9. Cīvaravippavāsavinicchayakathā

51.Cīvarenavināvāsoti ticīvarādhiṭṭhānena adhiṭṭhitānaṃ tiṇṇaṃ cīvarānaṃ aññatarena vippavāso. Evaṃ adhiṭṭhitesu hi tīsu cīvaresu ekenapi vinā vasituṃ na vaṭṭati, vasantassa saha aruṇuggamanā cīvaraṃ nissaggiyaṃ hoti, tasmā aruṇuggamanasamaye cīvaraṃ aḍḍhateyyaratanappamāṇe hatthapāse katvā vasitabbaṃ. Gāmanivesanaudositaaḍḍamāḷapāsādahammiyanāvāsatthakhettadhaññakaraṇaārāmavihārarukkhamūlaajjhokāsesu pana ayaṃ viseso (pārā. aṭṭha. 2.477-8) – sace ekassa rañño gāmabhojakassa vā santako gāmo hoti, yena kenaci pākārena vā vatiyā vā parikhāya vā parikkhitto ca, evarūpe gāme cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā gāmabbhantare yattha katthaci yathārucitaṭṭhāne aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetuṃ vaṭṭati. Sace pana aparikkhitto hoti, evarūpe gāme yasmiṃ ghare cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tasmiṃ vatthabbaṃ, tassa vā gharassa hatthapāse samantā aḍḍhateyyaratanabbhantare vasitabbaṃ. Taṃ pamāṇaṃ atikkamitvā sacepi iddhimā bhikkhu ākāse aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpeti, cīvaraṃ nissaggiyameva hoti.

Sace nānārājūnaṃ vā bhojakānaṃ vā gāmo hoti vesālīkusinārādisadiso parikkhitto ca, evarūpe gāme yasmiṃ ghare cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tattha vā vatthabbaṃ, tattha saddasaṅghaṭṭanena vā janasambādhena vā vasituṃ asakkontena sabhāye vā vatthabbaṃ nagaradvāramūle vā. Tatrāpi vasituṃ asakkontena yattha katthaci phāsukaṭṭhāne vasitvā antoaruṇe āgamma tesaṃyeva sabhāyanagaradvāramūlānaṃ hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Gharassa pana cīvarassa vā hatthapāse vattabbameva natthi.

Sace ghare aṭṭhapetvā ‘‘sabhāye ṭhapessāmī’’ti sabhāyaṃ gacchanto hatthaṃ pasāretvā ‘‘handimaṃ cīvaraṃ ṭhapehī’’ti evaṃ nikkhepasukhe hatthapāsagate kismiñci āpaṇe cīvaraṃ nikkhipati, tena purimanayeneva sabhāye vā vatthabbaṃ, dvāramūle vā tesaṃ hatthapāse vā vasitabbaṃ.

Sace nagarassa bahūnipi dvārāni honti bahūni ca sabhāyāni, sabbattha vasituṃ na vaṭṭati. Yassā pana vīthiyā cīvaraṃ ṭhapitaṃ, yaṃ tassā sammukhaṭṭhāne sabhāyañca dvārañca, tassa sabhāyassa ca dvārassa ca hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Evañhi sati sakkā cīvarassa pavattiṃ jānituṃ . Sabhāyaṃ pana gacchantena yassa āpaṇikassa hatthe nikkhittaṃ, sace so taṃ cīvaraṃ atiharitvā ghare nikkhipati, vīthihatthapāso na rakkhati, gharassa hatthapāse vatthabbaṃ. Sace mahantaṃ gharaṃ hoti dve vīthiyo pharitvā ṭhitaṃ, purato vā pacchato vā hatthapāseyeva aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetabbaṃ. Sabhāye nikkhipitvā pana sabhāye vā tassa sammukhe nagaradvāramūle vā tesaṃyeva hatthapāse vā aruṇaṃ uṭṭhāpetabbaṃ. Sace pana gāmo aparikkhitto hoti, yasmiṃ ghare cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tasmiṃ ghare tassa gharassa vā hatthapāse vatthabbaṃ.

Sace (pārā. 480) ekakulassa santakaṃ nivesanaṃ hoti parikkhittañca nānāgabbhaṃ nānāovarakaṃ, antonivesane cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antonivesane vatthabbaṃ. Sace aparikkhittaṃ, yasmiṃ gabbhe cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ gabbhe vatthabbaṃ gabbhassa hatthapāse vā. Sace nānākulassa nivesanaṃ hoti parikkhittañca nānāgabbhaṃ nānāovarakaṃ, yasmiṃ gabbhe cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ gabbhe vatthabbaṃ, sabbesaṃ sādhāraṇe gharadvāramūle vā gabbhassa vā gharadvāramūlassa vā hatthapāse. Sace aparikkhittaṃ hoti, yasmiṃ gabbhe cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tasmiṃ gabbhe vatthabbaṃ gabbhassa vā hatthapāse. Udositaaḍḍamāḷapāsādahammiyesupi nivesane vuttanayeneva vinicchayo veditabbo.

Sace ekakulassa nāvā hoti, antonāvāyaṃ cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antonāvāyaṃ vatthabbaṃ. Sace nānākulassa nāvā hoti nānāgabbhā nānāovarakā, yasmiṃ ovarake cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ hoti, tasmiṃ ovarake vatthabbaṃ ovarakassa hatthapāse vā.

Sace ekakulassa sattho hoti, tasmiṃ satthe cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā purato vā pacchato vā sattabbhantarā na vijahitabbā, passato abbhantaraṃ na vijahitabbaṃ. Ekaṃ abbhantaraṃ aṭṭhavīsatihatthaṃ hoti. Sace nānākulassa sattho hoti, satthe cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Sace sattho gacchanto gāmaṃ vā nadiṃ vā pariyādiyitvā tiṭṭhati, antopaviṭṭhena saddhiṃ ekābaddho hutvā orañca pārañca pharitvā ṭhito hoti, satthaparihāro labbhati. Atha gāme vā nadiyā vā pariyāpanno hoti, gāmaparihāro ceva nadīparihāro ca labbhati. Sace vihārasīmaṃ atikkamitvā tiṭṭhati, antosīmāya ca cīvaraṃ hoti, vihāraṃ gantvā vasitabbaṃ. Sace bahisīmāya cīvaraṃ hoti, satthasamīpeyeva vasitabbaṃ. Sace gacchanto sattho sakaṭe vā bhagge goṇe vā naṭṭhe antarā chijjati, yasmiṃ koṭṭhāse cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tattha vasitabbaṃ.

Sace ekakulassa khettaṃ hoti parikkhittañca, antokhette cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antokhette vatthabbaṃ. Sace aparikkhittaṃ hoti, cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Sace nānākulassa khettaṃ hoti parikkhittañca, antokhette cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā dvāramūle vatthabbaṃ dvāramūlassa hatthapāse vā. Sace aparikkhittaṃ hoti, cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ.

Sace ekakulassa dhaññakaraṇaṃ hoti parikkhittañca, antodhaññakaraṇe cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antodhaññakaraṇe vatthabbaṃ. Sace aparikkhittaṃ hoti, cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Sace nānākulassa dhaññakaraṇaṃ hoti parikkhittañca, antodhaññakaraṇe cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā dvāramūle vā vatthabbaṃ dvāramūlassa vā hatthapāse. Sace aparikkhittaṃ hoti, cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ. Pupphārāmaphalārāmesupi khette vuttanayeneva vinicchayo veditabbo.

Sace ekakulassa vihāro hoti parikkhitto ca, antovihāre cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antovihāre vatthabbaṃ. Sace aparikkhitto hoti, yasmiṃ vihāre cīvaraṃ nikkhittaṃ, tasmiṃ vatthabbaṃ tassa vihārassa vā hatthapāse.

Sace ekakulassa rukkhamūlaṃ hoti, yaṃ majjhanhike kāle samantā chāyā pharati, antochāyāya cīvaraṃ nikkhipitvā antochāyāya vatthabbaṃ. Viraḷasākhassa pana rukkhassa ātapena phuṭṭhokāse ṭhapitaṃ nissaggiyameva hoti, tasmā tādisassa rukkhassa sākhacchāyāya vā khandhacchāyāya vā ṭhapetabbaṃ. Sace sākhāya vā viṭape vā ṭhapeti, upari aññasākhacchāyāya phuṭṭhokāseyeva ṭhapetabbaṃ. Khujjarukkhassa chāyā dūraṃ gacchati, chāyāya gataṭṭhāne ṭhapetuṃ vaṭṭatiyeva. Sace nānākulassa rukkhamūlaṃ hoti, cīvarassa hatthapāse vasitabbaṃ.

Ajjhokāse pana agāmake araññe cīvaraṃ ṭhapetvā tassa samantā sattabbhantare vasitabbaṃ. Agāmakaṃ nāma araññaṃ viñjhāṭavīādīsu vā samuddamajjhe vā macchabandhānaṃ agamanapathe dīpakesu labbhati. Tādise araññe majjhe ṭhitassa samantā sattabbhantaraparicchedo, vinibbedhena cuddasa honti. Majjhe nisinno puratthimāya vā pacchimāya vā disāya pariyante ṭhapitacīvaraṃ rakkhati. Sace pana aruṇuggamanasamaye kesaggamattampi puratthimaṃ disaṃ gacchati, pacchimāya disāya cīvaraṃ nissaggiyaṃ hoti. Esa nayo itarasmiṃ. Nissaggiyaṃ pana cīvaraṃ anissajjitvā paribhuñjanto dukkaṭaṃ āpajjati.

52. Sace padhāniko bhikkhu sabbarattiṃ padhānamanuyuñjitvā paccūsasamaye ‘‘nahāyissāmī’’ti tīṇi cīvarāni tīre ṭhapetvā nadiṃ otarati, nahāyantasseva cassa aruṇaṃ uṭṭhahati, kiṃ kātabbaṃ? So hi yadi uttaritvā cīvaraṃ nivāseti, nissaggiyaṃ cīvaraṃ, anissajjitvā paribhuñjanapaccayā dukkaṭaṃ āpajjati. Atha naggo gacchati, evampi dukkaṭaṃ āpajjatīti? Nāpajjati. So hi yāva aññaṃ bhikkhuṃ disvā vinayakammaṃ na karoti, tāva tesaṃ cīvarānaṃ aparibhogārahattā naṭṭhacīvaraṭṭhāne ṭhito hoti, naṭṭhacīvarassa ca akappiyaṃ nāma natthi, tasmā ekaṃ nivāsetvā dve hatthena gahetvā vihāraṃ gantvā vinayakammaṃ kātabbaṃ. Sace dūre vihāro hoti, antarāmagge manussā sañcaranti, ekaṃ nivāsetvā ekaṃ pārupitvā ekaṃ aṃsakūṭe ṭhapetvā gantabbaṃ. Sace vihāre sabhāgaṃ bhikkhuṃ na passati, bhikkhācāraṃ gatā honti, saṅghāṭiṃ bahigāme ṭhapetvā santaruttarena āsanasālaṃ gantvā vinayakammaṃ kātabbaṃ. Sace bahigāme corabhayaṃ hoti, pārupitvā gantabbaṃ. Sace āsanasālā sambādhā hoti, janākiṇṇā na sakkā ekamante cīvaraṃ apanetvā vinayakammaṃ kātuṃ, ekaṃ bhikkhuṃ ādāya bahigāmaṃ gantvā vinayakammaṃ katvā cīvarāni paribhuñjitabbāni.

Sace therā bhikkhū daharānaṃ hatthe pattacīvaraṃ datvā maggaṃ gacchantā pacchimayāme sayitukāmā honti, attano attano cīvaraṃ hatthapāse katvāva sayitabbaṃ. Sace gacchantānaṃyeva asampattesu daharesu aruṇaṃ uggacchati, cīvaraṃ nissaggiyaṃ hoti, nissayo pana na paṭippassambhati. Daharānampi purato gacchantānaṃ theresu asampattesu eseva nayo. Maggaṃ virajjhitvā araññe aññamaññaṃ apassantesupi eseva nayo. Sace pana daharā ‘‘mayaṃ, bhante, muhuttaṃ sayitvā asukasmiṃ nāma okāse tumhe sampāpuṇissāmā’’ti vatvā yāva aruṇuggamanā sayanti, cīvarañca nissaggiyaṃ hoti, nissayo ca paṭippassambhati. Dahare uyyojetvā theresu sayantesupi eseva nayo. Dvedhāpathaṃ disvā therā ‘‘ayaṃ maggo’’ , daharā ‘‘ayaṃ maggo’’ti vatvā aññamaññassa vacanaṃ aggahetvā gatā, saha aruṇassa uggamanā cīvarāni ca nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo ca paṭippassambhati. Sace daharā maggato okkamma ‘‘antoaruṇeyeva nivattissāmā’’ti bhesajjatthāya gāmaṃ pavisitvā āgacchanti, asampattānaṃyeva ca nesaṃ aruṇo uggacchati, cīvarāni nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo pana na paṭippassambhati. Sace pana dhenubhayena vā sunakhabhayena vā muhuttaṃ ṭhatvā ‘‘gamissāmā’’ti ṭhatvā vā nisīditvā vā gacchanti, antarā aruṇe uggate cīvarāni ca nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo ca paṭippassambhati.

Sace ‘‘antoaruṇeyeva āgamissāmā’’ti antosīmāyaṃ gāmaṃ paviṭṭhānaṃ antarā aruṇo uggacchati, neva cīvarāni nissaggiyāni honti, na nissayo paṭippassambhati. Sace pana ‘‘vibhāyatu tāvā’’ti nisīdanti, aruṇe uggate na cīvarāni nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo pana paṭippassambhati. Sace yepi ‘‘antoaruṇeyeva āgamissāmā’’ti sāmantavihāraṃ dhammassavanatthāya saussāhā gacchanti, antarāmaggeyeva ca nesaṃ aruṇo uggacchati, cīvarāni nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo pana na paṭippassambhati. Sace dhammagāravena ‘‘yāvapariyosānaṃ sutvāva gamissāmā’’ti nisīdanti, saha aruṇassa uggamanā cīvarānipi nissaggiyāni honti, nissayo ca paṭippassambhati. Therena daharaṃ cīvaradhovanatthāya gāmakaṃ pesentena attano cīvaraṃ paccuddharitvāva dātabbaṃ, daharassapi cīvaraṃ paccuddharāpetvāva ṭhapetabbaṃ. Sace asatiyā gacchati, attano cīvaraṃ paccuddharitvā daharassa cīvaraṃ vissāsena gahetvā ṭhapetabbaṃ. Sace thero na sarati, daharova sarati, daharena attano cīvaraṃ paccuddharitvā therassa cīvaraṃ vissāsena gahetvā gantvā vattabbaṃ ‘‘bhante, tumhākaṃ cīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhahitvā paribhuñjathā’’ti. Attanopi cīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhātabbaṃ. Evaṃ ekassa satiyāpi āpattimokkho hoti.

Iti pāḷimuttakavinayavinicchayasaṅgahe

Cīvaravippavāsavinicchayakathā samattā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayasaṅgaha-aṭṭhakathā >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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