Aniyatakaṇḍaṃ

1. Paṭhamāniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā

Aniyate āditova idaṃ pakiṇṇakaṃ. Seyyathidaṃ – idaṃ aniyatakaṇḍaṃ nippayojanaṃ tattha apubbābhāvatoti ce? Na, garukalahukabhedabhinnāpattiropanāropanakkamalakkhaṇadīpanappayojanato. Ettha hi ‘‘sā ce evaṃ vadeyya ‘ayyo mayā…pe… so ca taṃ paṭijānāti, āpattiyā kāretabbo’’’tiādinā (pārā. 446) āpattiyā garukāya, lahukāya ca āropanakkamalakkhaṇaṃ, ‘‘na kāretabbo’’ti iminā anāropanakkamalakkhaṇañca dassitaṃ. Lakkhaṇadīpanato ādimhi, ante vā uddisitabbanti ce? Na, asambhavato. Kathaṃ na tāva ādimhi sambhavati, yesamidaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ, tesaṃ sikkhāpadānaṃ adassitattā. Na ante garukamissakattā. Tasmā garukalahukānaṃ majjhe eva uddisitabbataṃ arahati ubhayamissakattā. Yā tattha pācittiyasaṅkhātā lahukāpatti dassitā, sāpi garukāti kathitā. Tenevāha ‘‘methunadhammasannissitakilesasaṅkhātena rahassādenā’’tiādi. Tasmā garukānaṃ eva anantaraṃ uddiṭṭhantipi eke. Evaṃ sati paṭhamāniyatamevālaṃ tāvatā lakkhaṇadīpanasiddhito, kiṃ dutiyenāti ce? Na, okāsaniyamapaccayamicchāgāhanivāraṇappayojanato. ‘‘Paṭicchanne āsane alaṃkammaniye’’ti okāsaniyamato hi tabbiparīte okāse idaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ na vikappitanti micchāgāho hoti. Taṃnivāraṇato dutiyāniyatampi sātthakamevāti adhippāyo. Kasmā? Okāsabhedato, rahobhedadīpanato, rahonisajjassādabhedadīpanato. Okāsaniyamabhāve ca rahonisajjassādabhedo jāto. Dvinnaṃ rahonisajjasikkhāpadānaṃ nānāttajānanañca siyā tathā kāyasaṃsaggabhedadīpanato. Nālaṃ kammaniyepi hi okāse appaṭicchanne, paṭicchannepi vā nisinnāya vātapānakavāṭacchiddādīhi nikkhantakesādiggahaṇena kāyasaṃsaggo labbhatīti evamādayopi nayā vitthārato veditabbā.

Tatridaṃ mukhamattanidassanaṃ – okāsabhedatoti alaṃkammaniyanālaṃkammaniyabhedato. Paṭicchannampi hi ekaccaṃ nālaṃkammaniyaṃ vātapānādinā antaritattā , ubhayappaṭicchannampi ekaccaṃ nālaṃkammaniyaṃ vijānataṃ ajjhokāsattā. Rahobhedadīpanatoti ettha rahabhāvasāmaññepi raho dvidhā paṭicchannāpaṭicchannabhedatoti adhippāyo. Rahonisajjassādabhedadīpanatoti methunassādavasena nisajjā, duṭṭhullassādavasena nisajjāti tādisassa bhedassa dīpanatoti attho. ‘‘Idha āgatanayattā bhikkhunipātimokkhe idaṃ kaṇḍaṃ parihīnanti veditabba’’nti vadanti. ‘‘Aṭṭhuppattiyā tattha anuppannattā’’ti eke, taṃ anekantabhāvadīpanato ayuttaṃ. Sabbabuddhakāle hi bhikkhūnaṃ pañca, bhikkhunīnaṃ cattāro ca uddesā santi. Pātimokkhuddesapaññattiyā asādhāraṇattā tattha niddiṭṭhasaṅghādisesapācittiyānanti eke. Tāsañhi bhikkhunīnaṃ ubbhajāṇumaṇḍalika (pāci. 658) -aṭṭhavatthuka (pāci. 675) -vasena kāyasaṃsaggaviseso pārājikavatthu, ‘‘hatthaggahaṇaṃ vā sādiyeyya, kāyaṃ vā tadatthāya upasaṃhareyyā’’ti (pāci. 675) vacanato sādiyanampi, ‘‘santiṭṭheyya vā’’ti (pāci. 675) vacanato ṭhānampi, ‘‘saṅketaṃ vā gaccheyyā’’ti (pāci. 675) vacanato gamanampi, ‘‘channaṃ vā anupaviseyyā’’ti (pāci. 675) vacanato paṭicchannaṭṭhānappavesopi hoti, tathā ‘‘rattandhakāre appadīpe, paṭicchanne okāse ajjhokāse ekenekā santiṭṭheyya vā sallapeyya vā’’ti (pāci. 839) vacanato duṭṭhullavācāpi pācittiyavatthukanti katvā tāsaṃ aññathā aniyatakaṇḍassa avattabbatāpattito na vuttanti tesaṃ adhippāyo. Pakiṇṇakaṃ.

‘‘Desanāvuṭṭhānagāminīnaṃ āpattīnaṃ vasena alajjiādayo lajjīnaṃ codessantī’’ti āgatattā lajjipaggahatthāya patirūpāyapi upāsikāya vacanena akatvā bhikkhusseva paṭiññāya kātabbanti āpattiyo pana lakkhaṇadassanatthaṃ paññattaṃ vitthāranayameva gahetvā vattuṃ yuttaṃ ‘‘ime kho panāyasmanto dve aniyatā dhammā’’ti (pārā. 443) uddesadassanattāti likhitaṃ. Sotassa rahoti ettha rahoti vacanasāmaññato vuttaṃ. Duṭṭhullasāmaññato duṭṭhullārocanappaṭicchādanasikkhāpadesu pārājikavacanaṃ viya. Tasmā ‘‘cakkhusseva pana raho ‘raho’ti idha adhippeto’’ti vuttaṃ. Kathaṃ paññāyatīti ce? ‘‘Mātugāmo nāma…pe… antamaso tadahujātāpi dārikā’’ti (pārā. 445) vuttattā duṭṭhullobhāsanaṃ idha nādhippetanti dīpitamevāti. Antodvādasahatthepīti pi-saddena apihitakavāṭassa gabbhassa dvāre nisinnopīti attho. Acelakavagge rahopaṭicchannāsanasikkhāpade (pāci. 288) ‘‘yo koci viññū puriso dutiyo hotī’’ti imassa anurūpato ‘‘itthīnaṃ pana satampi anāpattiṃ na karotiyevā’’ti vuttaṃ. ‘‘Alaṃkammaniyeti sakkā hoti methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevitu’’nti (pārā. 445) vibhaṅge vacanato rahonisajjassādo cettha methunadhammasannissitakileso, na dutiye viya duṭṭhullavācassādakileso. Tasmā ca paññāyati sotassa raho nādhippetoti.

Tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ aññatarena vadeyyāti rahonisajjasikkhāpadavasena nisinnassa tassānusārena pācittiyameva avatvā pārājikasaṅghādisesāyapi āpattiyā bhedadassanatthaṃ vuttaṃ. Puna āpattippaṭijānanaṃ avatvā kasmā ‘‘nisajjaṃ bhikkhu paṭijānamāno’’ti vatthuppaṭijānanaṃ vuttanti? Vuccate – āpattiyā codite vinayadharena ‘‘kismiṃ vatthusmi’’nti pucchite cuditakena ‘‘imasmiṃ vatthusmi’’nti vutte vinayadharena ‘‘īdisaṃ nāma akāsī’’ti pucchite so vatthuṃ paṭijānamānova kāretabboti dassanatthaṃ ‘‘nisajjaṃ bhikkhu paṭijānamāno’’ti vuttaṃ. Yadi evaṃ nisajjaṃ paṭijānamānopi āpattiyāva kāretabboti? Anurūpameva. Evaṃ pana gahetabbaṃ – tiṇṇampi āpattīnaṃ vatthūni aggahetvā idha sikkhāpadavasena nisajjameva vuttaṃ. Tasmiṃ gahitepi hi āpatti gahitāva hotīti. Yena vā sāti ettha -saddo ‘‘tena so bhikkhu kāretabbo vā’’ti yojetabbo. So ca vikappattho. Tasmā ‘‘kāretabbo vā paṭijānamāno, na vā kāretabbo appaṭijānamāno’’ti attho. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘paṭijānamāno vā’’tiādi. Rahonisajjasikkhāpadavasena nisajjapaccayā āpattiyā vuttattā sesesupi sesasikkhāpadavasena āpatti gahetabbā. ‘‘Samuṭṭhānādīni paṭhamapārājikasadisānevā’’ti vuttattā idha duṭṭhullobhāsanassa anadhippetabhāvo veditabbo.

Paṭhamāniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

2. Dutiyāniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā

Saṅghādisesenavāti kāyasaṃsaggaduṭṭhullobhāsanena. Tasmā evaṃ kāyasaṃsaggavāro pāḷiyampi vutto. Anandho abadhiroti anandho kāyasaṃsaggaṃ passati, abadhiro duṭṭhullaṃ suṇāti, tasmā eva adinnādānasadisānevāti vutta’’nti likhitaṃ. Ettha ca kāyavācācittato samuṭṭhānaṃ kathanti ce? Kāyasaṃsaggañhi samāpajjanto duṭṭhullampi bhaṇati, duṭṭhullaṃ bhaṇanto nisīdati cāti sambhavati, duṭṭhullameva vā sandhāya vuttaṃ. Tañhi adinnādānasamuṭṭhānanti.

Yo desanaṃ sabbavidūpamova;

Nānānayākāravicittabhedaṃ;

Ñātuṃ upāyāna mano satimā;

Taṃ lābhahetuṃ na karoti puññanti.

Dutiyāniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Aniyatavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā) >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

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* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

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