33. Kammākammavinicchayakathā

249. Evaṃ garukāpattivuṭṭhānavinicchayakathaṃ kathetvā idāni kammākammavinicchayakathaṃ kathetuṃ ‘‘kammākammanti ettha panā’’tiādimāha. Tattha samaggena saṅghena karīyate tanti kammaṃ, apalokanādicatubbidhavinayakammaṃ. Itarasmimpi eseva nayo. A-kāro vuddhiattho, na vuddhippattaṃ kammaṃ akammaṃ. Kammañca akammañca kammākammaṃ vajjāvajjaṃ viya, phalāphalaṃ viya ca. Tattha ca kammanti apalokanakammañattikammadvayaṃ. Akammanti ñattidutiyakammañatticatautthakammadvayaṃ. Atha vā kammanti catūsupi etesu lahukakammaṃ. Akammanti garukakammaṃ. Kammākammanti ettha pana vinicchayo evaṃ veditabboti yojanā. Tattha panāti pakkhantaratthe nipāto , garukāpattivuṭṭhānavinicchayakathāpakkhato añño kammākammavinicchayakathāpakkho veditabboti vā mayā vuccateti vā attho.

Cattārikammānīti ettha cattārīti paricchedanidassanaṃ. Tena vinayakammāni nāma cattāri eva honti, na ito ūnādhikānīti dasseti. Kammānīti paricchinnakammanidassanaṃ. Apalokanakammantiādīni paricchinnakammānaṃ uddesakathanaṃ. Tattha apalokīyate āyācīyate apalokanaṃ, apapubbalokadhātu āyācanatthe, yupaccayo bhāvatthavācako. Apalokanavasena kattabbaṃ kammaṃ apalokanakammaṃ, sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghaṃ apaloketvā saṅghānumatiyā kattabbaṃ kammaṃ. Ñāpanā ñatti, saṅghassa jānāpanāti attho. Ñattiyā kattabbaṃ kammaṃ ñattikammaṃ, anussāvanaṃ akatvā suddhañattiyāyeva kattabbakammaṃ. Dvinnaṃ pūraṇī dutiyā, ñatti dutiyā etassa kammassāti ñattidutiyaṃ, ñattidutiyañca taṃ kammañcāti ñattidutiyakammaṃ, ekāya ñattiyā ekāya anussāvanāya kattabbakammaṃ. Catunnaṃ pūraṇī catutthī, ñatti catutthī etassa kammassāti ñatticatutthaṃ, ñatticatutthañca taṃ kammañcāti ñatticatutthakammaṃ, ekāya ñattiyā tīhi anussāvanāhi kattabbakammaṃ. Tena vakkhati ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ nāma sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghaṃ sodhetvā’’tiādi.

Evaṃ cattāri kammāni uddisitvā parivāre (pari. 482 ādayo) kammavagge āgatanayeneva tesaṃ catunnaṃ kammānaṃ vipattikāraṇāni pucchitvā vissajjetuṃ ‘‘imāni cattāri kammāni katihākārehi vipajjanti? Pañcahākārehi vipajjantī’’tiādimāha. Tattha vatthutoti vinayakammassa kāraṇabhūtavatthuto. Ñattito anussāvanatoti dvepi kammavācāyameva. Sīmatoti kammakaraṇaṭṭhānabhūtabaddhasīmato. Parisatoti kammappattachandārahabhūtakārakasaṅghato. Tāniyeva hi pañca sabbesaṃ vinayakammānaṃ vipattikāraṇāni honti.

Tato taṃ kammavipattikāraṇabhūtaṃ vatthuṃ pāḷinayena vitthāretuṃ ‘‘sammukhākaraṇīyaṃ kammaṃ asammukhā karoti, vatthuvipannaṃ adhammakamma’’ntyādimāha. Tattha sammukhākaraṇīyaṃ paṭipucchākaraṇīyaṃ paṭiññāyakaraṇīyanti imesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ atathākaraṇena, sativinayo amūḷhavinayo tassapāpiyasikā tajjanīyakammaṃ niyasakammaṃ pabbājanīyakammaṃ paṭisāraṇīyakammaṃ ukkhepanīyakammaṃ parivāso mūlāyapaṭikassanā mānattaṃ abbhānaṃ upasampadanti imesaṃ terasakammānaṃ aññakammārahassa aññakammakaraṇena, uposatho pavāraṇāti imesaṃ dvinnaṃ adivase karaṇena, paṇḍako theyyasaṃvāsako titthiyapakkantako tiracchānagato mātughātako pitughātako arahantaghātako lohituppādako saṅghabhedako bhikkhunidūsako ubhatobyañjanako ūnavīsativasso antimavatthuajjhāpannapubboti imesaṃ terasannaṃ puggalānaṃ upasampadākammakaraṇena iti imāni ekatiṃsa kammāni vatthuvipannaṃ adhammakammaṃ hoti. Ñattito pañca, anussāvanato pañcāti imāni dasa kāraṇāni antokammavācāyameva labhanti, sīmato ekādasa kāraṇāni sīmāsammutivasena labhanti, parisato dvādasa kāraṇāni catuvaggapañcavaggadasavaggavīsativaggasaṅkhātesu catūsu saṅghesu ekekasmiṃ kammapattachandārahasammukhībhūtasaṅkhātānaṃ tiṇṇaṃ tiṇṇaṃ saṅghānaṃ vasena labhantīti.

Evaṃ kammavipattikāraṇāni dassetvā puna catuvaggasaṅghādīsu sannisinnānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ visesanāmaṃ dassetuṃ ‘‘catuvaggakaraṇe kamme’’tiādimāha. Taṃ suviññeyyameva.

250. Tato paraṃ catunnaṃ kammānaṃ ṭhānaṃ saṅkhepato dassetuṃ ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ kati ṭhānāni gacchatī’’tiādimāha. Tampi suviññeyyameva.

251. Tato tāniyeva kammāni tesu ṭhānesu pavattāni vitthārato pakāsetukāmo ‘‘ayaṃ tāva pāḷinayo. Ayaṃ panettha ādito paṭṭhāya vinicchayakathā’’tiādimāha. Tattha tassaṃ vinicchayakathāyaṃ catūsu kammesu katamaṃ apalokanakammaṃ nāmāti pucchāyaṃ taṃ dassetumāha ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ nāmā’’tiādi. Tattha sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghaṃ sodhetvāti avippavāsasaṅkhātamahāsīmaṭṭhakaṃ saṅghaṃ sodhetvā. Na hi khaṇḍasīmāya sannipatite saṅghe sodhetabbakiccaṃ atthi, avippavāsasīmāsaṅkhātāya mahāsīmāya pana vitthārattā bahūnaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ vasanaṭṭhānattā samaggabhāvatthaṃ sodhetabbaṃ hoti. Chandārahānaṃ chandaṃ āharitvāti tissaṃ sīmāyaṃ catuvaggādigaṇaṃ pūretvā hatthapāsaṃ avijahitvā ṭhitehi bhikkhūhi aññesaṃ hatthapāsaṃ anāgatānaṃ pakatattabhikkhūnaṃ chandaṃ āharitvā. Vuttañhi ‘‘catuvaggakaraṇe kamme cattāro bhikkhū pakatattā kammappattā, avasesā pakatattā chandārahā’’ti (pari. 497). Samaggassa saṅghassa anumatiyāti chandassa āharitattā hatthapāsaṃ āgatāpi anāgatāpi sabbe bhikkhū samaggāyeva honti, tasmā samaggassa saṅghassa anumatiyā. Tikkhattuṃ sāvetvāti ‘‘suṇātu me, bhante, saṅgho’’tiādinā kammavācaṃ abhaṇitvā ‘‘ruccati saṅghassa. Dutiyampi…pe… tatiyampi ruccati saṅghassā’’ti tikkhattuṃ sāvetvā kattabbakammaṃ apalokanakammaṃ nāmāti yojanā. Vuttanayenevāti apalokanakamme vuttanayeneva. Iminā ‘‘sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghaṃ sodhetvā, chandārahānaṃ chandaṃ āharitvā’’ti idaṃ dvayaṃ atidisati. Itaresupi eseva nayo.

Tattha tesu catūsu kammesu kiṃ aññakammaṃ itarakammavasena kātabbanti codanaṃ sandhāyāha ‘‘tatra’’iccādi. Evaṃ hotu, evaṃ sante avisesena sabbampi kammaṃ aññavasena kattabbanti āha ‘‘ñattidutiyakammaṃ panā’’tiādi. Tattha pana-saddo visesatthajotako, ñattidutiyakamme pana viseso atthīti attho. Ito parāni suviññeyyāneva. Paṭikkhittameva aṭṭhakathāyanti ajjhāhārasambandho. Yadi evaṃ akkharaparihīnādīsu santesu kammakopo siyāti codanaṃ manasi katvā āha ‘‘sace panā’’tiādi. Tattha akkharaparihīnanti ‘‘suṇātu me’’tiādīsu su-kāra ṇā-kāra tu-kārādīnaṃ bhassanaṃ. Padaparihīnanti suṇātūtiādīnaṃ vibhatyantapadānaṃ bhassanaṃ. Duruttapadaṃ pana upari vakkhati.

Idāni punappunavacane payojanaṃ dassento ‘‘idaṃ akuppakamme daḷhikammaṃ hoti, kuppakamme kammaṃ hutvā tiṭṭhatī’’ti āha. Tattha idanti idaṃ punappunaṃ vuttakammaṃ. Akuppakammeti akuppe ṭhānārahe purekatakamme. Daḷhikammaṃ hotīti thiratarakammaṃ hoti ekāya rajjuyā bandhitabbabhāre dutiyatatiyādirajjūhi bandhanaṃ viya. Kuppakammeti akkharaparihīnādivasena kuppe aṭṭhānārahe purekatakamme. Kammaṃ hutvā tiṭṭhatīti punappunaṃ vutte sati tesaṃ akkharaparihīnādīnaṃ sodhitattā parisuddhakammaṃ hutvā tiṭṭhati. Akuppakamme kuppakammeti vā bhāvenabhāvalakkhaṇatthe bhummavacanaṃ. Puretaraṃ katakammasmiṃ akuppakamme sati pacchā idaṃ punappunaṃ vuttakammaṃ daḷhikammaṃ hoti, purekatakammasmiṃ kuppakamme sati idaṃ punappunaṃ vuttakammaṃ akuppaṃ ṭhānārahaṃ parisuddhakammaṃ hutvā tiṭṭhatīti. Imaṃ pāṭhaṃ nissāya ācariyavarā ekapuggalampi anekakkhattuṃ upasampadakammaṃ karonti. Kasmā pana te bhikkhū lajjīpesalabahussutasikkhākāmabhūtānaṃ attano ācariyupajjhāyānaṃ santike sikkhaṃ gaṇhantīti? Na te attano ācariyupajjhāyānaṃ santikā laddhasikkhaṃ paccakkhāya aññaṃ gaṇhanti, atha kho tāya eva saddhiṃ diguṇatiguṇaṃ karonti. Evaṃ santepi purimasikkhāya asaddahantāyeva kareyyuṃ, no saddahantāti? No asaddahantā , saddahantāpi te bhikkhū punappunakaraṇe yuttitopi āgamatopi ādīnavaṃ apassantā ānisaṃsameva passantā karontīti.

Kathaṃ yuttito ānisaṃsaṃ passanti? Yathā hi loke abhisittampi rājānaṃ punappunābhisiñcane ādīnavaṃ na passanti, atha kho abhisekānubhāvena rājiddhippattatādīhi kāraṇehi ānisaṃsameva passanti, yathā ca sāsane cetiyaṃ vā paṭimaṃ vā niṭṭhitasabbakiccaṃ ‘‘anekajātisaṃsāra’’ntiādīhi bhagavato vacanehi abhisekamaṅgalaṃ karontāpi punappunakaraṇe ādīnavaṃ apassantā atirekataraṃ mahiddhikatāmahānubhāvatādiānisaṃsameva passantā punappunaṃ karontiyeva, evameva kataupasampadakammaṃ bhikkhuṃ punadeva kammavācābhaṇane ādīnavaṃ apassantā pubbe katakammasmiṃ vatthuādīsu pañcasu aṅgesu ekasmimpi aṅge aparipuṇṇe sati kammakopasambhavato idāni katakammena paripuṇṇaaṅge sati kammasampattisambhavañca pubbeva kammasampattisambhavepi daḷhikammathiratarasambhavañca ānisaṃsaṃ passantā karonti. Kathaṃ āgamato ānisaṃsaṃ passanti? Yathāvuttaparivāraṭṭhakathāpāṭhavinayasaṅgahapāṭhesu duruttapadassa sodhanatthaṃ punappunaṃ vattabbabhāvassa upalakkhaṇanayena vacanato. Sesañattidosaanussāvanadosānañca vatthuvipattisīmavipattiparisavipattidosānañca sodhanaṃ dassitaṃ hoti. Teneva ca kāraṇena ayampi pacchimapāṭho ācariyena vutto. Tassattho heṭṭhā vuttova. Iti pubbe katakammassa kopasambhavepi idāni katakammena sampajjanasaṅkhātaṃ ānisaṃsaṃ āgamato passantīti daṭṭhabbaṃ.

Keci pana ācariyā imaṃ ‘‘punappunaṃ vattuṃ vaṭṭatīti pāṭhaṃ tasmiṃyeva paṭhamakammakaraṇakāle duruttasodhanatthaṃ vattabbataṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ, na cirakāle’’ti vadanti, tadetaṃ vacanaṃ neva aṭṭhakathāyaṃ āgataṃ, na ṭīkādīsu vinicchitaṃ, tesaṃ matimattameva, tasmā na gahetabbaṃ. Apica tasmiṃ khaṇe punappunaṃ vacanatopi aparabhāge vacanaṃ mahapphalaṃ hoti mahānisaṃsaṃ. Tasmiñhi kāle punappunaṃ bhaṇane ñattidosaanussāvanadosāni pacchimabhaṇane suṭṭhu bhaṇanto sodhetuṃ sakkuṇeyya, na vatthuvipattisīmavipattiparisavipattidosāni. Tasmiñhi khaṇe tameva vatthu, sā eva sīmā, sā eva parisā, tasmā tāni punappunavacanena sodhetumasakkuṇeyyāni honti. Aparabhāge karonto pana pubbe aparipuṇṇavīsativassabhāvena vatthuvipattibhūtepi idāni paripuṇṇavīsativassattā vatthusampatti hoti, pubbe sīmasaṅkarādibhāvena sīmavipattisambhavepi idāni tadabhāvatthāya suṭṭhu sodhitattā sīmasampatti hoti, pubbe vaggakammādivasena parisavipattisambhavepi idāni tadabhāvatthāya suṭṭhu sodhitattā parisasampatti hoti, evaṃ pañca vipattiyo sodhetvā pañca sampattiyo sampādetvā kātuṃ sakkuṇeyyato paṭhamakāle punappunaṃ bhaṇanatopi aparabhāge bhaṇanaṃ mahapphalaṃ hoti mahānisaṃsanti veditabbaṃ.

Yadi evaṃ upasampadasikkhāya daharo bhaveyyāti? Na bhaveyya. Kasmā? Porāṇasikkhaṃ appaccakkhitvā tāya eva patiṭṭhitattāti. Evaṃ santepi purekatakammassa sampajjanabhāvena tiṭṭhante sati tāya ṭhitattā adaharo siyā. Purimakammassa asampajjanabhāvena idāni katakammeyeva upasampadabhāvena tiṭṭhante sati kasmā daharo na bhaveyyāti? Evaṃ sante daharo bhaveyya. Evaṃ daharo samāno purimasikkhāya vassaṃ gaṇetvā yathāvuḍḍhaṃ vandanādīni sampaṭicchanto mahāsāvajjo bhaveyyāti? Evaṃ purimasikkhāya aṭṭhitabhāvaṃ pacchimasikkhāya eva laddhupasampadabhāvaṃ tathato jānanto evaṃ karonto sāvajjo hoti, evaṃ pana ajānanto ‘‘purimasikkhāyameva ṭhito’’ti maññitvā evaṃ karonto anavajjoti veditabbo. Kathaṃ viññāyatīti ce? ‘‘Anāpatti ūnavīsativassaṃ paripuṇṇasaññīti ettha kiñcāpi upasampādentassa anāpatti, puggalo pana anupasampannova hoti. Sace pana so dasavassaccayena aññaṃ upasampādeti, taṃ ce muñcitvā gaṇo pūrati, sūpasampanno. Sopi ca yāva na jānāti, tāvassa neva saggantarāyo, na mokkhantarāyo. Ñatvā pana puna upasampajjitabba’’nti samantapāsādikāyaṃ (pāci. aṭṭha. 406) āgatattā viññāyati. Evaṃ vatthuvipannattā kammakopato anupasampannassa puggalassa upajjhāyo bhavituṃ yuttakāle puna upasampajjanena upasampannabhūtabhāvassa aṭṭhakathāyaṃ āgatattā iminā nayena sīmavipannapaasavipannañattivipannaanussāvanavipannabhūtattā kammakopato pubbe anupasampannabhūtaṃ puggalampi aparabhāge vuḍḍhippattikālepi pañca vipattidosāni sodhetvā puna upasampadakammavācākaraṇena upasampādetuṃ vaṭṭati. Sopi puggalo pubbakammakāle anupasampanno hutvāpi aparakammakāle upasampanno hotīti daṭṭhabbo.

Ekacce pana bhikkhū porāṇasikkhaṃ paccakkhāya navasikkhameva gaṇhiṃsu, te pana bhikkhū navasikkhāvasena daharāva bhavanti, evaṃ karaṇañca ativiya guṇavisiṭṭhaṃ attano navakataraṃ bhikkhuṃ disvā tasmiṃ puggale payirupāsitukāmo taṃ puggalaṃ attanā vuḍḍhataraṃ kātukāmo attānaṃ daharaṃ kātukāmo hutvā dhammagāravena karonto yutto bhaveyya. Atha pana sikkhāsampannaṃ kattukāmo evaṃ kareyya, sikkhā nāma pañcaṅgasamannāgate sati sampajjati, sīlavisuddhiyeva kāraṇaṃ hoti, tasmā yadi purimasikkhā aṭṭhitā bhaveyya, paccakkhānakiccaṃ natthi, sayameva patitā hoti. Purimasikkhāya ṭhitāya sati vibbhamitukāmoyeva paccakkhānaṃ kareyya, na bhikkhubhavitukāmo, so pana catupārisuddhisīlameva parisuddhaṃ kareyya, tasmā porāṇasikkhāya paccakkhānaṃ ayuttaṃ viya dissati. Tato porāṇasikkhaṃ paccakkhāya navasikkhāgahaṇato punappunaṃ karaṇaṃyeva yuttataraṃ dissati. Kasmā? Porāṇasikkhaṃ paccakkhāya navasikkhāgahaṇe purimakammaṃ asampajjitvā pacchimakammasampajjane sati kiñcāpi purimasikkhā natthi, yā paccakkhātabbā, tathāpi navasikkhāya sampajjitattā doso natthi, daharabhāvaṃ pattopi yuttarūpoyeva.

Yadi purimakammampi pacchimakammampi sampajjatiyeva, evaṃ sati purimasikkhāya paccakkhānaṃ niratthakaṃ. Pacchimasikkhāya ṭhitopi daharabhāvaṃ pattattā ayuttarūpo. Yadi pana purimakammameva sampajjati, na pacchimakammaṃ, evaṃ sati pubbe ṭhitaporāṇasikkhāpi paccakkhānena patitā. Pacchimasikkhāpi pacchimakammassa pañcannaṃ vipattīnaṃ aññatarena yogato na sampajjati, tasmā purimasikkhāya ca patitattā pacchimasikkhāya ca aladdhattā ubhato bhaṭṭhattā ayuttova hoti. Porāṇasikkhaṃ appaccakkhāya navasikkhāgahaṇe pana sati purimakammaṃ sampannaṃ hutvā pacchimakammaṃ asampannaṃ hontampi purimasikkhāya patiṭṭhitoyeva, purimaṃ asampannaṃ hutvā pacchimaṃ sampannampi pacchimasikkhāya ṭhito eva. Purimapacchimakammadvayampi pañcahaṅgehi sampannampi daḷhikammathiratarabhūtāya purimasikkhāya ṭhitoyeva so bhikkhu hoti, tasmā purimasikkhaṃ paccakkhāya navasikkhāgahaṇato purimasikkhaṃ appaccakkhāya punappunaṃ navasikkhāgahaṇaṃ yuttataraṃ hotīti daṭṭhabbaṃ.

Imaṃ pana punappunaṃ karontānaṃ ācariyānaṃ vādaṃ amanasikarontā aññe ācariyā anekappakāraṃ anicchitakathaṃ kathenti. Kathaṃ? Ekacce therā evaṃ vadanti ‘‘kiṃ ime bhikkhū evaṃ karontā pārājikappattaṃ bhikkhuṃ puna sikkhāya patiṭṭhāpessāmāti maññantī’’ti. Te therā punappunaṃ kammavācaṃ bhaṇante bhikkhū disvā ‘‘ime bhikkhū iminā kāraṇena evaṃ karontī’’ti cintetvā evamāhaṃsu. Ekacce pana therā ‘‘kasmā ime bhikkhū punappunaṃ karonti, yathā nāma asani ekavārameva patantī satte jīvitakkhayaṃ pāpeti, evameva bhagavato āṇābhūtā kammavācā ekavāraṃ bhaṇamānā kammaṃ sijjhāpeti, na anekavāra’’nti, tepi ‘‘kammasijjhanatthāya punappunaṃ bhaṇantī’’ti cintetvā evamāhaṃsu. Bahavo pana bhikkhū punappunaṃ karonte disvā evaṃ vadanti ‘‘ime bhikkhū ācariyupajjhāyehi dinnasikkhaṃ asaddahantā evaṃ karonti, ācariyupajjhāyaguṇāparādhakā ete samaṇā’’ti. Te ‘‘pubbasikkhaṃ asaddahitvā punappunaṃ karontī’’ti maññantā evamāhaṃsu.

Apare pana therā ‘‘paṭhamaṃ upasampadakammavācābhaṇanakāleyeva punappunaṃ vattabbaṃ, na aparabhāge’’ti, tattha kāraṇaṃ heṭṭhā vuttameva. Aññe evamāhaṃsu ‘‘ñattidutiyakammavācāyameva punappunaṃ vattabbanti aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttaṃ, na ñatticatutthakamme, atha ca panime bhikkhū ñatticatutthakammabhūtāya upasampadakammavācāya punappunaṃ karonti, etaṃ aṭṭhakathāya na sametī’’ti, taṃ nītatthameva gahetvā vadiṃsu. Neyyatthato pana iminā nayena catūsupi kammesu punappunaṃ kātabbanti dasseti. Kammasaṅkarameva hi ñattidutiyakamme visesato vadati, punappunaṃ vattabbabhāvo pana sabbesūti daṭṭhabbo. Teneva hi ñatticatutthakammavācāya upasampannaṭṭhāneyeva pubbe anupasampannassa puggalassa pacchā upasampajjitabbabhāvo aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttoti.

Paṭipucchākaraṇīyādīsupīti ettha ādisaddena paṭiṃññāya karaṇīyādayo saṅgaṇhāti. Tattha paṭipucchāya karaṇīyaṃ appaṭipucchā karotīti pucchitvā codetvā sāretvā kātabbaṃ apucchitvā acodetvā asāretvā karoti. Paṭiññāya karaṇīyaṃ appaṭiññāya karotīti paṭiññaṃ āropetvā yathādinnāya paṭiññāya kātabbaṃ apaṭiññāya paṭiññaṃ akarontassa vilapantassa balakkārena karoti. Sativinayārahassāti dabbamallaputtattherasadisassa khīṇāsavassa. Amūḷhavinayārahassāti gaggabhikkhusadisassa ummattakassa. Tassapāpiyasikakammārahassāti upavāḷabhikkhusadisassa ussannapāpassa. Tajjanīyakammārahassāti paṇḍakalohitakabhikkhusadisassa bhaṇḍanakārakassa. Niyasakammārahassāti seyyasakabhikkhusadisassa abhiṇhāpattikassa. Pabbājanīyakammārahassāti assajipunabbasukabhikkhusadisassa kuladūsakassa. Paṭisāraṇīyakammārahassāti sudhammabhikkhusaasassa upāsake jātiādīhi dūsentassa. Ukkhepanīyakammārahassāti channabhikkhusadisassa āpattiṃ apassantassa āpattiṃ adesentassa ariṭṭhabhikkhusadisassa micchādiṭṭhiṃ avissajjentassa. Parivāsārahassāti paṭicchannasaṅghādisesāpattikassa. Mūlāyapaṭikassanārahassāti antarāpattiṃ āpannassa. Mānattārahanti appaṭicchannasaṅghādisesāpattikaṃ. Abbhānārahanti ciṇṇamānattaṃ bhikkhuṃ. Upasampādetīti upasampadakammaṃ karoti.

Anuposatheuposathaṃ karotīti anuposathadivase uposathaṃ karoti. Uposathadivaso nāma ṭhapetvā kattikamāsaṃ avasesesu ekādasasu māsesu bhinnassa saṅghassa sāmaggidivaso ca yathāvuttā cātuddasapannarasā ca, etaṃ tippakārampi uposathadivasaṃ ṭhapetvā aññasmiṃ divase uposathaṃ karonto anuposathe uposathaṃ karoti nāma. Yatra hi pattacīvarādiatthāya appamattakena kāraṇena vivadantā uposathaṃ vā pavāraṇaṃ vā ṭhapenti, tattha tasmiṃ adhikaraṇe vinicchite ‘‘samaggā jātamhā’’ti antarā sāmaggīuposathaṃ kātuṃ na labhanti, karontehi anuposathe uposatho kato nāma hoti.

Appavāraṇāya pavāretīti appavāraṇadivase pavāreti. Pavāraṇadivaso nāma ekasmiṃ kattikamāse bhinnassa saṅghassa sāmaggidivaso ca paccukkaḍḍhitvā ṭhapitadivaso ca dve ca puṇṇamāsiyo, etaṃ catubbidhaṃ pavāraṇadivasaṃ ṭhapetvā aññasmiṃ divase pavārento appavāraṇāya pavāreti nāma. Idhāpi appamattakassa vivādassa vūpasame sāmaggīpavāraṇaṃ kātuṃ na labhanti. Karontehi appavāraṇāya pavāraṇā katā hotīti ayaṃ aṭṭhakathāpāṭho (pari. aṭṭha. 483).

‘‘Ummattakassa bhikkhuno ummattakasammuti ummattakena yācitvā kate asammukhāpi dātuṃ vaṭṭati, tattha nisinnepi na kuppati niyamābhāvato. Asammukhā kate pana dosābhāvaṃ dassetuṃ ‘asammukhā kataṃ sukataṃ hotī’ti vuttaṃ. Dūtena upasampadā pana sammukhā kātuṃ na sakkā kammavācānānattasambhavato. Pattanikkujjanādayo hatthapāsato apanītamattepi kātuṃ vaṭṭanti. Saṅghasammukhatātiādīsu yāvatikā bhikkhū kammappattā, te āgatā honti, chandārahānaṃ chando āhato hoti, sammukhībhūtā na paṭikkosanti, ayaṃ saṅghasammukhatā. Yena dhammena yena vinayena yena satthusāsanena saṅgho kammaṃ karoti, ayaṃ dhammasammukhatā vinayasammukhatā. Tattha dhammoti bhūtaṃ vatthu. Vinayoti codanā ceva sāraṇā ca. Satthusāsanaṃ nāma ñattisampadā ceva anussāvanasampadā ca. Yassa saṅgho kammaṃ karoti, tassa sammukhābhāvo puggalasammukhatā. Kattikamāsassa pavāraṇamāsattā ‘ṭhapetvā kattikamāsa’nti vuttaṃ. Paccukkaḍḍhitvā ṭhapitadivaso cāti kāḷapakkhe cātuddasiṃ pannarasiṃ vā sandhāya vuttaṃ. Dve puṇṇamāsiyoti paṭhamapacchimavassūpagatānaṃ vasena vutta’’nti sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. parivāra 3.483) āgataṃ.

‘‘Ṭhapitauposathapavāraṇānaṃ kattikamāse sāmaggiyā katāya sāmaggīpavāraṇaṃ muñcitvā uposathaṃ kātuṃ na vaṭṭatīti āha ‘ṭhapetvā kattikamāsa’nti. Sace pana tesaṃ nānāsīmāsu mahāpavāraṇāya visuṃ pavāritānaṃ kattikamāsabbhantare sāmaggī hoti, sāmaggīuposatho eva tehi kātabbo, na pavāraṇā ekasmiṃ vasse katapavāraṇānaṃ puna pavāraṇāya avihitattā. Sāmaggīdivaso hotīti anuposathadivase sāmaggīkaraṇaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Sace pana cātuddasiyaṃ pannarasiyaṃ vā saṅgho sāmaggiṃ karoti, tadā sāmaggīuposathadivaso na hoti, cātuddasīpannarasīuposathova hoti. Upari pavāraṇāyapi eseva nayo. Paccukkaḍḍhitvā ṭhapitadivaso cāti bhaṇḍanakārakehi upaddutā vā kenacideva karaṇīyena pavāraṇasaṅgahaṃ vā katvā ṭhapito kāḷapakkhacātuddasīdivaso ca. Dve ca puṇṇamāsiyoti pubbakattikapuṇṇamā pacchimakattikapuṇṇamā cāti dve puṇṇamāsiyo. Etaṃcatubbidhanti puṇṇamāsidvayena saddhiṃ sāmaggīpavāraṇaṃ cātuddasīpavāraṇañca sampiṇḍetvā, idañca pakaticārittavasena vuttaṃ. Tathārūpapaccaye pana sati ubhinnaṃ puṇṇamāsīnaṃ purimā dve cātuddasiyo, kāḷapakkhacātuddasiyā anantarā pannarasīpīti imepi tayo divasā pavāraṇādivasā evāti imaṃ sattavidhampi pavāraṇādivasaṃ ṭhapetvā aññasmiṃ divase pavāretuṃ na vaṭṭatī’’ti vimativinodaniyaṃ (vi. vi. ṭī. parivāra 2.483) āgataṃ.

Evaṃ vatthuvipattivinicchayaṃ dassetvā idāni ñattivipattivinicchayaṃ anussāvanavipattivinicchayañca dassento ‘‘ñattito vipattiyaṃ panā’’tiādimāha. Tattha pañcamañattivipattiyaṃ ‘‘pacchā vā ñattiṃ ṭhapetī’’ti etassa saṃvaṇṇanāyaṃ anussāvanakammaṃ katvāti paṭhamaṃ anussāvanaṃ sāvetvā ‘‘esā ñattī’’ti anussāvanānantarameva sakalaṃ ñattiṃ vatvā, pariyosāne ‘‘esā ñattī’’ti vatvāti adhippāyo.

252. Catutthaanussāvanavipattisaṃvaṇṇanāyaṃ ‘‘yvāyanti byañjanappabhedo adhippeto. Dasadhā byañjanabuddhiyā pabhedoti ettha dasadhā dasavidhena byañjanānaṃ pabhedoti yojetabbaṃ. Kenāyaṃ pabhedoti āha ‘byañjanabuddhiyā’ti. Yathādhippetatthabyañjanato byañjanasaṅkhātānaṃ akkharānaṃ janikā buddhi byañjanabuddhi, tāya byañjanabuddhiyā, akkharasamuṭṭhāpakacittabhedenevāti attho. Yaṃ vā saṃyogaparaṃ katvā vuccati, idampi garukanti yojanā’’ti vimativinodaniyaṃ vuttaṃ.

Sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. parivāra 3.485) pana ‘‘ṭhānakaraṇāni sithilāni katvā uccāretabbamakkharaṃ sithilaṃ, tāniyeva dhanitāni asithilāni katvā uccāretabbamakkharaṃ dhanitaṃ. Dvimattakālaṃ dīghaṃ, ekamattakālaṃ rassaṃ. Dasadhā byañjanabuddhiyā pabhedoti evaṃ sithilādivasena byañjanabuddhiyā akkharuppādakacittassa dasappakārena pabhedo. Sabbāni hi akkharāni cittasamuṭṭhānāni yathādhippetatthabyañjanato byañjanāni ca. Saṃyogo paro etasmāti saṃyogaparo. Na saṃyogaparo asaṃyogaparo ‘āyasmato buddharakkhitatherassa yassa na khamatī’ti ettha ta-kāra na-kārasahitāro asaṃyogaparo. Karaṇānīti kaṇṭhādīni’’ iti ettakaṃ vuttaṃ.

Puna vimativinodaniyaṃ (vi. vi. ṭī. parivāra 2.485) ‘‘tattha āyasmatotiādīsu sarānantaritāni sa-kāra ma-kārādibyañjanāni ‘saṃyogo’ti vuccanti. Yo saṃyogo paro yassa a-kārādino, so saṃyogaparo nāma. Rassanti a-kārādibyañjanarahitaṃ padaṃ. Asaṃyogaparanti ‘yassa na khamatī’tiādīsu sa-kāra na-kārādibyañjanasahitaṃ padaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Ta-kārassa tha-kāraṃ akatvā ‘suṇātu me’tiādiṃ avatvā vaggantare sithilameva katvā ‘suṇāṭu me’tiādiṃ vadantopi duruttaṃ karotiyeva ṭhapetvā anurūpaṃ ādesaṃ. Yañhi ‘saccikatthaparamatthenā’ti vattabbe ‘saccikaṭṭhaparamaṭṭhenā’ti ca ‘atthakathā’ti ca vattabbe ‘aṭṭhakathā’ti ca tattha tattha vuccati, tādisaṃ pāḷiaṭṭhakathādīsu diṭṭhapayogaṃ tadanurūpañca vattuṃ vaṭṭati, tato aññaṃ na vaṭṭati. Tenāha ‘anukkamāgataṃ paveṇiṃ avināsentenā’tiādi. ‘Dīghe vattabbe rassa’ntiādīsu ‘bhikkhūna’nti vattabbe ‘bhikkhuna’nti vā ‘bahūsū’ti vattabbe ‘bahusū’ti vā ‘nakkhamatī’ti vattabbe ‘na khamatī’ti vā ‘upasampadāpekkho’ti vattabbe ‘upasampadāpekho’ti vā evaṃ anurūpaṭṭhānesu eva dīgharassādirassadīghādivasena parivattetuṃ vaṭṭati, na pana ‘nāgo’ti vattabbe ‘nago’ti vā ‘saṅgho’ti vattabbe ‘sagho’ti vā ‘tisso’ti vattabbe ‘tiso’ti vā ‘yācatī’ti vattabbe ‘yācantī’ti vā evaṃ ananurūpaṭṭhānesu vattuṃ . Sambandhaṃ pana vavatthānañca sabbathāpi vaṭṭatīti gahetabba’’nti āgataṃ. Sesāni aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttanayeneva suṭṭhu sallakkhetabbāni.

253. Sīmavipattivinicchayo pana heṭṭhā sīmakathāyaṃ sabbena kathito, tasmā tattha vuttanayeneva gahetabbo.

Parisavipattikathāya catuvaggakaraṇeti catuvaggena saṅghena kattabbe. Anissāritāti uposathaṭṭhapanādinā vā laddhinānāsaṃvāsakabhāvena vā na bahikatā. Aṭṭhakathāyañhi ‘‘apakatattassāti ukkhittakassa vā yassa vā uposathapavāraṇā ṭhapitā hontī’’ti (pari. aṭṭha. 425) vuttattā ṭhapitauposathapavāraṇo bhikkhu apakatatto evāti gahetabbaṃ. Parisuddhasīlāti pārājikaṃ anāpannā adhippetā. Parivāsādikammesu pana garukaṭṭhāpi apakatattā evāti gahetabbaṃ. Avasesā…pe… chandārahāva hontīti hatthapāsaṃ vijahitvā ṭhite sandhāya vuttaṃ, avijahitvā ṭhitā pana chandārahā na honti, tepi catuvaggādito adhikā hatthapāsaṃ vijahitvāva chandārahā honti, tasmā saṅghato hatthapāsaṃ vijahitvā ṭhiteneva chando vā pārisuddhi vā dātabbā.

Sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. parivāra 3.488) pana ‘‘anukkhittā pārājikaṃ anāpannā ca pakatattāti āha ‘pakatattā anukkhittā’tiādi. Tattha anissāritāti purimapadasseva vevacanaṃ. Parisuddhasīlāti pārājikaṃ anāpannā. Na tesaṃ chando vā pārisuddhi vā etīti tīsu dvīsu vā nisinnesu ekassa vā dvinnaṃ vā chandapārisuddhi āhaṭāpi anāhaṭāva hotīti adhippāyo’’ti āgato. Evaṃ pāḷiyañca aṭṭhakathāya ca catunnampi kammānaṃ sampatti ca vipatti ca āgatā, ṭīkācariyehi ca vinicchitā, tasmā aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttanayeneva cattāri kammāni kattabbāni, na avuttanayena. Vuttañhi samantapāsādikāyaṃ (pārā. aṭṭha. 1. ganthārambhakathā; 2.431) –

‘‘Buddhena dhammo vinayo ca vutto;

Yo tassa puttehi tatheva ñāto;

So yehi tesaṃ matimaccajantā;

Yasmā pure aṭṭhakathā akaṃsu.

‘‘Tasmā hi yaṃ aṭṭhakathāsu vuttaṃ;

Taṃ vajjayitvāna pamādalekhaṃ;

Sabbampi sikkhāsu sagāravānaṃ;

Yasmā pamāṇaṃ idha paṇḍitāna’’nti.

Imasmiñhi kammavagge apalokanādīnaṃ catunnaṃ kammānaṃ karaṇaṭṭhānaṃ ekādasavipattisīmavimuttaṃ baddhasīmabhūtaṃyeva vuttaṃ, ‘‘ekādasahi ākārehi sīmato kammāni vipajjantī’’ti (pari. 486) vacanato na abaddhaupacārasīmabhūtaṃ. Na hi tattha ekādasavipatti atthi. Aṭṭhakathāyampi (pari. aṭṭha. 482) ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ nāma sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghaṃ sodhetvā chandārahānaṃ chandaṃ āharitvā samaggassa saṅghassa anumatiyā tikkhattuṃ sāvetvā kattabbaṃ kamma’’nti apalokanakammassāpi baddhasīmāyameva kattabbabhāvo vutto, na upacārasīmāyaṃ. Na hi tattha sīmaṭṭhakasaṅghasodhanañca chandārahānañca atthi, antosīmaṃ paviṭṭhapaviṭṭhānaṃ saṅghalābho dātabboyeva hoti, tasmā ‘‘ñattikammabhūtaṃ uposathapavāraṇākammaṃ abaddhasīmavihārepi kattabba’’nti gaṇhantānaṃ ācariyānaṃ vādopi ‘‘ñattidutiyakammabhūtaṃ kathinadānakammaṃ upacārasīmāyameva kattabba’’nti gaṇhantānaṃ ācariyānaṃ vādopi pāḷivirodho aṭṭhakathāvirodho ca hotīti veditabbo. Yamettha vattabbaṃ, taṃ uposathapavāraṇakathāvaṇṇanāyañca kathinakathāvaṇṇanāyañca vuttaṃ, atthikehi tattha suṭṭhu oloketvā saṃsayo vinodetabbo.

Idāni sabbe bhikkhū lekhakārehi paricayavasena sabbaganthānaṃ ādimhi likhitaṃ mahānamakkārapāṭhaṃ saraṇagamanassa, kammavācāya ca ārambhakāle mahatā ussāhena bhaṇanti, so pana pāṭho neva saraṇagamanapariyāpanno, na kammavācāpariyāpanno, nāpi kammavācāya pubbakaraṇapariyāpanno, tasmiṃ abhaṇitepi na saraṇagamanassa vā kammavācāya vā hāni atthi, na bhaṇite vaḍḍhi, tasmā pakaraṇācariyā saraṇagamanārambhepi kammavācārambhepi tassa mahānamakkārapāṭhassa vaṇṇanaṃ na vadanti, vadanto pana ‘‘bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa’’ iti padānaṃ attho visuddhimaggasamantapāsādikāsāratthadīpanīādippakaraṇesu ‘‘bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho’’ itipadānaṃ attho viya vitthārena vattabbo siyā, evaṃ santepi bhagavato yathābhūtaguṇadīpanavasena pavattattā sabbepi ācariyā sabbesu ganthārambhesu tikkhattuṃ maṅgalatthaṃ bhaṇanti. Bhaṇantehi ca pana na-kāra mo-kārādīnaṃ ṭhānakaraṇādisampadaṃ ahāpentena sithiladhanitadīgharassādivisesaṃ manasi karontena samaṇasāruppena parimaṇḍalena padabyañjanena bhaṇitabbo hoti, na atiāyatakena gītasaddasadisena saddena. Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā ‘‘na, bhikkhave, āyatakena gītassarena dhammo gāyitabbo, yo gāyeyya, āpatti dukkaṭassā’’ti (cūḷava. 249).

‘‘Ekamatto bhave rasso, dvimatto dīghamuccate;

Timatto tu pluto ñeyyo, byañjanañcaḍḍhamattika’’nti. –

Saddappakaraṇācariyehi vuttaṃ saddalakkhaṇaṃ nissāya na-kārādīsu rassabhūte asare ekamattaṃ, na-byañjane aḍḍhamattaṃ sampiṇḍetvā diyaḍḍhamattakālaṃ pamāṇaṃ katvā uccārīyate. Mo-kārādīsu dīghabhūte o-kārādisare dvimattaṃ, ma-kārādibyañjane aḍḍhamattaṃ sampiṇḍetvā aḍḍhateyyamattākālaṃ pamāṇaṃ katvā uccārīyate, na tato uddhanti. Nanu ‘‘pluto timatto ñeyyo’’ti vuttanti? Saccaṃ, sā pana dūrato avhāyanādīsuyeva labbhati, nāññattha. Vuttañhi kārikāyaṃ –

‘‘Dūrato avhāne gīte, tatheva rodanepi ca;

Plutā timattikā vuttā, sabbete nettha gayhare’’ti. –

Kittakena pana kālena ekamattā viññeyyāti? Akkhinimisaummisamattakālenāti ācariyā. Eke pana ācariyā ‘‘aṅguliphoṭanakālappamāṇenā’’ti vadanti. Vuttañhi ācariyadhammasenāpatittherena –

‘‘Pamāṇaṃ ekamattassa, nimisummisatobravuṃ;

Aṅguliphoṭakālassa, pamāṇenāpi abravu’’nti.

Evaṃ saddasatthācariyehi vacanato suddharassasaraṭṭhāne ekamattāpamāṇaṃ, sabyañjanarassasaraṭṭhāne diyaḍḍhamattāpamāṇaṃ, suddhadīghasaraṭṭhāne dvimattāpamāṇaṃ, sabyañjanadīghasaraṭṭhāne aḍḍhateyyamattāpamāṇaṃ kālaṃ sallakkhetvā uccārīyate.

Idāni pana bhikkhū mahānamakkārabhaṇane balavaussāhaṃ katvā bhaṇantā rassaṭṭhānesu dvitimattākālaṃ dīghaṭṭhānesu catupañcamattākālaṃ saraṃ paṭhapetvā bhaṇanti, tadayuttaṃ viya dissati. Apare paṭhamavāre bhaṇitvā ‘‘sammāsambuddhassā’’ti pariyosānapadaṃ patvāpi tattha aṭṭhapetvā puna ‘‘namo tassā’’ti bhaṇitvā sa-kāre ṭhapetvā thokaṃ vissamitvā dutiyavāre ‘‘bhagavato’’ti idaṃ ādiṃ katvā yāva pariyosānaṃ bhaṇitvā ṭhapenti. Tatiyavāre pana ādito paṭṭhāya pariyosāne ṭhapenti. Evaṃ bhaṇantañca bahū pasaṃsanti, evaṃ pana kātabbanti neva pāḷiyaṃ, na aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vijjati. Yathā ñatticatutthakamme kariyamāne tīṇi anussāvanāni saddato ca atthato ca abhinnāni aññamaññaṃ saṅkaravirahitāni katvā bhaṇitabbāni, evaṃ mahānamakkārapāṭhe tikkhattuṃ bhaññamāne tayo vārā saddato ca atthato ca abhinne katvā saṅkaravirahite katvā ādito ārabhitvā pariyosāne ṭhapetabbā hontīti.

Tatrāyamekeevaṃ vadanti – yathā nāma javena gacchantassa ṭhātabbaṭṭhānaṃ patvāpi sahasā ṭhātuṃ na sakkoti, ekapādamattaṃ gantvā tiṭṭhati, evaṃ ādito bhaṇantassa balavaussāhattā pariyosāne pattepi ṭhapetuṃ na sakkoti, ‘‘namo tassā’’ti dvipadamattaṃ bhaṇitvā sakkotīti. Evaṃ sante dutiyatatiyavāresu kasmā sakkotīti? Tadā pana dutiyavāre thokaṃ vissamitattā laddhassāso hutvā sakkotīti. Evaṃ te āyasmanto sayameva attānaṃ vighātaṃ pāpenti. Na hi ‘‘mahānamakkāraṃ bhaṇantena paṭhamavāre balavaussāhena bhaṇitabbo’’ti bhagavatā paññatto, dhammasaṅgāhakattherehi vā ṭhapito atthi. Evaṃ sante yathā pātimokkhuddesakena pātimokkhaṃ uddisantena yattakā bhikkhū pātimokkhaṃ suṇanti, tesaṃ savanappamāṇena yāva pariyosānā uddisituṃ attano sarappamāṇaṃ gahetvā pātimokkho uddisitabbo, evaṃ kammavācaṃ bhaṇantenapi sīmamaṇḍale nisinnabhikkhūnaṃ savanappamāṇena yāva pariyosānā attano sarappamāṇaṃ gahetvā bhaṇitabbāti.

Apare pana ācariyā mo-kārādīsu o-kārantapadesu aññesaṃ padānaṃ atirekena sarena dvattikkhattuṃ anukaraṇasaddaṃ anubandhāpayamānā bhaṇanti, tesaṃ ācariyānaṃ tādisaṃ bhaṇanaṃ sutvā paricayappattā aññe bhikkhū vā gahaṭṭhā vā aññesaṃ ācariyānaṃ kammavācaṃ na garuṃ karonti, tāya kammavācāya upasampadā alabhitabbā viya maññanti, tādisaṃ pana bhaṇanaṃ tesaṃ ācariyānaṃ sissānusissā eva tathā bhaṇanti, na aññe ācariyā. Te pana porāṇācariyānaṃ sarasampannānaṃ anukaraṇasaddarahitampi sahitaṃ viya khāyamānaṃ suṇantānaṃ atimanorathaṃ saddaṃ sutvā diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjantā evaṃ karonti maññe. Na hi vinaye vā saddasatthesu vā tathā bhaṇitabbanti atthi, tasmā vicāretabbametanti.

Bahū pana bhikkhū ‘‘sithilaṃ dhanitañca dīgharassa’’ntiādinā vinaye kathitavinicchayañca ‘‘ettha pañcasu vaggesū’’tiādinā saddasatthesu katavinicchayañca ajānantā piṭakattayakovidānaṃ vinayadharabahussutattherānaṃ santikā aladdhopadesā hutvā tattha tattha upasampadaṃ karontānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ vacanameva gahetvā heyyopādeyyaṃ ajānantā pubbe paradesato āgatānaṃ puññavantānaṃ sarasampannānaṃ mahātherānaṃ anosarena bhaṇamānānaṃ saraṃ sutvā tesaṃ theravarānaṃ matiṃ apucchitvāva yathādiṭṭhaṃ yathāsutaṃ likhitvā ṭhapentā anukkamena paṇḍitehi hasitabbaṃ ayuttaṃ kathaṃ dīpentā ‘‘imasmiṃ ṭhāne byagghiyā saddasadisaṃ saddaṃ karonti, imasmiṃ ṭhāne sakuṇiyā saddasadisaṃ saddaṃ karonti, imasmiṃ ṭhāne tambulakasaṭapātaṃ karonti, imasmiṃ ṭhāne dakkhiṇato namantā bhaṇanti, imasmiṃ ṭhāne vāmato namantā bhaṇanti, imasmiṃ ṭhāne vilāsaṃ kurumānā bhaṇantī’’tiādīni vatvā tadeva saddahantā rukkhamūlaumaṅgaleṇādīsu nisīditvā tameva vacanaṃ anusikkhantā tadanurūpaṃ kammavācaṃ bhaṇantā ‘‘ahaṃ kammavācākusalo’’ti vatvā bālajane saññāpetvā tesaṃ tesaṃ upasampadāpekkhānaṃ kammavācaṃ bhaṇanti, ime bhikkhū bhagavato āṇaṃ atikkāmenti, sāsanaṃ osakkāpentīti daṭṭhabbā.

Athāparepi bhikkhū gāmakāvāsādīsu vasantā paṇḍitānaṃ santike apayirupāsamānā vatthusampattimpi vatthuvipattimpi ñattianussāvanasīmaparisasampattimpi vipattimpi tathato ajānantā bahavo sisse ṭhapetvā pabbajjañca upasampadañca karontā parisaṃ vaḍḍhāpenti, tepi bhagavato sāsanaṃ osakkāpenti, tasmā bhagavato āṇaṃ karontehi lajjīpesalehi bahussutehi sikkhākāmehi sappurisabhikkhūhi evarūpānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ sahāyakehi upatthambhakehi ekasambhogasaṃvāsakarehi na bhavitabbaṃ. Idāni bhikkhū –

‘‘Ca-kārantaṃ sa-kārantaṃ, ta-kārantasamaṃ vade;

Ña-kārantaṃ la-kārantaṃ, na-kārantasamaṃ vade’’ti. –

Imaṃ silokaṃ upanissāya saraṇagamanepi ‘‘buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmī’’ti pāṭhaṃ ‘‘buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmī’’ti paṭhanti. Kammavācāyampi ‘‘paṭhamaṃ upajjhaṃ gāhāpetabbo’’tiādipāṭhaṃ ‘‘paṭhamaṃ upajjhaṃ gāhāpetabbo’’tiādinā paṭhanti. Ettha yuttitopi āgamatopi kāraṇaṃ cintetabbaṃ.

Tatrāyaṃ yutticintā – ‘‘ca-kārantaṃ sa-kārantaṃ, ta-kārantasamaṃ vade’’ti ettha ca-kāro tālujo, ta-kāro dantajo, evamete akkharā ṭhānatopi asamānā. Ca-kāro jivhāmajjhakaraṇo, ta-kāro jivhaggakaraṇo, evaṃ karaṇatopi asamānā. Ca-kāro dutiyavaggapariyāpanno, ta-kāro catutthavaggapariyāpanno, evaṃ vaggatopi asamānā. Saṃyogakkharavasena na pubbakkharā sutiṃ labhantā saravisesaṃ pāpuṇanti, teneva ca-kārena saddasatthakārācariyā ‘‘saṃyoge pare rassatta’’nti ca ‘‘saṃyogapubbā e-kāro-kārā rassāiva vattabbā’’ti ca vadanti. Evaṃ sante kathaṃ asamānaṭṭhānikena asamānakaraṇena asamānavaggena saṃyogakkharena laddhasutikā akkharā tato aññena asamānaṭṭhānikena asamānakaraṇena asamānavaggena saṃyogakkharena laddhasamānasutikā bhaveyyuṃ. Na kevalañca ete akkharā asamānaṭṭhānikā asamānakaraṇā asamānavaggāva honti, atha kho anāsannaṭṭhānikā anāsannakaraṇā anāsannavaggā ca honti. Yathā ca vīṇaṃ vādentānaṃ dūre tantissarena tato dūre tantissaro asamāno hoti, evaṃ dūraṭṭhānikena akkharena dūrakaraṇena tato dūraṭṭhāniko dūrakaraṇo samānasutiko kathaṃ bhaveyya, vaggakkharānañca aññamaññaṃ asaṅkaravasena asamānasutivasena pavattanato ‘‘vaggantaṃ vā vagge’’ti sutte niggahitassa vaggantakaraṇe sati aññavaggasmiṃ pare aññavaggantaṃ na pāpuṇāti, ‘‘vagge ghosāghosānaṃ tatiyapaṭhamā’’ti suttena ca asadisadvebhāvakaraṇe aññavagge aññavaggadvebhāvo na hoti.

Yadi ca ca-kārantakkharo ta-kārantakkharena samānasutiko siyā, evaṃ sati kiṃ ca-kārantakkharalekhanena sabbattha ta-kārantameva likheyya, tathā pana alikhitvā payogānurūpaṃ paṭhamakkharassa sadisadvebhāvaṭṭhāne ‘‘kacco kaccāyano’’ti, asadisadvebhāvaṭṭhāne ‘‘vaccho vacchāyano’’ti tatiyakkharassa sadisadvebhāvaṭṭhāne ‘‘majjaṃ sammajja’’nti, asadisadvebhāvaṭṭhāne ‘‘upajjhā upajjhāyo’’ti samānaṭṭhānasamānakaraṇasamānavaggakkharānameva dvebhāvo likhīyati, no itaresaṃ, tasmā payogānurūpaṃ ca-kāranta ja-kārantaṭṭhānesu sakavaggasutivaseneva vattabbaṃ, na aññavaggasutivasena. Sa-kārante pana sa-kārassa ta-kārena samānaṭṭhānikattā samānakaraṇattā ca vaggaavaggavasena bhinnepi avaggakkharānaṃ vaggakkharehi sādhāraṇattā ca avaggakkharānaṃ vaggakkharānaṃ viya visuṃ sutiyā abhāvato ca sa-kārantassa ta-kārantabhaṇanaṃ yuttaṃ siyā. Sa-kāropi hi dantajo, ta-kāropi, sa-kāropi jivhaggakaraṇo, ta-kāropi , tasmā samānaṭṭhānikānaṃ samānakaraṇānaṃ akkharānaṃ samānasutibhāvo yutto. Ña-kāranta la-kārantānaṃ na-kārantabhaṇanepi iminā nayena ña-kāranta na-kārantānaṃ asamānasutibhāvo la-kāranta na-kārantānaṃ samānasutibhāvo daṭṭhabboti. Ayamettha yutticintā.

Āgamacintā pana evaṃ kātabbā –

‘‘Ca-kārantaṃ sa-kārantaṃ, ta-kārantasamaṃ vade;

Ña-kārantaṃ la-kārantaṃ, na-kārantasamaṃ vade’’ti. –

Ayaṃ siloko kuto pabhavo, kattha āgato, kena kāritoti? Tattha kuto pabhavoti bhagavantasmā vā dhammasaṅgāhakattherehi vā aṭṭhakathācariyehi vā pabhavo. Kattha āgatoti vinaye vā suttante vā abhidhamme vā pāḷiyaṃ vā aṭṭhakathāya vā ṭīkādīsu vā āgato. Kena kāritoti nettiniruttipeṭakopadesakaccāyanappakaraṇakārakena āyasmatā mahākaccāyanattherena vā mukhamattadīpanikārakena vajirabuddhācariyena vā padarūpasiddhikārakena buddhapiyācariyena vā saddanītippakaraṇakārakena aggavaṃsācariyena vā tadaññasatthakārakehi mahātherehi vā kāritoti evaṃ āgamacintāyaṃ sati ayaṃ siloko bhagavantasmā pabhavo dhammasaṅgāhakattherehi vā aṭṭhakathācariyehi vāti na paññāyati. ‘‘Vinaye vā suttante vā abhidhamme vā pāḷiyaṃ vā aṭṭhakathāya vā ṭīkāsu vā āgato’’ti hi na sakkā vattuṃ. Kaccāyanācariyādīhi saddasatthakārakehi ācariyehi katotipi na dissati. Evaṃ sante appāṭihīrakataṃ idaṃ vacanaṃ āpajjati.

Evaṃ pana mayaṃ cintayimhā – rāmaññadese kira sakabhāsāyaṃ ca-kāranta ña-kārantā na santi , teneva rāmaññadesiyā bhikkhū ‘‘sacca’’iti imaṃ pāṭhaṃ vadantā ‘‘satca’’iti vadanti, ‘‘pañcaṅga’’iti pāṭhaṃ vadantā ‘‘pancaṅga’’iti vadanti, tasmā attano visaye avijjamānaṃ ca-kāranta ña-kārantaṃ yathāpāṭhaṃ vattumasakkontehi tehi bhikkhūhi sakabhāsānurūpato ayaṃ siloko kārito bhavissatīti. Evaṃ santepi marammabhāsāya ca-kāranta ña-kārantapadānaṃ sutivisesavasena visuṃ paññāyanato marammadesiyā bhikkhū taṃ silokaṃ anuvattitvā ‘‘buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmī’’ti vā ‘‘paṭhamaṃ upatjhaṃ gāhāpetabbo’’ti vā ‘‘hetupatcayo ārammaṇapatcayo’’ti vā vattuṃ na arahanti. Rāmaññadesiyāpi sakabhāsāya visuṃ avijjamānampi ca-kāranta ña-kārantapadaṃ sakabhāsākathanakāleyeva bhāsānurūpaṃ ta-kāranta na-kārantabhāvena kathetabbaṃ, māgadhabhāsākathanakāle pana māgadhabhāsāya ca-kāranta ña-kārantapadānaṃ visuṃ payogadassanato māgadhabhāsānurūpaṃ ca-kāranta ña-kārantapadānaṃ visuṃ sutivasena yathāpāṭhameva kathetabbānīti no mati. Ayamettha āgamacintā.

Jinasāsanamārabbha, kathāyaṃ kathitā mayā;

Yuttāyuttaṃ cintayantu, paṇḍitā jinasāvakā.

Yuttāyuttaṃ cintayitvā, yuttañce dhārayantu taṃ;

Ayuttañce pajahantu, mānadosavivajjitāti.

254. Evaṃ catunnaṃ kammānaṃ sampattivipattiṃ dassetvā idāni tesaṃ kammānaṃ ṭhānappabhedaṃ dassento ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ katamāni pañca ṭhānāni gacchatī’’tiādimāha. Tattha vinicchayo aṭṭhakathāyaṃ vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Anuttānapadatthameva dassayissāma. ‘‘Etarahi sacepi sāmaṇero’’tiādīsu buddhādīnaṃ avaṇṇabhāsanampi akappiyādiṃ kappiyādibhāvena dīpanampi diṭṭhivipattiyaṃyeva pavisati, teneva vakkhati ‘‘taṃ laddhiṃ vissajjāpetabbo’’ti. Bhikkhūnampi eseva nayo. Micchādiṭṭhikoti buddhavacanādhippāyaṃ viparītato gaṇhanto, so eva ‘‘antaggāhikāya diṭṭhiyā samannāgato’’ti vutto. Keci pana ‘‘sassatucchedānaṃ aññataradiṭṭhiyā samannāgato’’ti vadanti, taṃ na yuttaṃ. Sassatucchedagāhassa sāmaṇerānaṃ liṅganāsanāya kāraṇattena heṭṭhā aṭṭhakathāyameva vuttattā idha ca daṇḍakammanāsanāya eva adhippetattā. Kāyasambhogasāmaggīti sahaseyyapaṭiggahaṇādi. Soratoti subhe rato, suṭṭhu oratoti vā sorato. Nivātavuttīti nīcavutti.

Tassāpi dātabboti vijjamānaṃ mukharādibhāvaṃ nissāya appaṭipucchitvāpi paṭiññaṃ aggahetvāpi āpattiṃ anāropetvāpi desitāyapi āpattiyā khuṃsanādito anoramantassa dātabbova. Oramantassa pana khamāpentassa na dātabbo. Brahmadaṇḍassa dānanti kharadaṇḍassa ukkaṭṭhadaṇḍassa dānaṃ. Tajjanīyādikamme hi kate ovādānusāsanippadānapaṭikkhepo natthi, dinnabrahmadaṇḍe pana tasmiṃ saddhiṃ tajjanīyakammādikatehi paṭikkhittampi kātuṃ na vaṭṭati ‘‘neva vattabbo’’tiādinā ālāpasallāpamattassapi na-kārena paṭikkhitattā. Tañhi disvā bhikkhū gīvaṃ parivattetvā olokanamattampi na karonti, evaṃ vivajjetabbaṃ nimmadanakaraṇatthameva tassa daṇḍassa anuññātattā. Teneva channattheropi ukkhepanīyādikammakatopi abhāyitvā brahmadaṇḍe dinne ‘‘saṅghenāhaṃ sabbathā vivajjito’’ti mucchito papati. Yo pana brahmadaṇḍakatena saddhiṃ ñatvā saṃsaṭṭho avivajjetvā viharati, tassa dukkaṭamevāti gahetabbaṃ. Aññathā brahmadaṇḍavidhānassa niratthakatāpasaṅgato. Tenāti brahmadaṇḍakatena. Yathā tajjanīyādikammakatehi, evameva tato adhikampi saṅghaṃ ārādhentena sammā vattitabbaṃ, tañca ‘‘sorato nivātavuttī’’tiādinā sarūpato dassitameva. Tenāha ‘‘sammā vattitvā khamāpentassa brahmadaṇḍo paṭippassambhetabbo’’ti. Paṭisaṅkhāti paṭisaṅkhāya, ñāṇena upaparikkhitvā.

Yaṃ taṃ bhagavatā avandiyakammaṃ anuññātanti sambandho. ‘‘Tassa bhikkhuno daṇḍakammaṃ kātu’’nti sāmaññato anuññātappakāraṃ dassetvā puna visesato anuññātappakāraṃ dassetuṃ ‘‘atha kho’’tiādi pāḷiuddhaṭāti veditabbaṃ. Imassa apalokanakammassa ṭhānaṃ hotīti apalokanakammasāmaññassa pavattiṭṭhānaṃ hoti. Visesabyatirekena avijjamānampi tadaññattha appavattiṃ dassetuṃ visesanissitaṃ viya voharīyati. ‘‘Kammaññeva lakkhaṇa’’nti iminā osāraṇādivasena gahitāvasesānaṃ sabbesaṃ apalokanakammasāmaññalakkhaṇavasena gahitattā ‘‘kammaññeva lakkhaṇamassāti kammalakkhaṇa’’nti nibbacanaṃ dasseti, idañca vuttāvasesānaṃ kammānaṃ niṭṭhānaṭṭhānaṃ saṅkhārakkhandhadhammāyatanādīni viya vuttāvasesakhandhāyatanānanti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Teneva vakkhati ‘‘ayaṃ panettha pāḷimuttakopi kammalakkhaṇavinicchayo’’tiādi. Yathā cettha, evaṃ upari ñattikammādīsupi kammalakkhaṇaṃ vuttanti veditabbaṃ. Sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. parivāra 3.495-496) pana ‘‘kammameva lakkhaṇanti kammalakkhaṇaṃ. Osāraṇanissāraṇabhaṇḍukammādayo viya kammañca hutvā aññañca nāmaṃ na labhati, kammameva hutvā upalakkhīyatīti kammalakkhaṇanti vuccatī’’ti vuttaṃ. Vajirabuddhiṭīkāyaṃ (vajira. ṭī. parivāra 495-496) pana ‘‘imassa apalokanakammassa ṭhānaṃ hotīti evampi apalokanakammaṃ pavattatīti attho. Kammaññeva lakkhaṇanti kammalakkhaṇaṃ. Osāraṇanissāraṇabhaṇḍukammādayo viya kammañca hutvā aññañca nāmaṃ na labhati, kammameva hutvā upalakkhīyatīti kammalakkhaṇaṃ upanissayo viya. Hetupaccayādilakkhaṇavimutto hi sabbo paccayaviseso tattha saṅgayhatī’’ti vuttaṃ. Tassa karaṇanti avandiyakammassa karaṇavidhānaṃ. Na vanditabboti, iminā vandantiyā dukkaṭanti dassetīti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Saṅghena kataṃ katikaṃ ñatvā maddanaṃ viya hi saṅghasammutiṃ anādarena atikkamantassa āpatti eva hoti.

255.Bhikkhusaṅghassapi panetaṃ labbhatiyevāti avandiyakammassa upalakkhaṇamattena gahitattā bhikkhusaṅghassapi kammalakkhaṇaṃ labbhati eva. Salākadānaṭṭhānaṃ salākaggaṃ nāma, yāgubhattānaṃ bhājanaṭṭhānāni yāgaggabhattaggāni nāma. Etesupi hi ṭhānesu sabbo saṅgho uposathe viya sannipatito, kammañca vaggakammaṃ na hoti, ‘‘mayametaṃ na jānimhā’’ti pacchā khīyantāpi na honti, khaṇḍasīmāya pana kate khīyanti. Saṅghikapaccayañhi acchinnacīvarādīnaṃ dātuṃ apalokentehi upacārasīmaṭṭhānaṃ sabbesaṃ anumatiṃ gahetvāva kātabbaṃ. Yo pana visabhāgapuggalo dhammikaṃ apalokanaṃ paṭibāhati, taṃ upāyena bahiupacārasīmagataṃ vā katvā khaṇḍasīmaṃ vā pavisitvā kātuṃ vaṭṭati. Yaṃ sandhāya ‘‘apalokanakammaṃ karotī’’ti sāmaññato dasseti, taṃ apalokanakammaṃ sarūpato dassetuṃ āha ‘‘acchinnacīvaraṃ’’iccādi. Yadi apaloketvāva cīvaraṃ dātabbaṃ, kiṃ pana appamattakavissajjakasammutiyāti āha ‘‘appamattakavissajjakena panā’’tiādi. Nāḷi vā upaḍḍhanāḷi vāti divase divase apaloketvā dātabbassa pamāṇadassanaṃ. Tena yāpanamattameva apaloketabbaṃ, na adhikanti dasseti. Ekadivasaṃyeva vātiādi dasavīsatidivasānaṃ ekasmiṃ divaseyeva dātabbaparicchedadassanaṃ. Tena ‘‘yāvajīva’’nti vā ‘‘yāvarogā vuṭṭhahatī’’ti vā evaṃ apaloketuṃ na vaṭṭatīti dasseti. Iṇapalibodhanti iṇavatthuṃ dātuṃ vaṭṭatīti sambandho. Tañca iṇāyikehi palibuddhassa lajjīpesalassa sāsanupakārakassa pamāṇayuttameva kappiyabhaṇḍaṃ niyametvā bhikkhūhi apaloketvā dātabbaṃ, na pana sahassaṃ vā satasahassaṃ vā mahāiṇaṃ. Tādisañhi bhikkhācariyavattena sabbehi bhikkhūhi tādisassa bhikkhuno pariyesitvā dātabbaṃ.

‘‘Chattaṃ vā vedikaṃ vāti ettha vedikāti cetiyassa upari caturassacayo vuccati. Chattanti tato uddhaṃ valayāni dassetvā kato aggacayo vuccatī’’ti sāratthadīpaniyaṃ (sārattha. ṭī. parivāra 3.495-496) vuttaṃ. Cetiyassa upanikkhepatoti cetiyassa paṭijagganatthāya vaḍḍhiyā payojetvā kappiyakārakehi ṭhapitavatthuto. Saṅghikenapīti na kevalañca tatruppādato paccayadāyakehi catupaccayatthāya saṅghassa dinnavatthunāpīti attho. Saṅghabhattaṃ kātuṃ na vaṭṭatīti mahādānaṃ dadantehipi kariyamānaṃ saṅghabhattaṃ viya kāretuṃ na vaṭṭatīti adhippāyo. ‘‘Yathāsukhaṃ paribhuñjituṃ ruccatī’’ti vuttattā attano attano paribhogapahonakaṃ appaṃ vā bahuṃ vā gahetabbaṃ, adhikaṃ pana gahetuṃ na labhati.

Uposathadivaseti nidassanamattaṃ, yasmiṃ kismiñci divasepi kataṃ sukatameva hoti. Karontena ‘‘yaṃ imasmiṃ vihāre antosīmāya saṅghasantakaṃ…pe… yathāsukhaṃ paribhuñjituṃ mayhaṃ ruccatī’’ti evaṃ katikā kātabbā. Tathā dvīhi tīhipi ‘‘āyasmantānaṃ ruccatī’’ti vacanameva hettha viseso. Tesampīti rukkhānaṃ. Sā eva katikāti visuṃ katikā na kātabbāti attho.

Tesanti rukkhānaṃ, saṅgho sāmīti sambandho. Purimavihāreti purime yathāsukhaṃ paribhogatthāya katakatike vihāre. Pariveṇāni katvā jaggantīti yattha arakkhiyamāne phalāphalāni rukkhā ca vinassanti, tādisaṃ ṭhānaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ, tattha saṅghassa katikā na pavattatīti adhippāyo. Yehi pana rukkhabījāni ropetvā ādito paṭṭhāya paṭijaggitā, tepi dasamabhāgaṃ datvā ropakeheva paribhuñjitabbāni. Tehīti jaggitehi.

Tatthāti tasmiṃ vihāre. Mūletiādikāle, pubbeti attho. Dīghā katikāti aparicchinnakālā yathāsukhaṃ paribhogatthāya katikā. Nikkukkuccenāti ‘‘abhājitamida’’nti kukkuccaṃ akatvāti attho. Khīyanamattameva tanti tena khīyanena bahuṃ khādantānaṃ doso natthi attano paribhogappamāṇasseva gahitattā, khīyantepi attano pahonakaṃ gahetvā khāditabbanti adhippāyo.

Gaṇhathāti na vattabbāti tathā vutte teneva bhikkhunā dinnaṃ viya maññeyyuṃ. Taṃ nissāya micchājīvasambhavo hotīti vuttaṃ. Tenāha ‘‘anuvicaritvā’’tiādi. Upaḍḍhabhāgoti ekassa bhikkhuno paṭivīsato upaḍḍhabhāgo, dentena ca ‘‘ettakaṃ dātuṃ saṅgho anuññāsī’’ti evaṃ attānaṃ parimocetvā yathā te saṅghe eva pasīdanti, evaṃ vatvā dātabbaṃ. Apaccāsīsantenāti gilānagamikissarādīnaṃ anuññātapuggalānampi attano santakaṃ dentena apaccāsīsanteneva dātabbaṃ. Ananuññātapuggalānaṃ pana apaccāsīsantenapi dātuṃ na vaṭṭatīti. Saṅghikameva yathākatikāya dāpetabbaṃ. Attano santakampi paccayadāyakādayo sayameva vissāsena gaṇhanti, na vāretabbā, ‘‘laddhakappiya’’nti tuṇhī bhavitabbaṃ. Pubbe vuttamevāti ‘‘kuddho hi so rukkhepi chindeyyā’’tiādinā tuṇhībhāve kāraṇaṃ pubbe vuttameva, tehi kataanatthābhāvepi kāruññena tuṇhī bhavituṃ vaṭṭati, ‘‘gaṇhathā’’tiādi pana vattuṃ na vaṭṭati.

Garubhaṇḍattā…pe… na dātabbanti jīvarukkhānaṃ ārāmaṭṭhāniyattā dārūnañca gehasambhārānupagatattā ‘‘sabbaṃ tvameva gaṇhāti dātuṃ na vaṭṭatī’’ti vuttaṃ. Akatāvāsaṃ vā katvāti pubbe avijjamānaṃ senāsanaṃ katvā. Jaggitakāleti phalavāre sampatte. Jagganakāleti jaggituṃ āraddhakāle.

256.Ñattikammaṭṭhānabhedeti ñattikammassa ṭhānabhede.

Iti vinayasaṅgahasaṃvaṇṇanābhūte vinayālaṅkāre

Kammākammavinicchayakathālaṅkāro nāma

Tettiṃsatimo paricchedo.

* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

Dhamma Paññā

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