23. Nissayavinicchayakathā

151.Nissayoti ettha pana ayaṃ nissayo nāma kena dātabbo, kena na dātabbo, kassa dātabbo, kassa na dātabbo, kathaṃ gahito hoti, kathaṃ paṭippassambhati, nissāya kena vasitabbaṃ, kena ca na vasitabbanti? Tattha kena dātabbo, kena na dātabboti ettha tāva ‘‘anujānāmi, bhikkhave, byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena dasavassena vā atirekadasavassena vā upasampādetuṃ, nissayaṃ dātu’’nti (mahāva. 76, 82) ca vacanato yo byatto hoti paṭibalo upasampadāya dasavasso vā atirekadasavasso vā, tena dātabbo, itarena na dātabbo. Sace deti, dukkaṭaṃ āpajjati.

Ettha (pāci. aṭṭha. 145-147) ca ‘‘byatto’’ti iminā parisupaṭṭhāpakabahussuto veditabbo. Parisupaṭṭhāpakena hi sabbantimena paricchedena parisaṃ abhivinaye vinetuṃ dve vibhaṅgā paguṇā vācuggatā kātabbā, asakkontena tīhi janehi saddhiṃ parivattanakkhamā kātabbā, kammākammañca khandhakavattañca uggahetabbaṃ, parisāya pana abhidhamme vinayanatthaṃ sace majjhimabhāṇako hoti, mūlapaṇṇāsako uggahetabbo, dīghabhāṇakena mahāvaggo, saṃyuttabhāṇakena heṭṭhimā vā tayo vaggā mahāvaggo vā, aṅguttarabhāṇakena heṭṭhā vā upari vā upaḍḍhanikāyo uggahetabbo, asakkontena tikanipātato paṭṭhāya uggahetumpi vaṭṭati. Mahāpaccariyaṃ pana ‘‘ekaṃ gaṇhantena catukkanipātaṃ vā pañcakanipātaṃ vā uggahetuṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti vuttaṃ. Jātakabhāṇakena sāṭṭhakathaṃ jātakaṃ uggahetabbaṃ, tato oraṃ na vaṭṭati. ‘‘Dhammapadampi saha vatthunā uggahetuṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti mahāpaccariyaṃvuttaṃ. Tato tato samuccayaṃ katvā mūlapaṇṇāsakamattaṃ vaṭṭati, ‘‘na vaṭṭatī’’ti kurundaṭṭhakathāyaṃ paṭikkhittaṃ, itarāsu vicāraṇāyeva natthi. Abhidhamme kiñci gahetabbanti na vuttaṃ. Yassa pana sāṭṭhakathampi vinayapiṭakaṃ abhidhammapiṭakañca paguṇaṃ, suttante ca vuttappakāro gantho natthi, parisaṃ upaṭṭhāpetuṃ na labhati. Yena pana suttantato ca vinayato ca vuttappamāṇo gantho uggahito, ayaṃ parisupaṭṭhāko bahussutova hoti, disāpāmokkho yenakāmaṃgamo parisaṃ upaṭṭhāpetuṃ labhati, ayaṃ imasmiṃ atthe ‘‘byatto’’ti adhippeto.

Yo pana antevāsino vā saddhivihārikassa vā gilānassa sakkoti upaṭṭhānādīni kātuṃ, ayaṃ idha ‘‘paṭibalo’’ti adhippeto. Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ –

‘‘Pañcahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Na asekkhena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na asekkhena samādhikkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na asekkhena paññākkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na asekkhena vimuttikkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na asekkhena vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhena samannāgato hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Attanā na asekkhena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na paraṃ asekkhe sīlakkhandhe samādapetā. Attanā na asekkhena samādhikkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na paraṃ asekkhe samādhikkhandhe samādapetā. Attanā na asekkhena paññākkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na paraṃ asekkhe paññākkhandhe samādapetā. Attanā na asekkhena vimuttikkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na paraṃ asekkhe vimuttikkhandhe samādapetā. Attanā na asekkhena vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na paraṃ asekkhe vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhe samādapetā. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ , na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Adhisīle sīlavipanno hoti, ajjhācāre ācāravipanno hoti, atidiṭṭhiyā diṭṭhivipanno hoti, appassuto hoti, duppañño hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Na paṭibalo hoti antevāsiṃ vā saddhivihāriṃ vā gilānaṃ upaṭṭhātuṃ vā upaṭṭhāpetuṃ vā, anabhirataṃ vūpakāsetuṃ vā vūpakāsāpetuṃ vā, uppannaṃ kukkuccaṃ dhammato vinodetuṃ, āpattiṃ na jānāti, āpattiyā vuṭṭhānaṃ na jānāti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Na paṭibalo hoti antevāsiṃ vā saddhivihāriṃ vā ābhisamācārikāya sikkhāya sikkhāpetuṃ, ādibrahmacariyakāya sikkhāya vinetuṃ, abhidhamme vinetuṃ, abhivinaye vinetuṃ, uppannaṃ diṭṭhigataṃ dhammato vivecetuṃ. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo . Āpattiṃ na jānāti, anāpattiṃ na jānāti, lahukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, garukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, ubhayāni kho panassa pātimokkhāni vitthārena na svāgatāni honti na suvibhattāni na suppavattīni na suvinicchitāni suttaso anubyañjanaso. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Āpattiṃ na jānāti, anāpattiṃ na jānāti, lahukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, garukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, ūnadasavasso hoti . Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na upasampādetabbaṃ, na nissayo dātabbo, na sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo’’tiādi (mahāva. 84). Tampi –

‘‘Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena dasavassena vā atirekadasavassena vā upasampādetuṃ, nissayaṃ dātu’’nti (mahāva. 76, 82) ca evaṃ saṅkhepato vuttasseva upajjhāyācariyalakkhaṇassa vitthāradassanatthaṃ vuttaṃ.

Tattha (mahāva. aṭṭha. 84) kiñci ayuttavasena paṭikkhittaṃ, kiñci āpattiaṅgavasena. Tathā hi ‘‘na asekkhena sīlakkhandhenā’’ti ca ‘‘attanā na asekkhenā’’ti ca ‘‘assaddho’’ti ca ādīsu tīsu pañcakesu ayuttavasena paṭikkhepo kato, na āpattiaṅgavasena. Yo hi asekkhehi sīlakkhandhādīhi asamannāgato pare ca tattha samādapetuṃ asakkonto assaddhiyādidosayuttova hutvā parisaṃ pariharati, tassa parisā sīlādīhi pariyāyatiyeva na vaḍḍhati, tasmā ‘‘tena na upasampādetabba’’ntiādi ayuttavasena vuttaṃ, na āpattiaṅgavasena. Na hi khīṇāsavasseva upajjhācariyabhāvo bhagavatā anuññāto, yadi tasseva anuññāto abhavissa, ‘‘sace upajjhāyassa anabhirati uppannā hotī’’tiādiṃ na vadeyya, yasmā pana khīṇāsavassa parisā sīlādīhi na parihāyati, tasmā ‘‘pañcahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā upasampādetabba’’ntiādi vuttaṃ.

Adhisīlesīlavipannotiādīsu pārājikañca saṅghādisesañca āpanno adhisīle sīlavipanno nāma. Itare pañcāpattikkhandhe āpanno ajjhācāre ācāravipanno nāma. Sammādiṭṭhiṃ pahāya antaggāhikāya diṭṭhiyā samannāgato atidiṭṭhiyā diṭṭhivipanno nāma. Yattakaṃ sutaṃ parisaṃ pariharantassa icchitabbaṃ, tena virahitattā appassuto. Yaṃ tena jānitabbaṃ āpattādi, tassa ajānanato duppañño. Imasmiṃ pañcake purimāni tīṇi padāni ayuttavasena vuttāni, pacchimāni dve āpattiaṅgavasena.

Āpattiṃ na jānātīti ‘‘idaṃ nāma mayā kata’’nti vutte ‘‘imaṃ nāma āpattiṃ ayaṃ āpanno’’ti na jānāti. Vuṭṭhānaṃ na jānātīti ‘‘vuṭṭhānagāminito vā desanāgāminito vā āpattito evaṃ nāma vuṭṭhānaṃ hotī’’ti na jānāti. Imasmiñhi pañcake purimāni dve padāni ayuttavasena vuttāni, pacchimāni tīṇi āpattiaṅgavasena.

Ābhisamācārikāyasikkhāyāti khandhakavatte vinetuṃ na paṭibalo hotīti attho. Ādibrahmacariyakāyāti sekkhapaṇṇattiyaṃ vinetuṃ na paṭibaloti attho. Abhidhammeti nāmarūpaparicchede vinetuṃ na paṭibaloti attho. Abhivinayeti sakale vinayapiṭake vinetuṃ na paṭibaloti attho. Vinetuṃ na paṭibaloti ca sabbattha sikkhāpetuṃ na sakkotīti attho. Dhammato vivecetunti dhammena kāraṇena vissajjāpetuṃ. Imasmiṃ pañcake sabbapadesu āpatti.

‘‘Āpattiṃ na jānātī’’tiādipañcakasmiṃ vitthārenāti ubhatovibhaṅgena saddhiṃ. Na svāgatānīti na suṭṭhu āgatāni. Suvibhattānīti suṭṭhu vibhattāni padapaccābhaṭṭhasaṅkaradosaraatāni. Suppavattīnīti paguṇāni vācuggatāni suvinicchitāni. Suttasoti khandhakaparivārato āharitabbasuttavasena suṭṭhu vinicchitāni. Anubyañjanasoti akkharapadapāripūriyā ca suvinicchitāni akhaṇḍāni aviparītakkharāni. Etena aṭṭhakathā dīpitā. Aṭṭhakathāto hi esa vinicchayo hotīti. Imasmiṃ pañcakepi sabbapadesu āpatti. Ūnadasavassapariyosānapañcakepi eseva nayo. Iti ādito tayo pañcakā, catutthe tīṇi padāni, pañcame dve padānīti sabbepi cattāro pañcakā ayuttavasena vuttā, catutthe pañcake dve padāni, pañcame tīṇi, chaṭṭhasattamaṭṭhamā tayo pañcakāti sabbepi cattāro pañcakā āpattiaṅgavasena vuttā.

Sukkapakkhe pana vuttavipariyāyena ‘‘pañcahi, bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā upasampādetabbaṃ, nissayo dātabbo, sāmaṇero upaṭṭhāpetabbo. Asekkhena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato hotī’’tiādinā (mahāva. 84) aṭṭha pañcakā āgatāyeva. Tattha sabbattheva anāpatti.

152.Kassa dātabbo, kassa na dātabboti ettha pana yo lajjī hoti, tassa dātabbo. Itarassa na dātabbo ‘‘na, bhikkhave, alajjīnaṃ nissayo dātabbo, yo dadeyya, āpatti dukkaṭassā’’ti (mahāva. 120) vacanato. Nissāya vasantenapi alajjī nissāya na vasitabbaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ ‘‘na, bhikkhave, alajjīnaṃ nissāya vatthabbaṃ, yo vaseyya, āpatti dukkaṭassā’’ti (mahāva. 120). Ettha (mahāva. aṭṭha. 120) ca alajjīnanti upayogatthe sāmivacanaṃ, alajjipuggale nissāya na vasitabbanti vuttaṃ hoti. Tasmā navaṃ ṭhānaṃ gatena ‘‘ehi, bhikkhu, nissayaṃ gaṇhāhī’’ti vuccamānenapi catūhapañcāhaṃ nissayadāyakassa lajjibhāvaṃ upaparikkhitvā nissayo gahetabbo. ‘‘Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, catūhapañcāhaṃ āgametuṃ yāva bhikkhusabhāgataṃ jānāmī’’ti (mahāva. 120) hi vuttaṃ. Sace ‘‘thero lajjī’’ti bhikkhūnaṃ santike sutvā āgatadivaseyeva gahetukāmo hoti, thero pana ‘‘āgamehi tāva, vasanto jānissasī’’ti katipāhaṃ ācāraṃ upaparikkhitvā nissayaṃ deti, vaṭṭati, pakatiyā nissayagahaṇaṭṭhānaṃ gatena pana tadaheva gahetabbo, ekadivasampi parihāro natthi. Sace paṭhamayāme ācariyassa okāso natthi, okāsaṃ alabhanto ‘‘paccūsasamaye gahessāmī’’ti sayati, aruṇaṃ uggatampi na jānāti, anāpatti. Sace pana ‘‘gaṇhissāmī’’ti ābhogaṃ akatvā sayati, aruṇuggamane dukkaṭaṃ. Agatapubbaṃ ṭhānaṃ gatena dve tīṇi divasāni vasitvā gantukāmena anissitena vasitabbaṃ. ‘‘Sattāhaṃ vasissāmī’’ti ālayaṃ karontena pana nissayo gahetabbo. Sace thero ‘‘kiṃ sattāhaṃ vasantassa nissayenā’’ti vadati, paṭikkhittakālato paṭṭhāya laddhaparihāro hoti.

‘‘Anujānāmi , bhikkhave, addhānamaggappaṭipannena bhikkhunā nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena vatthu’’nti vacanato pana addhānamaggappaṭipanno sace attanā saddhiṃ addhānamaggappaṭipannaṃ nissayadāyakaṃ na labhati, evaṃ nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena bahūnipi divasāni gantuṃ vaṭṭati. Sace pubbe nissayaṃ gahetvā vutthapubbaṃ kiñci āvāsaṃ pavisati, ekarattaṃ vasantenapi nissayo gahetabbo. Antarāmagge vissamanto vā satthaṃ vā pariyesanto katipāhaṃ vasati, anāpatti. Antovasse pana nibaddhavāsaṃ vasitabbaṃ, nissayo ca gahetabbo. Nāvāya gacchantassa pana vassāne āgatepi nissayaṃ alabhantassa anāpatti. Sace antarāmagge gilāno hoti, nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena vasituṃ vaṭṭati.

Gilānupaṭṭhākopi gilānena yāciyamāno anissito eva vasituṃ labhati. Vuttañhetaṃ ‘‘anujānāmi, bhikkhave, gilānena bhikkhunā nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena vatthuṃ, anujānāmi, bhikkhave, gilānupaṭṭhākena bhikkhunā nissayaṃ alabhamānena yāciyamānena anissitena vatthu’’nti (mahāva. 121). Sace pana ‘‘yācāhi ma’’nti vuccamānopi gilāno mānena na yācati, gantabbaṃ.

‘‘Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, āraññikena bhikkhunā phāsuvihāraṃ sallakkhentena nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena vatthuṃ ‘yadā patirūpo nissayadāyako āgacchissati, tadā tassa nissāya vasissāmī’’’ti vacanato pana yattha vasantassa samathavipassanānaṃ paṭilābhavasena phāsu hoti, tādisaṃ phāsuvihāraṃ sallakkhentena nissayaṃ alabhamānena anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Imañca pana parihāraṃ neva sotāpanno, na sakadāgāmianāgāmiarahanto labhanti, na thāmagatassa samādhino vā vipassanāya vā lābhī, vissaṭṭhakammaṭṭhāne pana bālaputhujjane kathāva natthi. Yassa kho pana samatho vā vipassanā vā taruṇā hoti, ayaṃ imaṃ parihāraṃ labhati, pavāraṇāsaṅgahopi etasseva anuññāto. Tasmā iminā puggalena ācariye pavāretvā gatepi ‘‘yadā patirūponissayadāyako āgacchissati, taṃ nissāya vasissāmī’’ti ābhogaṃ katvā puna yāva āsāḷhīpuṇṇamā, tāva anissitena vatthuṃ vaṭṭati. Sace pana āsāḷhīmāse ācariyo nāgacchati, yattha nissayo labbhati, tattha gantabbaṃ.

153.Kathaṃgahito hotīti ettha upajjhāyassa santike tāva upajjhaṃ gaṇhantena ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā pāde vanditvā ukkuṭikaṃ nisīditvā añjaliṃ paggahetvā ‘‘upajjhāyo me, bhante, hohī’’ti tikkhattuṃ vattabbaṃ. Evaṃ saddhivihārikena vutte sace upajjhāyo ‘‘sāhū’’ti vā ‘‘lahū’’ti vā ‘‘opāyika’’nti vā ‘‘patirūpa’’nti vā ‘‘pāsādikena sampādehī’’ti vā kāyena viññāpeti, vācāya viññāpeti, kāyena vācāya viññāpeti, gahito hoti upajjhāyo. Idameva hettha upajjhāyaggahaṇaṃ, yadidaṃ upajjhāyassa imesu pañcasu padesu yassa kassaci padassa vācāya sāvanaṃ kāyena vā atthaviññāpananti. Keci pana ‘‘sādhū’’ti sampaṭicchanaṃ sandhāya vadanti, na taṃ pamāṇaṃ. Āyācanadānamattena hi gahito hoti upajjhāyo, na ettha sampaṭicchanaṃ aṅgaṃ. Saddhivihārikenapi na kevalaṃ ‘‘iminā me padena upajjhāyo gahito’’ti ñātuṃ vaṭṭati, ‘‘ajjatagge dāni thero mayhaṃ bhāro, ahampi therassa bhāro’’ti idampi ñātuṃ vaṭṭati (mahāva. aṭṭha. 64). Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Upajjhāyo, bhikkhave, saddhivihārikamhi puttacittaṃ upaṭṭhapessati, saddhivihāriko upajjhāyamhi pitucittaṃ upaṭṭhapessati, evaṃ te aññamaññaṃ sagāravā sappatissā sabhāgavuttino viharantā imasmiṃ dhammavinaye vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjissantī’’ti (mahāva. 65).

Ācariyassa santike nissayaggahaṇepi ayameva vinicchayo. Ayaṃ panettha viseso – ācariyassa santike nissayaṃ gaṇhantena ukkuṭikaṃ nisīditvā ‘‘ācariyo me, bhante, hohi, āyasmato nissāya vacchāmī’’ti (mahāva. 77) tikkhattuṃ vattabbaṃ, sesaṃ vuttanayameva.

154.Kathaṃpaṭippassambhatīti ettha tāva upajjhāyamhā pañcahākārehi nissayapaṭippassaddhi veditabbā, ācariyamhā chahi ākārehi. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Pañcimā, bhikkhave, nissayapaṭippassaddhiyo upajjhāyamhā. Upajjhāyo pakkanto vā hoti, vibbhanto vā, kālakato vā, pakkhasaṅkanto vā, āṇattiyeva pañcamī. Imā kho, bhikkhave, pañca nissayapaṭippassaddhiyo upajjhāyamhā.

Chayimā , bhikkhave, nissayapaṭippassaddhiyo ācariyamhā. Ācariyo pakkanto vā hoti, vibbhanto vā, kālakato vā, pakkhasaṅkanto vā, āṇattiyeva pañcamī, upajjhāyena vā samodhānagato hoti. Imā kho, bhikkhave, cha nissayapaṭippassaddhiyo ācariyamhā’’ti (mahāva. 83).

Tatrāyaṃ vinicchayo (mahāva. aṭṭha. 83) – pakkantoti disaṃ gato. Evaṃ gate ca pana tasmiṃ sace vihāre nissayadāyako atthi, yassa santike aññadāpi nissayo vā gahitapubbo hoti, yo vā ekasambhogaparibhogo, tassa santike nissayo gahetabbo, ekadivasampi parihāro natthi. Sace tādiso natthi, añño lajjī pesalo atthi, tassa pesalabhāvaṃ jānantena tadaheva nissayo yācitabbo. Sace deti, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ. Atha pana ‘‘tumhākaṃ upajjhāyo lahuṃ āgamissatī’’ti pucchati, upajjhāyena ce tathā vuttaṃ, ‘‘āma, bhante’’ti vattabbaṃ. Sace vadati ‘‘tena hi upajjhāyassa āgamanaṃ āgamethā’’ti, vaṭṭati. Atha panassa pakatiyā pesalabhāvaṃ na jānāti, cattāri pañca divasāni tassa bhikkhussa sabhāgataṃ oloketvā okāsaṃ kāretvā nissayo gahetabbo. Sace pana vihāre nissayadāyako natthi, upajjhāyo ca ‘‘ahaṃ katipāhena āgamissāmi, mā ukkaṇṭhitthā’’ti vatvā gato, yāva āgamanā parihāro labbhati, athāpi naṃ tattha manussā paricchinnakālato uttaripi pañca vā dasa vā divasāni vāsentiyeva, tena vihāraṃ pavatti pesetabbā ‘‘daharā mā ukkaṇṭhantu, ahaṃ asukadivasaṃ nāma āgamissāmī’’ti, evampi parihāro labbhati. Atha āgacchato antarāmagge nadīpūrena vā corādīhi vā upaddavo hoti, thero udakosakkanaṃ vā āgameti, sahāye vā pariyesati, taṃ ce pavattiṃ daharā suṇanti, yāva āgamanā parihāro labbhati. Sace pana so ‘‘idhevāhaṃ vasissāmī’’ti pahiṇati, parihāro natthi. Yattha nissayo labbhati, tattha gantabbaṃ. Vibbhante pana kālakate pakkhasaṅkante vā ekadivasampi parihāro natthi, yattha nissayo labbhati, tattha gantabbaṃ.

Āṇattīti pana nissayapaṇāmanā vuccati, tasmā ‘‘paṇāmemi ta’’nti vā ‘‘mā idha paṭikkamī’’ti vā ‘‘nīhara te pattacīvara’’nti vā ‘‘nāhaṃ tayā upaṭṭhāpetabbo’’ti vāti iminā pāḷinayena ‘‘mā maṃ gāmappavesanaṃ āpucchī’’tiādinā pāḷimuttakanayena vā yo nissayapaṇāmanāya paṇāmito hoti, tena upajjhāyo khamāpetabbo. Sace āditova na khamati, daṇḍakammaṃ āharitvā tikkhattuṃ tāva sayameva khamāpetabbo. No ce khamati, tasmiṃ vihāre mahāthere gahetvā khamāpetabbo. No ce khamati, sāmantavihāre bhikkhū gahetvā khamāpetabbo. Sace evampi na khamati, aññattha gantvā upajjhāyassa sabhāgānaṃ santike vasitabbaṃ ‘‘appeva nāma ‘sabhāgānaṃ me santike vasatī’ti ñatvāpi khameyyā’’ti. Sace evampi na khamati, tatreva vasitabbaṃ. Tatra ce dubbhikkhādidosena na sakkā hoti vasituṃ, taṃyeva vihāraṃ āgantvā aññassa santike nissayaṃ gahetvā vasituṃ vaṭṭati. Ayamāṇattiyaṃ vinicchayo.

Ācariyamhā nissayapaṭippassaddhīsu ācariyo pakkanto vā hotīti ettha koci ācariyo āpucchitvā pakkamati, koci anāpucchitvā, antevāsikopi evameva. Tatra sace antevāsiko ācariyaṃ āpucchati ‘‘asukaṃ nāma, bhante, ṭhānaṃ gantuṃ icchāmi kenacideva karaṇīyenā’’ti, ācariyena ca ‘‘kadā gamissasī’’ti vutto ‘‘sāyanhe vā rattiṃ vā uṭṭhahitvā gamissāmī’’ti vadati, ācariyopi ‘‘sādhū’’ti sampaṭicchati, taṃ khaṇaṃyeva nissayo paṭippassambhati. Sace pana ‘‘bhante, asukaṃ nāma ṭhānaṃ gantukāmomhī’’ti vutte ācariyo ‘‘asukasmiṃ nāma gāme piṇḍāya caritvā pacchā jānissasī’’ti vadati, so ca ‘‘sādhū’’ti sampaṭicchati, tato ce gato sugato. Sace pana na gacchati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Athāpi ‘‘gacchāmī’’ti vutte ācariyena ‘‘mā tāva gaccha, rattiṃ mantetvā jānissāmā’’ti vutto mantetvā gacchati, sugato. No ce gacchati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Ācariyaṃ anāpucchā pakkamantassa pana upacārasīmātikkame nissayo paṭippassambhati, antoupacārasīmato paṭinivattantassa na paṭippassambhati. Sace pana ācariyo antevāsikaṃ āpucchati ‘‘āvuso, asukaṃ nāma ṭhānaṃ gamissāmī’’ti, antevāsikena ca ‘‘kadā’’ti vutte ‘‘sāyanhe vā rattibhāge vā’’ti vadati, antevāsikopi ‘‘sādhū’’ti sampaṭicchati, taṃ khaṇaṃyeva nissayo paṭippassambhati, sace pana ācariyo ‘‘sve piṇḍāya caritvā gamissāmī’’ti vadati, itaro ca ‘‘sādhū’’ti sampaṭicchati, ekadivasaṃ tāva nissayo na paṭippassambhati, punadivase paṭippassaddho hoti. ‘‘Asukasmiṃ nāma gāme piṇḍāya caritvā jānissāmi mama gamanaṃ vā agamanaṃ vā’’ti vatvā pana sace na gacchati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Athāpi ‘‘gacchāmī’’ti vutte antevāsikena ‘‘mā tāva gacchatha, rattiṃ mantetvā jānissathā’’ti vutto mantetvāpi na gacchati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Sace ubhopi ācariyantevāsikā kenacideva karaṇīyena bahisīmaṃ gacchanti, tato ce ācariyo gamiyacitte uppanne anāpucchāva gantvā dvinnaṃ leḍḍupātānaṃ antoyeva nivattati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Sace dve leḍḍupāte atikkamitvā nivattati, paṭippassaddho hoti. Ācariyupajjhāyā dve leḍḍupāte atikkamma aññasmiṃ vihāre vasanti, nissayo paṭippassambhati. Ācariye vibbhante kālakate pakkhasaṅkante ca taṃ khaṇaṃyeva paṭippassambhati.

Āṇattiyaṃ pana ācariyo muñcitukāmova hutvā nissayapaṇāmanāya paṇāmeti, antevāsiko ca ‘‘kiñcāpi maṃ ācariyo paṇāmeti, atha kho hadayena muduko’’ti sālayo hoti, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Sacepi āriyo sālayo, antevāsiko nirālayo ‘‘na dāni imaṃ nissāya vasissāmī’’ti dhuraṃ nikkhipati, evampi na paṭippassambhati. Ubhinnaṃ sālayabhāve pana na paṭippassambhatiyeva, ubhinnaṃ dhuranikkhepena paṭippassambhati, paṇāmitena daṇḍakammaṃ āharitvā tikkhattuṃ khamāpetabbo. No ce khamati, upajjhāye vuttanayena paṭipajjitabbaṃ. Yathāpaññattaṃ pana ācariyupajjhāyavattaṃ paripūrentaṃ adhimattapemādipañcaṅgasamannāgataṃ antevāsikaṃ saddhivihārikaṃ vā paṇāmentassa dukkaṭaṃ, itaraṃ apaṇāmentassapi dukkaṭameva. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Na, bhikkhave, sammāvattanto paṇāmetabbo, yo paṇāmeyya, āpatti dukkaṭassa. Na ca, bhikkhave, asammāvattanto na paṇāmetabbo, yo na paṇāmeyya, āpatti dukkaṭassa (mahāva. 80).

‘‘Pañcahi , bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgataṃ antevāsikaṃ apaṇāmento ācariyo sātisāro hoti, paṇāmento anatisāro hoti. Ācariyamhi nādhimattaṃ pemaṃ hoti, nādhimatto pasādo hoti, nādhimattā hirī hoti, nādhimatto gāravo hoti, nādhimattā bhāvanā hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgataṃ antevāsikaṃ apaṇāmento ācariyo sātisāro hoti, paṇāmento anatisāro hoti (mahāva. 81).

‘‘Pañcahi , bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgataṃ saddhivihārikaṃ apaṇāmento upajjhāyo sātisāro hoti, paṇāmento anatisāro hoti. Upajjhāyamhi nādhimattaṃ pemaṃ hoti, nādhimatto pasādo hoti, nādhimattā hirī hoti, nādhimatto gāravo hoti, nādhimattā bhāvanā hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgataṃ saddhivihārikaṃ apaṇāmento upajjhāyo sātisāro hoti, paṇāmento anatisāro hotī’’tiādi (mahāva. 68).

Tattha (mahāva. aṭṭha. 68) nādhimattaṃ pemaṃ hotīti upajjhāyamhi adhimattaṃ gehassitapemaṃ na hoti. Nādhimattā bhāvanā hotīti adhimattā mettābhāvanā na hotīti attho.

Upajjhāyena vā samodhānagatoti ettha (mahāva. aṭṭha. 83) dassanasavanavasena samodhānaṃ veditabbaṃ. Sace hi ācariyaṃ nissāya vasanto saddhivihāriko ekavihāre cetiyaṃ vā vandantaṃ, ekagāme vā piṇḍāya carantaṃ upajjhāyaṃ passati, nissayo paṭippassambhati. Upajjhāyo passati, saddhivihāriko na passati, na paṭippassambhati. Maggappaṭipannaṃ vā ākāsena vā gacchantaṃ upajjhāyaṃ disvā dūrattā ‘‘bhikkhū’’ti jānāti, ‘‘upajjhāyo’’ti na jānāti, na paṭippassambhati. Sace jānāti, paṭippassambhati. Uparipāsāde upajjhāyo vasati, heṭṭhā saddhivihāriko, taṃ adisvāva yāguṃ pivitvā paṭikkamati, āsanasālāya vā nisinnaṃ adisvāva ekamante bhuñjitvā pakkamati, dhammassavanamaṇḍape vā nisinnampi taṃ adisvāva dhammaṃ sutvā pakkamati, nissayo na paṭippassambhati. Evaṃ tāva dassanavasena samodhānaṃ veditabbaṃ. Savanavasena pana sace upajjhāyassa vihāre vā antaraghare vā dhammaṃ vā kathentassa anumodanaṃ vā karontassa saddaṃ sutvā ‘‘upajjhāyassa me saddo’’ti sañjānāti, nissayo paṭippassambhati, asañjānantassa na paṭippassambhati. Ayaṃ samodhāne vinicchayo.

155. Nissāya kena vasitabbaṃ, kena na vasitabbanti ettha pana ‘‘anujānāmi, bhikkhave, byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena pañca vassāni nissāya vatthuṃ, abyattena yāvajīva’’nti (mahāva. 103) vacanato yo abyatto hoti, tena yāvajīvaṃ nissāyeva vasitabbaṃ. Sacāyaṃ (mahāva. aṭṭha. 103) vuḍḍhataraṃ ācariyaṃ na labhati, upasampadāya saṭṭhivasso vā sattativasso vā hoti, navakatarassapi byattassa santike ukkuṭikaṃ nisīditvā añjaliṃ paggahetvā ‘‘ācariyo me, āvuso, hoti, āyasmato nissāya vacchāmī’’ti evaṃ tikkhattuṃ vatvā nissayo gahetabbova. Gāmappavesanaṃ āpucchantenapi ukkuṭikaṃ nisīditvā añjaliṃ paggahetvā ‘‘gāmappavesanaṃ āpucchāmi ācariyā’’ti vattabbaṃ. Esa nayo sabbaāpucchanesu.

Yo pana byatto hoti upasampadāya pañcavasso, tena anissitena vatthuṃ vaṭṭati. Tasmā nissayamuccanakena (pāci. aṭṭha. 145-147) upasampadāya pañcavassena sabbantimena paricchedena dve mātikā paguṇā vācuggatā kattabbā, pakkhadivasesu dhammassavanatthāya suttantato cattāro bhāṇavārā, sampattānaṃ parisānaṃ parikathanatthāya andhakavinda(a. ni. 5.114) mahārāhulovāda(ma. ni. 2.113 ādayo) ambaṭṭha(daī. ni. 1.254 ādayo) sadiso eko kathāmaggo, saṅghabhattamaṅgalāmaṅgalesu anumodanatthāya tisso anumodanā, uposathapavāraṇādijānanatthaṃ kammākammavinicchayo, samaṇadhammakaraṇatthaṃ samādhivasena vā vipassanāvasena vā arahattapariyosānamekaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ, ettakaṃ uggahetabbaṃ. Ettāvatā hi ayaṃ bahussuto hoti cātuddiso, yattha katthaci attano issariyena vasituṃ labhati. Yaṃ pana vuttaṃ –

‘‘Pañcahi , bhikkhave, aṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Na asekkhena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato hoti, na asekkhena samādhikkhandhena… na asekkhena paññākkhandhena… na asekkhena vimuttikkhandhena… na asekkhena vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhena samannāgato hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Adhisīle sīlavipanno hoti, ajjhācāre ācāravipanno hoti, atidiṭṭhiyā diṭṭhivipanno hoti, appassuto hoti, duppañño hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ.

‘‘Aparehipi , bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Āpattiṃ na jānāti, anāpattiṃ na jānāti, lahukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, garukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, ubhayāni kho panassa pātimokkhāni vitthārena na svāgatāni honti na suvibhattāni na suppavattīni na suvinicchitāni suttaso anubyañjanaso. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ.

‘‘Aparehipi, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabbaṃ. Āpattiṃ na jānāti, anāpattiṃ na jānāti, lahukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, garukaṃ āpattiṃ na jānāti, ūnapañcavasso hoti. Imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatena bhikkhunā na anissitena vatthabba’’nti (mahāva. 103). Etthāpi purimanayeneva ayuttavasena āpattiaṅgavasena ca paṭikkhepo katoti daṭṭhabbaṃ.

Bālānaṃ pana abyattānaṃ disaṃgamikānaṃ antevāsikasaddhivihārikānaṃ anuññā na dātabbā. Sace denti, ācariyupajjhāyānaṃ dukkaṭaṃ. Te ce ananuññātā gacchanti, tesampi dukkaṭaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Idha pana, bhikkhave, sambahulā bhikkhū bālā abyattā disaṃgamikā ācariyupajjhāye āpucchanti. Te, bhikkhave, ācariyupajjhāyehi pucchitabbā ‘‘kahaṃ gamissatha, kena saddhiṃ gamissathā’’ti. Te ce, bhikkhave, bālā abyattā aññe bāle abyatte apadiseyyuṃ. Na, bhikkhave, ācariyupajjhāyehi anujānitabbā, anujāneyyuṃ ce, āpatti dukkaṭassa. Te ce, bhikkhave, bālā abyattā ananuññātā ācariyupajjhāyehi gaccheyyuṃ ce, āpatti dukkaṭassā’’ti (mahāva. 163).

Iti pāḷimuttakavinayavinicchayasaṅgahe

Nissayavinicchayakathā samattā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayasaṅgaha-aṭṭhakathā >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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