19. Kappiyabhūmivinicchayakathā

101.Kappiyācatubhūmiyoti ettha ‘‘anujānāmi, bhikkhave, catasso kappiyabhūmiyo ussāvanantikaṃ gonisādikaṃ gahapatiṃ sammuti’’nti (mahāva. 295) vacanato ussāvanantikā gonisādikā gahapati sammutīti imā catasso kappiyabhūmiyo veditabbā. Tattha (mahāva. aṭṭha. 295) ussāvanantikā tāva evaṃ kātabbā – yo thambhānaṃ vā upari bhittipāde vā nikhanitvā vihāro karīyati, tassa heṭṭhā thambhapaṭicchakā pāsāṇā bhūmigatikā eva. Paṭhamatthambhaṃ pana paṭhamabhittipādaṃ vā patiṭṭhāpentehi bahūhi samparivāretvā ‘‘kappiyakuṭiṃ karoma, kappiyakuṭiṃ karomā’’ti vācaṃ nicchārentehi manussesu ukkhipitvā patiṭṭhāpentesu āmasitvā vā sayaṃ ukkhipitvā vā thambho vā bhittipādo vā patiṭṭhāpetabbo. Kurundimahāpaccarīsu pana ‘‘kappiyakuṭi kappiyakuṭīti vatvā patiṭṭhāpetabba’’nti vuttaṃ. Andhakaṭṭhakathāyaṃ ‘‘saṅghassa kappiyakuṭiṃ adhiṭṭhāmī’’ti vuttaṃ, taṃ pana avatvāpi aṭṭhakathāsu vuttanayena vutte doso natthi. Idaṃ panettha sādhāraṇalakkhaṇaṃ ‘‘thambhapatiṭṭhāpanañca vacanapariyosānañca samakālaṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti. Sace hi aniṭṭhite vacane thambho patiṭṭhāti, appatiṭṭhite vā tasmiṃ vacanaṃ niṭṭhāti, akatā hoti kappiyakuṭi. Teneva mahāpaccariyaṃ vuttaṃ ‘‘bahūhi samparivāretvā vattabbaṃ, avassañhi ettha ekassapi vacananiṭṭhānañca thambhapatiṭṭhānañca ekato bhavissatī’’ti. Iṭṭhakāsilāmattikākuṭṭakāsu pana kuṭīsu heṭṭhā cayaṃ bandhitvā vā abandhitvā vā karontu, yato paṭṭhāya bhittiṃ uṭṭhāpetukāmā honti, taṃ sabbapaṭhamaṃ iṭṭhakaṃ vā silaṃ vā mattikāpiṇḍaṃ vā gahetvā vuttanayeneva kappiyakuṭi kātabbā, iṭṭhakādayo bhittiyaṃ paṭhamiṭṭhakādīnaṃ heṭṭhā na vaṭṭanti, thambhā pana upari uggacchanti, tasmā vaṭṭanti. Andhakaṭṭhakathāyaṃ ‘‘thambhehi kariyamāne catūsu koṇesu cattāro thambhā, iṭṭhakādikuṭṭe catūsu koṇesu dve tisso iṭṭhakā adhiṭṭhātabbā’’ti vuttaṃ. Tathā pana akatāyapi doso natthi, aṭṭhakathāsu hi vuttameva pamāṇaṃ.

Gonisādikā duvidhā ārāmagonisādikā vihāragonisādikāti. Tāsu yattha neva ārāmo, na senāsanāni parikkhittāni honti, ayaṃ ārāmagonisādikā nāma. Yattha senāsanāni sabbāni vā ekaccāni vā parikkhittāni, ārāmo aparikkhitto, ayaṃ vihāragonisādikā nāma. Iti ubhayatrāpi ārāmassa aparikkhittabhāvoyeva pamāṇaṃ. ‘‘Ārāmo pana upaḍḍhaparikkhittopi bahutaraṃ parikkhittopi parikkhittoyeva nāmā’’ti kurundimahāpaccarīsu vuttaṃ, ettha kappiyakuṭiṃ laddhuṃ vaṭṭati.

Gahapatīti manussā āvāsaṃ katvā ‘‘kappiyakuṭiṃ dema, paribhuñjathā’’ti vadanti, esā gahapati nāma, ‘‘kappiyakuṭiṃ kātuṃ demā’’ti vuttepi vaṭṭatiyeva. Andhakaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana ‘‘yasmā bhikkhuṃ ṭhapetvā sesasahadhammikānaṃ sabbesañca devamanussānaṃ hatthato paṭiggaho ca sannidhi ca antovutthañca tesaṃ santakaṃ bhikkhussa vaṭṭati, tasmā tesaṃ gehāni vā tehi dinnakappiyakuṭi vā gahapatīti vuccatī’’ti vuttaṃ, punapi vuttaṃ ‘‘bhikkhusaṅghassa vihāraṃ ṭhapetvā bhikkhunupassayo vā ārāmikānaṃ vā titthiyānaṃ vā devatānaṃ vā nāgānaṃ vā api brahmānaṃ vimānaṃ kappiyakuṭi hotī’’ti, taṃ suvuttaṃ. Saṅghasantakameva hi bhikkhusantakaṃ vā gehaṃ gahapatikuṭikā na hoti.

Sammuti nāma ñattidutiyakammavācāya sāvetvā sammatā. Evañca pana, bhikkhave, sammannitabbā, byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo –

‘‘Suṇātu me, bhante, saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ saṅgho itthannāmaṃ vihāraṃ kappiyabhūmiṃ sammanneyya, esā ñatti.

‘‘Suṇātu me, bhante, saṅgho. Saṅgho itthannāmaṃ vihāraṃ kappiyabhūmiṃ sammannati. Yassāyasmato khamati itthannāmassa vihārassa kappiyabhūmiyā sammuti, so tuṇhassa. Yassa nakkhamati, so bhāseyya.

‘‘Sammato saṅghena itthannāmo vihāro kappiyabhūmi khamati saṅghassa, tasmā tuṇhī, evametaṃ dhārayāmī’’ti (mahāva. 295).

Kammavācaṃ avatvā apalokanakammavasena sāvetvā katāpi sammatā eva.

102. Yaṃ (mahāva. aṭṭha. 295) imāsu catūsu kappiyabhūmīsu vuttaṃ āmisaṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ antovutthasaṅkhyaṃ na gacchati. Bhikkhūnañca bhikkhunīnañca antovutthaantopakkamocanatthañhi kappiyakuṭiyo anuññātā. Yaṃ pana akappiyabhūmiyaṃ sahaseyyappahonake gehe vuttaṃ saṅghikaṃ vā puggalikaṃ vā bhikkhussa bhikkhuniyā vā santakaṃ ekarattampi ṭhapitaṃ, taṃ antovutthaṃ, tattha pakkañca antopakkaṃ nāma hoti, etaṃ na kappati. Sattāhakālikaṃ pana yāvajīvikañca vaṭṭati.

Tatrāyaṃ vinicchayo – sāmaṇero bhikkhussa taṇḍulādikaṃ āmisaṃ āharitvā kappiyakuṭiyaṃ nikkhipitvā punadivase pacitvā deti, antovutthaṃ na hoti. Tattha akappiyakuṭiyaṃ nikkhittasappiādīsu kiñci pakkhipitvā deti. Mukhasannidhi nāma hoti. Mahāpaccariyaṃpana ‘‘antovutthaṃ hotī’’ti vuttaṃ. Tattha nāmamattameva nānākaraṇaṃ, bhikkhu akappiyakuṭiyaṃ ṭhapitasappiñca yāvajīvikapaṇṇañca ekato pacitvā paribhuñjati, sattāhaṃ nirāmisaṃ vaṭṭati. Sace āmisasaṃsaṭṭhaṃ katvā paribhuñjati, antovutthañceva sāmaṃpakkañca hoti. Etenupāyena sabbasaṃsaggā veditabbā. Yaṃ kiñci āmisaṃ bhikkhuno pacituṃ na vaṭṭati. Sacepissa uṇhayāguyā sulasipaṇṇāni vā siṅgiveraṃ vā loṇaṃ vā pakkhipanti, tampi cāletuṃ na vaṭṭati, ‘‘yāguṃ nibbāpemī’’ti pana cāletuṃ vaṭṭati. Uttaṇḍulabhattaṃ labhitvā pidahituṃ na vaṭṭati. Sace pana manussā pidahitvā denti, vaṭṭati. ‘‘Bhattaṃ mā nibbāyatū’’ti pidahituṃ vaṭṭati, khīratakkādīsu pana sakiṃ kuthitesu aggiṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭati punapākassa anuññātattā.

Imā pana kappiyakuṭiyo kadā jahitavatthukā honti? Ussāvanantikā tāva yā thambhānaṃ upari bhittipāde vā nikhanitvā katā, sā sabbesu thambhesu ca bhittipādesu ca apanītesu jahitavatthukā hoti. Sace pana thambhe vā bhittipāde vā parivattenti, yo yo ṭhito, tattha tattha patiṭṭhāti, sabbesupi parivattitesu ajahitavatthukāva hoti. Iṭṭhakādīhi katā cayassa upari bhittiatthāya ṭhapitaṃ iṭṭhakaṃ vā silaṃ vā mattikāpiṇḍaṃ vā ādiṃ katvā vināsitakāle jahitavatthukāva hoti. Yehi pana iṭṭhakādīhi adhiṭṭhitā, tesu apanītesupi tadaññesu patiṭṭhātīti ajahitavatthukāva hoti. Gonisādikā pākārādīhi parikkhepe kate jahitavatthukāva hoti. Puna tasmiṃ ārāme kappiyakuṭiṃ laddhuṃ vaṭṭati. Sace pana punapi pākārādayo tattha tattha khaṇḍā honti, tato tato gāvo pavisanti, puna kappiyakuṭi hoti. Itarā pana dve gopānasīmattaṃ ṭhapetvā sabbasmiṃ chadane vinaṭṭhe jahitavatthukāva honti. Sace gopānasīnaṃ upari ekampi pakkhapāsakamaṇḍalaṃ atthi, rakkhati.

103. Yatra panimā catassopi kappiyabhūmiyo natthi, tattha kiṃ kātabbanti? Anupasampannassa datvā tassa santakaṃ katvā paribhuñjitabbaṃ. Tatridaṃ vatthu – karavikatissatthero kira vinayadharapāmokkho mahāsīvattherassa santikaṃ agamāsi. So dīpālokena sappikumbhaṃ passitvā ‘‘bhante, kimeta’’nti pucchi. Thero ‘‘āvuso, gāmato sappikumbho ābhato lūkhadivase sappinā bhuñjanatthāyā’’ti āha. Tato naṃ tissatthero ‘‘na vaṭṭati, bhante’’ti āha. Thero punadivase pamukhe nikkhipāpesi. Tissatthero puna ekadivasaṃ āgato taṃ disvā tatheva pucchitvā ‘‘bhante, sahaseyyappahonakaṭṭhāne ṭhapetuṃ na vaṭṭatī’’ti āha. Thero punadivase bahi nīharāpetvā nikkhipāpesi, taṃ corā hariṃsu. So puna ekadivasaṃ āgataṃ tissattheramāha ‘‘āvuso, tayā ‘na vaṭṭatī’ti vutte so kumbho bahi nikkhitto corehi haṭo’’ti. Tato naṃ tissatthero āha ‘‘nanu, bhante, anupasampannassa dātabbo assa, anupasampannassa hi datvā tassa santakaṃ katvā paribhuñjituṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti.

Iti pāḷimuttakavinayavinicchayasaṅgahe

Kappiyabhūmivinicchayakathā samattā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayasaṅgaha-aṭṭhakathā >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

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