhentā dukkhanirodhañca desentā hetumhi paṭipajjanti, na phale. Suvānavuttino pana titthiyā. Te dukkhaṃ nirodhentā dukkhanirodhañca desentā attakilamathānuyogadesanādīhi phale paṭipajjanti, na hetumhīti. Evaṃ tāva dukkhanirodhassa samudayanirodhavasena desanāya payojanaṃ veditabbaṃ.

555. Ayaṃ panattho – tassāyeva taṇhāyāti tassā ‘‘ponobbhavikā’’ti vatvā kāmataṇhādivasena vibhattataṇhāya. Virāgo vuccati maggo. ‘‘Virāgā vimuccatī’’ti (ma. ni. 1.245; saṃ. ni. 3.14) hi vuttaṃ. Virāgena nirodho virāganirodho. Anusayasamugghātato aseso virāganirodho asesavirāganirodho. Atha vā virāgoti pahānaṃ vuccati, tasmā aseso virāgo aseso nirodhoti evampettha yojanā daṭṭhabbā. Atthato pana sabbāneva etāni nibbānassa vevacanāni. Paramatthato hi dukkhanirodho ariyasaccanti nibbānaṃ vuccati. Yasmā pana taṃ āgamma taṇhā virajjati ceva nirujjhati ca, tasmā virāgoti ca nirodhoti ca vuccati. Yasmā ca tadeva āgamma tassā cāgādayo honti, kāmaguṇālayesu cettha ekopi ālayo natthi, tasmā ‘‘cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo’’ti vuccati.

556. Tayidaṃ santilakkhaṇaṃ, accutirasaṃ, assāsakaraṇarasaṃ vā, animittapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, nippapañcapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ vā.

Nibbānakathā

557. Nattheva nibbānaṃ, sasavisāṇaṃ viya anupalabbhanīyatoti ce? Na, upāyena upalabbhanīyato. Upalabbhati hi taṃ tadanurūpapaṭipattisaṅkhātena upāyena, cetopariyañāṇena paresaṃ lokuttaracittaṃ viya, tasmā ‘‘anupalabbhanīyato natthī’’ti na vattabbaṃ. Na hi ‘‘yaṃ bālaputhujjanā na upalabhanti, taṃ natthī’’ti vattabbaṃ.

558. Apica nibbānaṃ natthīti na vattabbaṃ, kasmā? Paṭipattiyā vañjhabhāvāpajjanato. Asati hi nibbāne sammādiṭṭhipurejavāya sīlādikhandhattayasaṅgahāya sammāpaṭipattiyā vañjhabhāvo āpajjati. Na cāyaṃ vañjhā, nibbānapāpanatoti. Na paṭipattiyā vañjhabhāvāpatti, abhāvapāpakattāti ce. Na, atītānāgatābhāvepi nibbānapattiyā abhāvato. Vattamānānampi abhāvo nibbānanti ce. Na, tesaṃ abhāvāsambhavato, abhāve ca avattamānabhāvāpajjanato, vattamānakkhandhanissitamaggakkhaṇe ca sopādisesanibbānadhātuppattiyā abhāvadosato. Tadā kilesānaṃ avattamānattā na dosoti ce. Na, ariyamaggassa niratthakabhāvāpajjanato. Evañhi sati ariyamaggakkhaṇato pubbepi kilesā na santīti ariyamaggassa niratthakabhāvo āpajjati. Tasmā akāraṇametaṃ.

559. ‘‘Yo kho, āvuso, rāgakkhayo’’tiādivacanato (saṃ. ni. 4.315) ‘‘khayo nibbāna’’nti ce. Na, arahattassāpi khayamattāpajjanato. Tampi hi ‘‘yo kho, āvuso , rāgakkhayo’’tiādinā (sa. ni. 4.315) nayena niddiṭṭhaṃ. Kiñca bhiyyo nibbānassa ittarakālādippattidosato. Evañhi sati nibbānaṃ ittarakālaṃ, saṅkhatalakkhaṇaṃ, sammāvāyāmanirapekkhādhigamanīyabhāvañca āpajjati. Saṅkhatalakkhaṇattāyeva ca saṅkhatapariyāpannaṃ, saṅkhatapariyāpannattā rāgādīhi aggīhi ādittaṃ, ādittattā dukkhañcātipi āpajjati. Yasmā khayā paṭṭhāya na bhiyyo pavatti nāma hoti, tassa nibbānabhāvato na dosoti ce. Na, tādisassa khayassa abhāvato. Bhāvepi cassa vuttappakāradosānativattanato, ariyamaggassa ca nibbānabhāvāpajjanato. Ariyamaggo hi dose khīṇeti, tasmā khayoti vuccati. Tato ca paṭṭhāya na bhiyyo dosānaṃ pavattīti.

Anuppattinirodhasaṅkhātassa pana khayassa pariyāyena upanissayattā, yassa upanissayo hoti tadupacārena ‘‘khayo’’ti vuttaṃ. Sarūpeneva kasmā na vuttanti ce. Atisukhumattā. Atisukhumatā cassa bhagavato apposukkabhāvāvahanato, ariyena cakkhunā passitabbato ca siddhāti.

560. Tayidaṃ maggasamaṅginā pattabbato asādhāraṇaṃ, purimakoṭiyā abhāvato appabhavaṃ. Maggabhāve bhāvato na appabhavanti ce. Na, maggena anuppādanīyato. Pattabbameva hetaṃ maggena, na uppādetabbaṃ. Tasmā appabhavameva. Appabhavattā ajarāmaraṇaṃ. Pabhavajarāmaraṇānaṃ abhāvato niccaṃ.

Nibbānasseva aṇuādīnampi niccabhāvāpattīti ce. Na, hetuno abhāvā. Nibbānassa niccattā te niccāti ce. Na, hetulakkhaṇassa anupapattito. Niccā uppādādīnaṃ abhāvato nibbānaṃ viyāti ce. Na, aṇuādīnaṃ asiddhattā.

561. Yathāvuttayuttisabbhāvato pana idameva niccaṃ, rūpasabhāvātikkamato arūpaṃ. Buddhādīnaṃ niṭṭhāya visesābhāvato ekāva niṭṭhā. Yena bhāvanāya pattaṃ, tassa kilesavūpasamaṃ, upādisesañca upādāya paññāpanīyattā saha upādisesena paññāpiyatīti saupādisesaṃ. Yo cassa samudayappahānena upahatāyatikammaphalassa carimacittato ca uddhaṃ pavattikhandhānaṃ anuppādanato, uppannānañca antaradhānato upādisesābhāvo , taṃ upādāya paññāpanīyato natthi ettha upādisesoti anupādisesaṃ.

Asithilaparakkamasiddhena ñāṇavisesena adhigamanīyato, sabbaññuvacanato ca paramatthena sabhāvato nibbānaṃ nāvijjamānaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ ‘‘atthi, bhikkhave, ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhata’’nti.

Idaṃ dukkhanirodhaniddese vinicchayakathāmukhaṃ.

Magganiddesakathā

562. Dukkhanirodhagāminipaṭipadāniddese vuttā pana aṭṭha dhammā kāmaṃ khandhaniddesepi atthato pakāsitāyeva, idha pana nesaṃ ekakkhaṇe pavattamānānaṃ visesāvabodhanatthaṃ vadāma. Saṅkhepato hi catusaccapaṭivedhāya paṭipannassa yogino nibbānārammaṇaṃ avijjānusayasamugghātakaṃ paññācakkhu sammādiṭṭhi. Sā sammā dassanalakkhaṇā, dhātuppakāsanarasā, avijjandhakāraviddhaṃsanapaccupaṭṭhānā. Tathā sampannadiṭṭhino taṃsampayuttaṃ micchāsaṅkappanighātakaṃ cetaso nibbānapadābhiniropanaṃ sammāsaṅkappo. So sammā cittābhiniropanalakkhaṇo, appanāraso, micchāsaṅkappappahānapaccupaṭṭhāno.

Tathā passato vitakkayato ca taṃsampayuttāva vacīduccaritasamugghātikā micchāvācāya virati sammāvācā nāma. Sā pariggahalakkhaṇā, viramaṇarasā, micchāvācāppahānapaccupaṭṭhānā. Tathā viramato taṃsampayuttāva micchākammantasamucchedikā pāṇātipātādivirati sammākammanto nāma. So samuṭṭhāpanalakkhaṇo, viramaṇaraso, micchākammantappahānapaccupaṭṭhāno. Yā panassa tesaṃ sammāvācākammantānaṃ visuddhibhūtā taṃsampayuttāva kuhanādiupacchedikā micchājīvavirati, so sammāājīvo nāma. So vodānalakkhaṇo, ñāyājīvapavattiraso, micchājīvappahānapaccupaṭṭhāno.

Athassa yo tassā sammāvācākammantājīvasaṅkhātāya sīlabhūmiyaṃ patiṭṭhitassa tadanurūpo taṃsampayuttova kosajjasamucchedako vīriyārambho, esa sammāvāyāmo nāma. So paggahalakkhaṇo, anuppannaakusalānuppādanādiraso, micchāvāyāmappahānapaccupaṭṭhāno. Tassevaṃ vāyamato taṃsampayuttova micchāsativiniddhunano cetaso asammoso sammāsati nāma. Sā upaṭṭhānalakkhaṇā, asammussanarasā, micchāsatippahānapaccupaṭṭhānā. Evaṃ anuttarāya satiyā saṃrakkhiyamānacittassa taṃsampayuttāva micchāsamādhividdhaṃsikā cittekaggatā sammāsamādhi nāma. So avikkhepalakkhaṇo, samādhānaraso, micchāsamādhippahānapaccupaṭṭhānoti. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminipaṭipadāniddese nayo. Evamettha jātiādīnaṃ vinicchayo veditabbo.

563.Ñāṇakiccatoti saccañāṇassa kiccatopi vinicchayo veditabbo. Duvidhaṃ hi saccañāṇaṃ – anubodhañāṇaṃ paṭivedhañāṇañca. Tattha anubodhañāṇaṃ lokiyaṃ anussavādivasena nirodhe magge ca pavattati. Paṭivedhañāṇaṃ lokuttaraṃ nirodhamārammaṇaṃ katvā kiccato cattāri saccāni paṭivijjhati. Yathāha – ‘‘yo, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ passati, dukkhasamudayampi so passati, dukkhanirodhampi passati, dukkhanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadampi passatī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1100) sabbaṃ vattabbaṃ. Taṃ panassa kiccaṃ ñāṇadassanavisuddhiyaṃ āvibhavissati.

Yaṃ panetaṃ lokiyaṃ, tattha dukkhañāṇaṃ pariyuṭṭhānābhibhavavasena pavattamānaṃ sakkāyadiṭṭhiṃ nivatteti. Samudayañāṇaṃ ucchedadiṭṭhiṃ. Nirodhañāṇaṃ sassatadiṭṭhiṃ. Maggañāṇaṃ akiriyadiṭṭhiṃ. Dukkhañāṇaṃ vā dhuvasubhasukhattabhāvavirahitesu khandhesu dhuvasubhasukhattabhāvasaññāsaṅkhātaṃ phale vippaṭipattiṃ. Samudayañāṇaṃ issarapadhānakālasabhāvādīhi loko pavattatīti akāraṇe kāraṇābhimānappavattaṃ hetumhi vippaṭipattiṃ. Nirodhañāṇaṃ arūpalokalokathūpikādīsu apavaggagāhabhūtaṃ nirodhe vippaṭipattiṃ. Maggañāṇaṃ kāmasukhallikaattakilamathānuyogappabhede avisuddhimagge visuddhimaggagāhavasena pavattaṃ upāye vippaṭipattiṃ nivatteti. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Loke lokappabhave, lokatthagame sive ca tadupāye;

Sammuyhati tāva naro, na vijānāti yāva saccānī’’ti.

Evamettha ñāṇakiccatopi vinicchayo veditabbo.

564.Antogadhānaṃ pabhedāti dukkhasaccasmiṃ hi ṭhapetvā taṇhañceva anāsavadhamme ca sesā sabbadhammā antogadhā. Samudayasacce chattiṃsa taṇhāvicaritāni. Nirodhasaccaṃ asammissaṃ. Maggasacce sammādiṭṭhimukhena vīmaṃsiddhipādapaññindriyapaññābaladhammavicayasambojjhaṅgāni. Sammāsaṅkappāpadesena tayo nekkhammavitakkādayo. Sammāvācāpadesena cattāri vacīsucaritāni . Sammākammantāpadesena tīṇi kāyasucaritāni. Sammājīvamukhena appicchatā santuṭṭhitā ca. Sabbesaṃyeva vā etesaṃ sammāvācākammantājīvānaṃ ariyakantasīlattā ariyakantasīlassa ca saddhāhatthena paṭiggahetabbattā tesaṃ atthitāya atthibhāvato saddhindriyasaddhābalachandiddhipādā. Sammāvāyāmāpadesena catubbidhasammappadhānavīriyindriyavīriyabalavīriyasambojjhaṅgāni. Sammāsatiapadesena catubbidhasatipaṭṭhānasatindriyasatibalasatisambojjhaṅgāni. Sammāsamādhiapadesena savitakkasavicārādayo tayo samādhī cittasamādhi samādhindriyasamādhibalapītipassaddhisamādhiupekkhāsambojjhaṅgāni antogadhānīti evamettha antogadhānaṃ pabhedatopi vinicchayo veditabbo.

565.Upamātoti bhāro viya hi dukkhasaccaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ, bhārādānamiva samudayasaccaṃ, bhāranikkhepanamiva nirodhasaccaṃ, bhāranikkhepanupāyo viya maggasaccaṃ. Rogo viya ca dukkhasaccaṃ, roganidānamiva samudayasaccaṃ, rogavūpasamo viya nirodhasaccaṃ, bhesajjamiva maggasaccaṃ. Dubbhikkhamiva vā dukkhasaccaṃ, dubbuṭṭhi viya samudayasaccaṃ, subhikkhamiva nirodhasaccaṃ, suvuṭṭhi viya maggasaccaṃ. Apica verī-veramūla-verasamugghāta-verasamugghātupāyehi, visarukkha-rukkhamūla-mūlupaccheda-tadupacchedupāyehi, bhaya-bhayamūla-nibbhaya-tadadhigamupāyehi, orimatīra-mahoghapārimatīra-taṃsampāpakavāyāmehi ca yojetvāpetāni upamāto veditabbānīti evamettha upamāto vinicchayo veditabbo.

566.Catukkatoti atthi cettha dukkhaṃ na ariyasaccaṃ, atthi ariyasaccaṃ na dukkhaṃ, atthi dukkhañceva ariyasaccañca, atthi neva dukkhaṃ na ariyasaccaṃ. Esa nayo samudayādīsu. Tattha maggasampayuttā dhammā sāmaññaphalāni ca ‘‘yadaniccaṃ taṃ dukkha’’nti (saṃ. ni. 3.15) vacanato saṅkhāradukkhatāya dukkhaṃ, na ariyasaccaṃ. Nirodho ariyasaccaṃ, na dukkhaṃ. Itaraṃ pana ariyasaccadvayaṃ siyā dukkhaṃ aniccato, na pana yassa pariññāya bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ vussati tathattena. Sabbākārena pana upādānakkhandhapañcakaṃ dukkhañceva ariyasaccañca aññatra taṇhāya. Maggasampayuttā dhammā sāmaññaphalāni ca yassa pariññatthaṃ bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ vussati tathattena neva dukkhaṃ na ariyasaccaṃ. Evaṃ samudayādīsupi yathāyogaṃ yojetvā catukkatopettha vinicchayo veditabbo.

567. Suññatekavidhādīhītiettha suññato tāva paramatthena hi sabbāneva saccāni vedakakārakanibbutagamakābhāvato suññānīti veditabbāni. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Dukkhameva hi, na koci dukkhito;

Kārako na, kiriyāva vijjati.

Atthi nibbuti, na nibbuto pumā;

Maggamatthi, gamako na vijjatī’’ti.

Atha vā,

Dhuvasubhasukhattasuññaṃ, purimadvayamattasuññamamatapadaṃ;

Dhuvasukhaattavirahito, maggoiti suññatā tesu.

Nirodhasuññāni vā tīṇi, nirodho ca sesattayasuñño. Phalasuñño vā ettha hetu samudaye dukkhassābhāvato, magge ca nirodhassa, na phalena sagabbho pakativādīnaṃ pakati viya. Hetusuññañca phalaṃ dukkhasamudayānaṃ nirodhamaggānañca asamavāyā, na hetusamavetaṃ hetuphalaṃ samavāyavādīnaṃ dviaṇukādi viya. Tenetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Tayamidha nirodhasuññaṃ, tayena tenāpi nibbuti suññā;

Suñño phalena hetu, phalampi taṃhetunā suñña’’nti.

Evaṃ tāva suññato vinicchayo veditabbo.

Ekavidhādivinicchayakathā

568.Ekavidhādīhīti sabbameva cettha dukkhaṃ ekavidhaṃ pavattibhāvato. Duvidhaṃ nāmarūpato. Tividhaṃ kāmarūpārūpūpapattibhavabhedato. Catubbidhaṃ catuāhārabhedato. Pañcavidhaṃ pañcupādānakkhandhabhedato.

Samudayopi ekavidho pavattakabhāvato. Duvidho diṭṭhisampayuttāsampayuttato. Tividho kāmabhavavibhavataṇhābhedato. Catubbidho catumaggappaheyyato. Pañcavidho rūpābhinandanādibhedato. Chabbidho chataṇhākāyabhedato.

Nirodhopi ekavidho asaṅkhatadhātubhāvato. Pariyāyena pana duvidho saupādisesaanupādisesabhedato. Tividho bhavattayavūpasamato. Catubbidho catumaggādhigamanīyato. Pañcavidho pañcābhinandanavūpasamato. Chabbidho chataṇhākāyakkhayabhedato.

Maggopi ekavidho bhāvetabbato. Duvidho samathavipassanābhedato, dassanabhāvanābhedato vā. Tividho khandhattayabhedato. Ayañhi sappadesattā nagaraṃ viya rajjena nippadesehi tīhi khandhehi saṅgahito. Yathāha –

‘‘Na kho, āvuso visākha, ariyena aṭṭhaṅgikena maggena tayo khandhā saṅgahitā, tīhi ca kho, āvuso visākha, khandhehi ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo saṅgahito. Yā cāvuso visākha, sammāvācā, yo ca sammākammanto, yo ca sammāājīvo, ime dhammā sīlakkhandhe saṅgahitā. Yo ca sammāvāyāmo, yā ca sammāsati, yo ca sammāsamādhi, ime dhammā samādhikkhandhe saṅgahitā. Yā ca sammādiṭṭhi, yo ca sammāsaṅkappo, ime dhammā paññākkhandhe saṅgahitā’’ti (ma. ni. 1.462).

Ettha hi sammāvācādayo tayo sīlameva, tasmā te sajātito sīlakkhandhena saṅgahitā. Kiñcāpi hi pāḷiyaṃ sīlakkhandheti bhummena niddeso kato, attho pana karaṇavaseneva veditabbo. Sammāvāyāmādīsu pana tīsu samādhi attano dhammatāya ārammaṇe ekaggabhāvena appetuṃ na sakkoti, vīriye pana paggahakiccaṃ sādhente satiyā ca apilāpanakiccaṃ sādhentiyā laddhupakāro hutvā sakkoti.

Tatrāyaṃ upamā – yathā hi nakkhattaṃ kīḷissāmāti uyyānaṃ paviṭṭhesu tīsu sahāyesu eko supupphitaṃ campakarukkhaṃ disvā hatthaṃ ukkhipitvā gahetumpi na sakkuṇeyya. Athassa dutiyo onamitvā piṭṭhiṃ dadeyya, so tassa piṭṭhiyaṃ ṭhatvāpi kampamāno gahetuṃ na sakkuṇeyya. Athassa itaro aṃsakūṭaṃ upanāmeyya. So ekassa piṭṭhiyaṃ ṭhatvā ekassa aṃsakūṭaṃ olubbha yathāruci pupphāni ocinitvā piḷandhitvā nakkhattaṃ kīḷeyya. Evaṃsampadamidaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ.

Ekato uyyānaṃ paviṭṭhā tayo sahāyā viya hi ekato jātā sammāvāyāmādayo tayo dhammā. Supupphitacampako viya ārammaṇaṃ. Hatthaṃ ukkhipitvāpi gahetuṃ asakkonto viya attano dhammatāya ārammaṇe ekaggabhāvena appetuṃ asakkonto samādhi. Piṭṭhiṃ datvā onatasahāyo viya vāyāmo. Aṃsakūṭaṃ datvā ṭhitasahāyo viya sati. Yathā tesu ekassa piṭṭhiyaṃ ṭhatvā ekassa aṃsakūṭaṃ olubbha itaro yathāruci pupphaṃ gahetuṃ sakkoti, evameva vīriye paggahakiccaṃ sādhente satiyā ca apilāpanakiccaṃ sādhentiyā laddhupakāro samādhi sakkoti ārammaṇe ekaggabhāvena appetuṃ. Tasmā samādhiyevettha sajātito samādhikkhandhena saṅgahito, vāyāmasatiyo pana kiriyato saṅgahitā honti.

Sammādiṭṭhisammāsaṅkappesupi paññā attano dhammatāya aniccaṃ dukkhamanattāti ārammaṇaṃ nicchetuṃ na sakkoti. Vitakke pana ākoṭetvā ākoṭetvā dente sakkoti. Kathaṃ? Yathā hi heraññiko kahāpaṇaṃ hatthe ṭhapetvā sabbabhāgesu oloketukāmo samānopi na cakkhutaleneva parivattetuṃ sakkoti. Aṅgulipabbehi pana parivattetvā parivattetvā ito cito ca oloketuṃ sakkoti, evameva na paññā attano dhammatāya aniccādivasena ārammaṇaṃ nicchetuṃ sakkoti. Abhiniropanalakkhaṇena pana āhananapariyāhananarasena vitakkena ākoṭentena viya parivattentena viya ca ādāyādāya dinnameva nicchetuṃ sakkoti. Tasmā idhāpi sammādiṭṭhiyeva sajātito paññākkhandhena saṅgahitā, sammāsaṅkappo pana kiriyavasena saṅgahito hoti.

Iti imehi tīhi khandhehi maggo saṅgahaṃ gacchati. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘tividho khandhattayabhedato’’ti. Catubbidho sotāpattimaggādivaseneva.

Apica sabbāneva saccāni ekavidhāni avitathattā, abhiññeyyattā vā. Duvidhāni lokiyalokuttarato, saṅkhatāsaṅkhatato vā. Tividhāni dassana-bhāvanāhi pahātabbato, appahātabbato ca. Catubbidhāni pariññeyyādibhedatoti evamettha ekavidhādīhi vinicchayo veditabbo.

569.Sabhāgavisabhāgatoti sabbāneva saccāni aññamaññaṃ sabhāgāni avitathato attasuññato dukkarapaṭivedhato ca. Yathāha –

‘‘Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, ānanda, katamaṃ nu kho dukkarataraṃ vā durabhisambhavataraṃ vā, yo vā dūratova sukhumena tāḷacchiggaḷena asanaṃ atipāteyya poṅkhānupoṅkhaṃ avirādhitaṃ, yo vā satadhā bhinnassa vālassa koṭiyā koṭiṃ paṭivijjheyyāti? Etadeva, bhante, dukkaratarañceva durabhisambhavatarañca, yo vā satadhā bhinnassa vālassa koṭiyā koṭiṃ paṭivijjheyyāti. Tato kho te, ānanda, duppaṭivijjhataraṃ paṭivijjhanti. Ye idaṃ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṃ paṭivijjhanti…pe… ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṃ paṭivijjhantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1115).

Visabhāgāni salakkhaṇavavatthānato. Purimāni ca dve sabhāgāni duravagāhatthena gambhīrattā lokiyattā sāsavattā ca. Visabhāgāni phalahetubhedato pariññeyyappahātabbato ca. Pacchimānipi dve sabhāgāni gambhīrattena duravagāhattā lokuttarattā anāsavattā ca. Visabhāgāni visayavisayībhedato sacchikātabbabhāvetabbato ca. Paṭhamatatiyāni cāpi sabhāgāni phalāpadesato. Visabhāgāni saṅkhatāsaṅkhatato. Dutiyacatutthāni cāpi sabhāgāni hetuapadesato. Visabhāgāni ekantakusalākusalato. Paṭhamacatutthāni cāpi sabhāgāni saṅkhatato. Visabhāgāni lokiyalokuttarato. Dutiyatatiyāni cāpi sabhāgāni nevasekkhānāsekkhabhāvato. Visabhāgāni sārammaṇānārammaṇato.

Iti evaṃ pakārehi, nayehi ca vicakkhaṇo;

Vijaññā ariyasaccānaṃ, sabhāgavisabhāgatanti.

Iti sādhujanapāmojjatthāya kate visuddhimagge

Paññābhāvanādhikāre

Indriyasaccaniddeso nāma

Soḷasamo paricchedo.

TẢI MOBILE APP PHẬT GIÁO THERAVĀDA ĐỂ XEM THÊM NHIỀU THÔNG TIN HỮU ÍCH (ANDROID & IOS)

* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute
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Dhamma Paññā

BQT trang Theravāda cố gắng sưu tầm thông tin tài liệu Dhamma trợ duyên quý độc giả tìm hiểu về Dhamma - Giáo Pháp Bậc Giác Ngộ thuyết giảng suốt 45 năm sau khi Ngài chứng đắc trở thành Đức Phật Chánh Đẳng Chánh Giác vào đêm Rằm tháng 4, tìm hiểu thêm phương pháp thực hành thiền Anapana, thiền Vipassana qua các tài liệu, bài giảng, pháp thoại từ các Thiền Sư, các Bậc Trưởng Lão, Bậc Thiện Trí.

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