Lesson 16

1. The Imperative

The imperative mood expresses a command, benediction, prayer or wish.

Base: paca = to cook

Singular

3rd(So) pacatu =Let him cook
2nd(Tvaṃ) paca,pacāhi = You cook
1st(Ahaṃ) pacāmi =Let me cook

Plural

3rd(Te) pacantu =Let them cook
2nd (Tumhe) pacatha =You cook
1st(Mayaṃ) pacāma =Let us cook

It should be observed that the second person plural and first person singular and plural have the same forms as in the present tense.

The prohibitive particle mā is also used with the imperative.

2. Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. So vāṇijānaṃ bhattaṃ pacatu.
Let him cook rice for the merchants.

2. Tvaṃ rathena nagaraṃ gaccha / gacchāhi.
You go to the city in the vehicle.

3. Ahaṃ dhammaṃ uggaṇhāmi.
Let me learn the dhamma.

Plural:

1. Te vāṇijānaṃ bhattaṃ pacantu.
Let them cook rice for the merchants.

2. Tumhe rathena nagaraṃ gacchatha.
You go to the city in the vehicle.

3. Mayaṃ dhammaṃ uggaṇhāma.
Let us learn the dhamma.

The prohibitive particle mā

1. Mā tumhe saccaṃ parivajjetha.
You do not avoid the truth.

2. Mā te uyyānamhi pupphāni ocinantu.
Let them not pick flowers in the park.

Exercise 16

3. Translate into English:

1. Bhūpālā dhammena dīpaṃ pālentu.
2. Mā manusso bhāyatu, sace so saccaṃ jānāti, bhāsatu.
3. Tumhe pāpaṃ karonte putte ovadatha.
4. Sugato dhammaṃ desetu, sāvakā ca upāsakā ca vihārasmiṃ nisīdanti.
5. Mā te pāpakammāni katvā manussalokamhā cavitvā narake (in purgatory) uppajjantu.
6. Mā corā kassakānaṃ goṇe mārentu.
7. Mā tvaṃ sunakhaṃ āmasāhi, so taṃ (you) ḍaseyya.
8. Tumhe dīpe jāletvā vihārasmiṃ rūpāni oloketha.
9. Tumhe asappurise āmantetvā dhammena jīvituṃ anusāsatha.
10. Putta, mā tvaṃ pāpamitte upasaṅkama.
11. Sace tumhe saccam bhāsituṃ ussaheyyātha, tumhe sappurisā bhaveyyātha.
12. Sace tvaṃ pāsāṇe khipeyyāsi, kākā ca sakuṇā ca ākāsaṃ uppateyyuṃ.
13. Mā dāraka pānīyaṃ pivitvā pattaṃ bhinda.
14. Mā suvaṇṇaṃ coretvā gacchantā corā samuddaṃ tarantu.
15. Upāsaka, mā putte akkosāhi, samaṇehi saddhiṃ mantetvā putte anusāsāhi.

4. Translate into Pāli:

1. May the king ruling the island protect the people righteously.
2. Let the children playing in the park collect falling leaves.
3. Let the farmers and merchants assemble in the king’s park.
4. Let the sons climb the mountain to see lions, deer and birds.
5. Do not cut trees in forests if you wish to protect deer.
6. Let the child not come down the stairway, he will fall.
7. Let the farmer plough the fields and sow seeds, let him not kill goats.
8. Let the parrots fly taking fruits with their beaks.
9. Sons, do not commit sins, live righteously.
10. May the disciples of the Buddha get alms and robes.
11. Let the children come out of the house and see the moon rising from the mountain.
12. Boys, do not go and kill deer in the forest with the hunter.
13. You (pl.) run home and bring water for the farmers ploughing the field.
14. Do not ask questions from the king’s messenger.
15. You lay devotees should try to avoid evil and do good deeds.

-ooOoo-

 

 

Dhamma Paññā

BQT trang Theravāda cố gắng sưu tầm thông tin tài liệu Dhamma trợ duyên quý độc giả tìm hiểu về Dhamma - Giáo Pháp Bậc Giác Ngộ thuyết giảng suốt 45 năm sau khi Ngài chứng đắc trở thành Đức Phật Chánh Đẳng Chánh Giác vào đêm Rằm tháng 4, tìm hiểu thêm phương pháp thực hành thiền Anapana, thiền Vipassana qua các tài liệu, bài giảng, pháp thoại từ các Thiền Sư, các Bậc Trưởng Lão, Bậc Thiện Trí.

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