CHAPTER IX – Mental Culture
§ 1. Kammatthānasangaho
Samathavipassanānam bhāvanānam ito param
Kammatthānam pavakkhāmi duvidham pi yathākkamam.
§ 2. Tattha samathasangahe tāva dasakasināni, dasa asubhā, dasa anussatiyo, catasso appamaññayo, ekā saññā, ekam vavatthānam, cattāro āruppā c’āti sattavidhena samathakammatthānasangaho
Rāgacaritā, dosacaritā, mohacaritā, saddhācaritā, buddhicaritā, vitakkacaritā, c’āti chabbhidhena caritasangaho.
Parikammabhāvanā, upacārabhāvanā, appanābhāvanā c’āti tisso bhāvanā.
Parikammanimittam, uggahanimittam, patibhāganimittam c’ati tīni nimittāni ca veditabbāni.
Pathavikasinam, āpokasinam, tejokasinam, vāyokasinam, nīlakasinam, pītakasinam, lohitakasinam, odātakasinam, ākāsakasinam, ālokakasinam c’āti imāni dasa kasināni nāma.
Uddhumātakam, vinīlakam, vipubbakam, vicchiddakam, vikkhāyitakam, vikkhittakam, hatavikkhittakam, lohitakam, pulavakam, atthikam c’āti ime dasa asubhā nāma. Buddhānussati, Dhammanussati, Sanghānussati, Sīlānussati, Cāgānussati, Devatānussati, Upasamānussati, Maranānussati, Kāyagatāsati, ānāpānasati c’āti imā dasa anussatiyo nāma.
Mettā, Karunā, Muditā, Upekkhā c’āti imā catasso appamaññāyo nāma, Brahmavihāro’ti pavuccati.
āhāre patikkulasañña ekā saññā nāma.
Catudhātuvavatthānam ekam vavatthānam nāma.
ākāsānañcayatanādayo cattāro āruppā nāmā’ti sabbathā pi samathaniddese cattālīsa kammatthānāni bhavanti.
§ 3. Caritāsu pana dasa asubhā kāyagatāsati sankhātā kotthāsabhāvanā ca rāgacaritassa sappāyā.
Catasso appamaññāyo nīlādīni ca cattāri kasināni dosacaritassa.
ānāpānam mohacaritassa vitakkacaritassa ca.
Buddhānussati ādayo cha saddhācaritassa.
Sesāni pana sabbāni pi kammatthānāni sabbesam pi sappāyani.
Tattha’ pi kasinesu puthulam rnohacaritassa, khuddakam vittakkacaritassa ca.
§ 4. Bhāvanāsu pana sabbatthā ‘pi parikammabhāvanā labbhat ‘eva.
Buddhānussati ādisu atthasu saññāvavatthānesu c’āti dasasu kammatthānesu upacāra bhāvanā’va sampajjāti, natthi appanā.
Sesesu pana samatimsakammatthānesu appanā bhāvanā’pi sampajjāti.
Tatthā’ pi dasa kasināni ānāpānañ ca pañcakajjhānikāni.
Dasa asubhā kāyagatāsati ca pathamajjhānikā.
Mettādayo tayo catukkajjhānikā.
Iti chabbīsati rūpāvacarajjhānikāni kammatthānāni.
Cattāro pana āruppā arūpajjhānikā.
§ 5. Nimittesu pana parikammanimittam uggahanimittain ca sabbatthā’ piyathāraham pariyāyena labbhant’ eva. Patibhāganimittam pana kasināsubhakotthāsānāpānesveva labbhati. Tattha hi patibhāganimittamārabbha upacārasamādhi appanāsamādhi ca pavattanti. Katham? ādikammikassa hi pathavimandalādisu nimittam ugganhantassa tam’ ālambanam parikammanimitta pavuccati. Sā ca bhāvanā parikammabhāvanā nāma.
Yada pana tam nimittam cittena samuggahitam hoti, cakkhunā passantass’eva manodvārassa āpāthamāgatam tadā tam’ evālambanam uggahanimittam nāma. Sā ca bhāvanā samādhiyati
Tathā samāhitassa pana tassa tato param tasmim uggahanimitte parikammasamādhinā bhāvanamanuyuñjantassa yadā tappatibhāgam vatthudhammavimuccitam paññattisankhātam bhāvanāmayam ālambanam citte sannisinnam samappitam hoti. Tadā tam patibbhāganimittam samuppannā’ti pavuccati. Tato patthāya paribandha vippahīnā kāmāvacarasamādhisankhātā upacārabhāvanā nipphannā nāma hoti. Tato param tam eva patibhāganimittam upacāra samādhinā samāsevantassa rūpāvacarapathamajjhānam appeti. Tato param tam eva pathamaijjhānam āvajjanam, samāpajjanam, adhitthānam, vutthānam, paccavekkhanā c’āti imāhi pañcahi vasitāhi vasībhūtam katvā vitakkādikam olārikangam pahānāya vicārādi sukhumanguppattiyā padahanto yathākkamam dutivajjhānādayo yathāraham’ appeti.
Icc’evam pathavikasinādisu dvāvisatikammatthanesu patibhāganimittam’ upalabbhati. Avasesu pana appamaññā sattapaññattiyam pavattanti.
ākāsavajjitakasinesu pana yam kiñci kasinam ugghātetvā laddhamākāsam anantavasena parikammam karontassa pathamāruppam appeti. Tameva pathamāruppaviññānam anantavasena parikammam karontassa dutiyāruppam appeti. Tam’eva pathamāruppaviññānabhāvam pana natthi kiñcī’ti parikammam karontassa tatiyāruppam appeti.Tatiyāruppam santam etam panītam etanti parikammam karontassa catutthāruppam appeti.
Avasesesu ca dasasu kammatthānesu Buddhagunā- dikamālambanam ārabbha parikammam katvā tasmim nimitte sādhukam uggahite tatth’eva parikammañ ca samādhiyati, upacāro ca sampajjati.
Abhiññāvasena pavattamānam pana rūpāvacarapañcamajjhānam abhiññāpādaka pañcamajjhāna vutthahitvā adhittheyyādikam āvajjitvā parikammam karontassa rūpādisu ālambanesu yathāraham appeti.
Abhiññā ca nāma:
Iddhividham dibbasotam paracittavijānanā
Pubbenivāsānussati dibbacakkhū’ti pañcadhā.
Ayam’ ettha gocarabhedo.
Nitthito ca samathakammatthānanayo
Compendium of Subjects for Mental Culture: (I)
§ 1. Hereafter I will explain the twofold subject of mental culture which deals with Calm (2) and Insight (3).
(Compendium of Calm)
§ 2. Of the two, in the Compendium of Calm, to with, the objects of mental culture are sevenfold: A. the ten Kasinas, B. the ten Impurities, C. The ten Reflections, D. the four Illimitables, E. the one Perception, F. the one Analysis, G. the four arūpa-jhānas.
The six kinds of temperaments (4): 1. the lustful, 2. the hateful, 3. the unintelligent, or ignorant, 4. the devout, or faithful, 5. the intellectual, or wise, 6. the discursive.
The three stages of Mental Culture: 1. the preliminary (5), 2 . the proximate, 3. the concentrative.
The three signs (6): 1. the preliminary, 2. the abstract, 3. the conceptualized.
A. The ten kasinas (7) are; earth, water, fire, air, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and light.
B. The ten Impurities (8) are: a bloated (corpse), a discoloured (corpse), a festering, (corpse), a dissected (corpse), an eaten (corpse), a scattered-in-pieces (corpse), a mutilated and scattered-in-pieces (corpse), a bloody (corpse), a worm-infested (corpse), and a skeleton.
C. The ten Reflections (9) are: 1. The Reflection on the Buddha, 2. The Reflection on the Doctrine, 3. The Reflection on the order, 4. The Reflection on morality, 5. The Reflection on generosity, 6. The Reflection on deities, 7. The Reflection on peace, 8. The Reflection on death, 9. Mindfulness regarding the body, 10. Mindfulness regarding breathing (10).
D. The four Illimitables, also called Sublime States, (11), are: loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity.
E. The one Perception is the feeling of loathsomeness about food (12).
F. The one Analysis is the analysis of the four elements (13).
G. The four arūpa-jhānas are the ‘Infinity of Space’ (14) and so forth. In the exposition of ‘Calm’ there are altogether forty (15) subjects of meditation.
Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments
§ 3. With respect to temperaments the ten ‘Impurities’ and ‘Mindfulness regarding the body’, such as the 32 parts, are suitable for those of a lustful temperament (16).
The four ‘Illimitables’ and the four colored kasinas are suitable for those of a hateful temperament (17).
The reflection on ‘Breathing’ is suitable for those of an unintelligent and discursive temperament.
The six Reflections on the Buddha and so forth are suitable for those of a devout temperament; Reflection on ‘Death’, ‘Peace’, ‘Perception’, and ‘Analysis’, for those of an intellectual temperament, and all the remaining subjects of mental culture, for all.
Of the kasinas a wide one is suitable for the unintelligent, and a small one for the discursive.
Herein this is the section on suitability.
Stages of Mental Culture
§ 4. The preliminary stage of mental culture is attainable in all these forty; subjects of meditation. In the ten subjects of mental culture such as the eight Reflections on the Buddha and so forth and the one ‘Perception’, and the one ‘Analysis’ (18) only proximate mental culture is attained but not the concentrative stage. In the thirty remaining subjects of mental culture the concentrative stage of mental culture is also attained.
Therein the ten kasinas and the ‘Breathing’ produce five jhānas; the ten ‘Impurities’ and ‘Mindfulness regarding the body’ only the first jhāna; the first three ‘Illimitables’ such as loving-kindness, four jhānas; ‘equanimity’ (19) the fifth jhāna.
Thus these twenty-six subjects of mental culture produce rūpa-jhānas.
The four ‘formless’ objects produce the arūpa-jhānas.
This is the section on mental culture.
Signs of Mental Culture
§ 5. Of the three signs, the preliminary sign and the abstract sign are generally obtained in every case according to the object. But the conceptualized image is obtained in the ‘Kasinas’, ‘Impurities’, ‘Parts of the body’, and ‘Breathing’.
It is by means of the conceptualized image that the proximate on pointedness and the ecstatic one-pointedness are developed.
Whatever object amongst the earth kasinas and so forth, a beginner takes to practice meditation, is called a preliminary sign and that meditation is preliminary mental culture. When that sign is perceived by the mind and enters the mind-door as if seen by the very (physical) eye then it is called the abstract sign. That meditation becomes well established.
Likewise when a counter-image born of mediation, freed from original defects (20) reckoned as a concept, is well established and fixed in the mind of one who is well composed and who thereafter, practices meditation on the abstract sign by means of preliminary concentration then it is said that the conceptualized image has arisen.
Thereafter ‘proximate concentration’, free from obstacles, pertaining to the kāma-Sphere, arises. Then he who develops the conceptualized image by means of ‘proximate concentration’ attains to the first jhāna of the rūpa-Sphere.
Thenceforth by bringing that very first jhāna under one’s sway by means of these five kinds of mastery (21) – namely, reflection, attainment, resolution, emergence, and revision – the striving person, by inhibiting the coarse factors like ‘initial application’ and so forth, and by developing the subtle factors like ‘sustained application and so forth attains, by degrees, according to circumstances, to the second jhāna and so forth.
Thus with respect to twenty-two subjects of mental culture such as the earth kasina, etc., the conceptualized image is obtained. But in the remaining (eighteen) subjects of mental culture the ‘Illimitables’ relate to the concept of beings.
Arūpa Jhāna (22)
Now, to one who practices concentration on space abstracted from any kasina excluding the ākāsa kasina, thinking – ‘this is infinite’ – there arises the first arūpajhāna. To one who practices concentration on that very first arūpa jhāna, thinking that ‘it is infinite’, there arises the second arūpa jhāna. To one who practices concentration on the non-existence of the first arūpa-consciousness, the thinking ‘there is naught whatever’ – there arises the third arūpa jhāna. To him who practices concentration on the third arūpa consciousness, thinking ‘it is calm, it is sublime’, there arises the fourth arūpa jhāna.
In the remaining ten subjects of mental culture when concentration is practiced on an object like the attributes of the Buddha and so forth and when the sign is well grasped ‘preliminary meditation’ becomes steadfast therein and ‘proximate meditation’ is also accomplished.
Supernormal Knowledge (23)
Emerging from the fifth jhāna (serving as a) basis for supernormal knowledge, and reflecting on the ‘resolution’ and so forth, when one practices concentration on physical objects, etc., there arises according to circumstances, the fifth rūpa-jhāna induced in the way of developing supernormal knowledge.
The five kinds of supernormal knowledge are: Various Psychic Powers, Celestial Ear, Discerning other’ thoughts, Reminiscence of past births, and Celestial Eye.
Herein this is the section mental culture.
The method of meditation on Calm is ended.
1. Kammatthāna – Here this term is used in a technical sense. Kamma means the act of meditation or contemplation. Thāna, literally, station, ground, or occasion, implies subjects or exercises. Kammatthāna, therefore, means ‘subjects of meditation’ or ‘meditation exercises’. There are forty such subjects of meditation.
2. Samatha derived from Ö sam, to lull, to subdue, denotes ‘tranquillity’ ‘quietude’, gained by subduing the Hindrances. It is synonymous with concentration (samādhi) which leads to the development of jhānas. By concentration passions are only temporarily inhibited.
3. Vipassanā, derived from vi + Ö dis, to see, literally means perceiving in diverse ways, that is in the light of transiency, sorrowfulness, and soullessness. It is rendered by ‘insight’, ‘contemplation’, ‘intuition’, ‘introspection’. The sole object see things as they truly are, in Emancipation.
4. Carita signifies the intrinsic nature of a person, which is revealed when one is in a normal state without being preoccupied with anything. The temperaments of people differ owing to the diversity of their actions or Kammas. Habitual actions tend to form particular temperaments.
Rāga (lust) is predominant in some, while dosa (anger, hatred or ill will), in others. Most people belong to these two categories. There are a few others who lack intelligence and are more or less ignorant (moha-carita).Akin to the ignorant are those whose minds oscillate, unable to focus their attention deliberately on one thing (vitakka-carita). By nature some are exceptionally devout (saddhā-carita), while others are exceptionally intelligent (buddhi-carita).
Thus, in brief, there are six kinds of temperaments.
By combining them with one another, we get 63 types. With the inclusion of ditthi-carita (speculative temperament) there are 64.
5. The preliminary stages of mental development are termed parikamma-bhāvanā. Mental culture, from the moment one develops the conceptualized image and temporarily inhibits the Hindrances, until the gotrabhūthought-moment in the jhāna javana process, is termed upacāra-bhāvanā.
The thought-moment that immediately follows the gotrabhū thought-moment is called appanā, ecstatic concentration, because vitakka (initial application), the foremost jhāna constituent, persists as if firmly fixed upon the object of concentration.
Jhāna Thought-Process: manodvārāvajjana / parikamma, upacāra, anuloma, gotrabhū, appanā / bhavanga.
6. Any object, such as a kasina, used for preliminary mental culture is termed ‘parikamma-nimitta’.
The same object, when mentally perceived with closed eyes, is termed ‘uggaha-nimitta’.
The identical visualized image, freed from all kasina defects, is termed ‘patibhāganimitta’ when it serves as an object of upacāra and appanā bhāvanā.
7. Kasina means ‘whole, ‘all, ‘complete’. It is so called because the light issuing from the conceptualized image is extended everywhere without any limitation.
In the case of pathavi-kasina one makes a circle of about one span and four fingers in diameter and, covering it with dawn-coloured clay, smoothes it well. If there be not enough clay of dawn-coloured, he may put in some other kind of clay beneath. This prepared circle is known as kasina-mandala and is also called parikamma-nimitta. Now he places this object two and half cubits away from him and concentrates on it, saying mentally or inaudibly – pathavi, pathavi or earth, earth. The purpose is to gain one-pointedness of mind. When he does this for some time, perhaps weeks, or months, or years, he will be able to close his eyes and visualize the object. This visualized object is called ‘uggaha-nimitta’. Then he concentrates on this visualized image until it develops into a conceptualized or counter-image free from original kasina faults. This is known as the ‘patibhāganimitta’. As he continually concentrates on this abstract concept he is said to be in possession of proximate or neighborhood concentration (upacāra-samādhi). At this stage the innate five Hindrances are temporarily inhibited. Eventually he gains ‘ecstatic concentration’ (appanā samādhi).
For the water-kasina one may take a vessel full of colourless water, preferably rain water, and concentrate on it, saying – āpo, āpo, (water, water) until he gains one-pointedness of mind.
To develop the fire-kasina one may kindle a fire before him and concentrate on it through a hole, a span and four fingers in diameter, in a rush-mat, a piece of leather, or a piece of cloth, saying tejo, tejo, (fire, fire).
One who develops the air-kasina concentrates on the wind that enters through window space or a hole in the wall, saying, vāyo, vāyo (air, air).
To develop the colour-kasinas one may take a mandala of the prescribed size, and colour it blue, yellow, red, or white and concentrate on it, repeating the name of the colour as in the case of the other kasinas.
One may even concentrate on blue, yellow, red, or white flowers.
Light kasina may be developed by concentrating on the moon, or on an unflickering lamplight, or on a circle of light cast on the ground, or on the wall by sunlight or moonlight entering through a wall-crevice or hole, saying – āloka, āloka (light, light).
Space-kasina can be developed by concentrating on a hole, a span and four fingers in diameter, in either a well-covered pavilion or a piece of leather, or a mat, saying, okāsa, okāsa (space, space).
It may be mentioned that light and space kasinas are not mentioned in the Texts.
8. Asubha – Those ten kinds of corpses were found in ancient Indian cemeteries and charnel places where dead bodies were not buried or cremated and where flesh-eating animals frequented. In modern days they are out of the question.
9. Anussati – literally, means repeated reflection or constant mindfulness.
i. Buddhānussati is the reflection on the virtues of the Buddha as, for example: “Such indeed is that Exalted One, Worthy, Fully Enlightened, Endowed with Wisdom and Conduct, Well-farer, Knower of the Worlds, an Incomparable Charioteer for the training of individuals, Teacher of gods and men, Omniscient, and Holy”.
ii. Dhammanussati is reflection on the virtues of the Doctrine as, for example: “Well-expounded is the doctrine by the Exalted One, to be realized by oneself, of immediate fruit, inviting investigation, leading to Nibbāna, to be understood by the wise, each one for himself”.
iii. Sanghānussati is the reflection on the virtues of the pure members of the Noble Celibate Order as follows: “Of good conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One; of upright conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One; of wise conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One; of dutiful conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One. The four pairs of persons constitute eight individuals. This Order of the disciples of the Exalted One is worthy of offerings, is worthy of hospitality, is worthy of gifts, is worthy of reverential salutation, is an incomparable field of merit for the world”.
iv. Sīlānussati is reflection on the one’s own virtuous conduct.
v. Cāgānussati is reflection on one’s own charitable nature.
vi. Devatānussati – “Deities are born in such exalted states on account of their faith and other virtues. I too possess them.” Thus when one reflects again and again on one’s own faith and others’ virtues, placing deities as witnesses, it is called Devatānussati.
vii. Upasamānussati is reflection on the attributive qualities of Nibbāna, such as the cessation of suffering, etc.
viii. Maranānussati is reflection on the termination of psycho physical life.
Contemplation on death enables one to comprehend the fleeting nature of life. When one understands that death is certain and life is uncertain one endeavors to make the best use of one’s life by working for self-development and for the development of others, instead of wholly indulging in sensual pleasures. Constant meditation on death does not make one pessimistic and lethargic but, on the contrary, it makes one more active and energetic. Besides one can face death with serenity.
While contemplating death, one may think that life is like a flame, or that all so-called beings are the outward temporary manifestations of the invisible Karmic energy, just as an electric light is the outward manifestation of the invisible electric energy. Choosing various similes, one may meditate on the uncertainty of life and on the certainty of death.
ix. Kāyagatāsati is reflection on the 32 impure parts of the body such as hair, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, etc. This meditation on the loathsomeness of the body, leads to dispassion. Many Bhikkhus in the time of the Buddha attained Arahatship by meditating on these impurities. If one is not conversant with all the thirty-two parts, one may meditate on one part such as bones.
Within this body is found a skeleton. It is full of flesh which is covered with a skin. Beauty is nothing but skin deep. When one reflects thus on the impure parts of the body passionate attachment to this body gradually disappears.
This meditation may not appeal to those who are not sensual. They may meditate on the innate creative possibilities of this complex machinery of man.
The thirty-two parts of the body are enumerated as follows:
“Hair, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinew, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, bowels, mesentery, stomach, faeces, brain, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, articular fluid, and urine”.
x. ānāpānasati is mindfulness on respiration. āna means inhalation and apāna exhalation. In some books these two terms are explained in the reverse way. Concentration on the breathing process leads to one-pointedness of the mind, and ultimately to Insight which leads to Arahatship.
10. This is one of the best subjects of meditation, which appeals equally to all. The Buddha also practiced ānāpānasati before His Enlightenment.
A detailed exposition of this meditation is found in the Satipatthāna Sutta and in the Visuddhi Magga.
A few practical hints are given here for the benefit of the average reader.
Adopting a convenient posture, breathe out and close the mouth. Then breathe in through the nostrils calmly, without strain. Inhale first and count mentally one. Exhale and count two, concentrating on the breathing process. In this manner count up to ten, constantly focusing your attention on respiration. It is possible for the mind to wander before one counts up to ten. But one need not be discouraged. Try again until success is achieved. Gradually one can increase the number of series, say five series of ten. Later one can concentrate on the breathing process without counting. Some prefer counting as it aids concentration; while others prefer not to count. What is essential is concentration, and not counting, which is secondary. When one does this concentration exercise one feels light in body and mind and very peaceful. One might perhaps feel as if one were floating in the air. When one practices this concentration for a certain period, a day may come when one will realize that his so-called body is supported by mere breath, and that the body perishes when breathing ceases. Thus one fully realizes impermanence. Where there is change there cannot be a permanent entity or an immortal soul. Insight might then be developed to gain Arahatship.
It is now clear that the object of this concentration on respiration is not merely to gain one-pointedness but also to cultivate Insight in order to obtain Deliverance.
This simple method may be pursued by all without any harm.
For more details readers are referred to the Visuddhi Magga.
In some Suttas this simple method of respiration is explained as follows:
“Attentively he breathes in, attentively he breathes out.
1. When making a long inhalation he knows, ‘I make a long inhalation; when making a long exhalation, he knows, ‘I make a long exhalation’.
2. When making a short inhalation he knows, ‘I make a short inhalation’; when making a short exhalation he knows, ‘I make a short exhalation’.
3. ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath) body (sabbakāyapatisamvedi), I will inhale’: thus he trains himself; ‘clearly perceiving the entire (breath) body. I will exhale’: thus he trains himself.
4. ‘Calming this breathing process (passam bhayam kāyasankhāram), I will inhale’ thus he trains himself; ‘calming this breathing process, I will exhale’: thus he trains himself.
11. Brahmavihāra – Here Brahma means sublime, as in brahmacariya (sublime life). Vihāra means mode or ‘state of conduct’ or ‘state of living’. They are also termed appamaññā (limitless, boundless) because these thoughts are radiated towards all beings, without limit or obstruction.
i. Mettā (Sanskrit: Maitri) loving-kindness, benevolence, goodwill – is defined as that which softens one’s heart. It is not carnal love or personal affection. The direct enemy of Mettā is hatred, ill will or aversion (kodha); its indirect enemy is personal affection (pema). Mettā embraces all beings without exception. The culmination of Mettā is the identification of oneself with all beings (sabbattatā). It is the wish for the good and happiness of all. Benevolent attitude is its chief characteristic. It discards ill will.
ii. Karunā – compassion – is defined as that which makes the hearts of the good quiver when others are subject to suffering, or that which dissipates the sufferings of others. Its chief characteristic is the wish to remove the sufferings of others. Its direct enemy is wickedness (himsā) and its indirect enemy is passionate grief (domanassa) Compassion embraces sorrow-stricken beings, and it eliminates cruelty.
iii. Muditā is not mere sympathy but sympathetic or appreciative joy. Its direct enemy is jealousy, and its indirect enemy is exhilaration (pahāsa). Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in others’ prosperity and success (anumodanā). Muditā embraces prosperous beings. It eliminates dislike (arati) and is the congratulatory attitude of a person.
iv. Upekkhā literally, means to view impartially, that is, with neither attachment nor aversion. It is not hedonic indifference but perfect equanimity or a well-balanced mind. It is the balanced state of mind amidst all vicissitudes of life such as praise and blame, pain and happiness gain and loss, repute and disrepute. Its direct enemy is attachment (rāga) and its indirect enemy is callousness. Upekkhā discards clinging and aversion. Impartial attitude is its chief characteristic.
Here Upekkhā does not mean mere neutral feeling, but implies a sterling virtue. Equanimity, mental equilibrium, are its closest equivalents. Upekkhā embraces the good and the bad, the loved and the unloved, the pleasant and the unpleasant.
See Chapter 2, note 4.
12. āhāre patikkūlasaññā – i.e., the feeling of loathsomeness of food, in its search, eating, etc.
13. Catudhātuvavatthānam – i.e., the investigation of the four primary elements of extension, cohesion, heat, and motion, with regard to their characteristics, etc. 14.
14. Arūpajhānas – See Ch. 1. They are: (i) ‘The Realm of the Infinity of Space’, (ii) ‘The Realm of the Infinity of Consciousness’, (iii) ‘The Realm of Nothingness’, and (iv) The ‘Realm of neither Perception nor Non-perception’.
15. Thirty-eight objects when ‘light’ and ‘space’ are excluded.
16. Because they tend to create a disgust for the body which fascinates the senses.
17. Because the objects are deep and vast.
18. These objects are too coarse, and vitakka, one of the constituents of jhāna, is an indispensable aid to practice concentration on them. As there is no vitakka in the remaining four jhānas, they cannot be developed by concentrating on these two objects.
19. As equanimity (upekkhā) is found only in the fifth jhāna, the first four jhānas cannot be developed by concentrating on this last ‘Illimitable’.
20. Vatthudhammato – i.e., from the defects found in the original kasina-mandala.
21. āvajjana – reflection on the different constituents of jhāna.
Samāpajjana – the ability to attain to different jhānas quickly.
Adhitthāna – the ability to remain in the jhānas as long as one likes.
Vutthāna – the ability to emerge from the jhānas as quickly as possible.
Paccavekkhana is similar to āvajjana.
22. See Ch. 1, p. *.
23. Abhiññā – Only one who has gained the fifth jhāna can develop the following five kinds of supernormal knowledge or vision:
i. Iddhividha – Flying through the air, walking on water, diving into the earth, creation of forms, etc., belong to this category.
ii. Dibbasota is the Celestial Ear, also called clairaudience, which enables one to hear subtle or coarse sounds far or near.
iii. Paracittavijānana is the power to discern the thoughts of others.
iv. Pubbenivāsānussati is the power to remember the past lives of oneself and others. This is the first supernormal vision the Buddha developed during the first watch on the night. He attained Enlightenment. With regard to this knowledge the Buddha’s power is limitless, while in the case of others it is limited.
v. Dibbacakkhu is the Celestial or Divine Eye, also called clairvoyance, which enables one to see heavenly or earthly things, far or near, which are imperceptible to the physical eye. This as the second knowledge the Buddha developed during the second watch on the night of His Enlightenment.
Cutūpapātañāna knowledge with regard to the dying and reappearing of beings, is identical with this Celestial Eye. Anāgatamsañāna, knowledge with regard to the future, and yathākammūpagañāna, knowledge with regard to the faring of beings according to their own good and bad actions, are two other kinds of knowledge belonging to the same category. These come within the range of Buddha’s Omniscience.
These five kinds of supernormal vision are worldly. To these should be added the sixth supernormal knowledge – āsavakkhayañāna – knowledge with regard to the extinction of passions which is supramundane.
The first five kinds may be developed at any period; but the last, only during a Buddha-cycle.
§ 6. Vipassanākammatthāne pana 1. Sīlavisuddhi, 2. Cittavisuddhi, 3. Ditthivisuddhi, 4. Kankhāvitaranavisuddhi, 5. Maggāmaggañānadassanavisuddhi, 6. Patipadaññāna dassanavisuddhi, 7. Nānadassanavisuddhicāti sattavidhena Visuddhisangaho.
Aniccalakhanam, Dukkhalakkhanam, Anattalakkhanañ c’āti tīni Lakkhanāni.
Aniccānupassanā, Dukkhānupassanā, Anattānupassanā c’āti tisso Anupassanā.
1. Sammasanañānam, 2. Udayavyayañānam, 3. Bhangañānam, 4. Bhayañānam, 5. ādīnavañānam, 6. Nibbidāñānam, 7. Muñcitukamyatāñānam, 8. Patisankhāñānam, 9. Samkhārupekkhāñānam, 10. Anulomañānam c’āti dasa Vipassanāñānāni.
Suññato Vimokkho, Animitto Vimokkho, Appanihito Vimokkho c’āti tayo Vimokkhā.
Suññatānupassanā, Animittānupassanā, Appanihitānupassanā c’āti tīni Vimokkhamukhāni ca veditabbāni.
Katham? Pātimokkhasamvara Sīlam, Indriyasamvara Sīlam, ājīvapārisuddhi Sīlam, Paccayasannissita Sīlam c’āti Catupārisuddhi Sīlam Sīlavisuddhi nāma.
Upacārasamādhi, Aypanāsamādhi c’āti duvidho’pi Samādhi Cittavisuddhi nāma.
Lakkhana-rasa-paccupatthāna-padatthāna-vasena nāma-rūpapariggaho Ditthivisuddhi nāma.
Tesameva ca nāma-rūpānam paccayapariggaho Kankhāvitarana-visuddhi nāma.
Tato param pana tathāpariggahitesu sappaccayesu tebhūmakasankhāresu atītādibhedabhinnesu khandhādinayam ārabbha kalāpavasena samkhipitvā aniccam khayatthena, dukkham bhayatthena, anattā asārakatthenā’ ti addhānavasena santativasena khanavasena va sammasanañānena lakkhanattayam sammasantassa tes veva paccaya vasena khanavasena ca udayavyayañānena udayavyayam sammanupassantassa ca.
Obhāso pīti passaddhi adhimokkho ca paggaho
Sukham ñānamupatthānamupekkhā ca nikanti c’āti.
Obhāsādi vipassanupakkilese paripanthapariggaha vasena maggāmaggalakkhanavavathānam Maggāmagga-ñānadassanavisuddhi nāma.
Tathā paripanthavimuttassa pana tassa udayavyayañānato patthāya yāvānulomā tilakkhanam vipassanāparamparāya patipajjantassa nava vipassanāñānāni Patipadāñānadassanavisuddhi nāma.
Tass’evam patipajjantassa pana vipassanāparipākamāgamma idāni appanā uppajjissatitiī bhavangam vocchinditva uppannamanodvārāvajjanānantaram dve tīni vipassanācittāni yam kiñci aniccādilakkhanamārabbha parikammopacārānulomanāmena pavattanti. Yā sikhāppattā sā sānulomasankhārupekkhāvutthānagāmini-vipassanā’ti ca pavuccati. Tato param gotrabhūcittam nibbānam’ ālambitvā puthujjanagottamabhibhavantam ariyagottamabhisambhontañ ca pavattati. Tass’ānantaram eva maggo dukkhasaccam parijānanto samudayasaccam pajahanto nirodhasaccam sacchikaronto maggasaccam bhāvanāvasena appanāvīthim otarati. Tato param dve tīni phalacittāni pavattitvā bhavangapāto’va hoti. Puna bhavangam vocchinditvā paccavekkhanañānāni pavattanti.
Maggam phalañ ca nibbānam paccavekkhati pandito
Hīne kilese sese ca paccavekkhati vā navā.
Chabbisuddhikamen’ evam bhāvetabbo catubbidho
Nānadassanavisuddhi nāma maggo pavuccati.
Ayam’ ettha visuddhibhedo.
Different Kind of Purity
§ 6. In the exercises on mental culture pertaining to Insight (24) the section on ‘Purity’ is sevenfold:
1. Purity of Morals,
2. Purity of Mind,
3. Purity of views,
4. Purity of Transcending Doubts,
5. Purity of Vision in discerning the Path and Non-Path,
6. Purity of Vision in discerning the method,
7. Purity of Vision regarding intuitive wisdom.
There are three Characteristic Marks:
1. The Characteristic Mark of Impermanence (25),
2. The Characteristic Mark of Suffering (26), and
3. The Characteristic Mark of No-soul (27).
There are three Contemplations:
1. The Contemplation on Impermanence,
2. The Contemplation on Suffering, and
3. The Contemplation on No soul.
There are ten kinds of Insight:
1. Investigating knowledge (28),
2. Knowledge with regard to the arising and passing away (of conditioned things),
3. Knowledge with regard to the dissolution (of things),
4. Knowledge (of dissolving things) as fearful,
5. Knowledge of (fearful) things as baneful,
6. Knowledge of (baneful) things as disgusting,
7. Knowledge as regards the wish to escape from them,
8. Knowledge of reflecting contemplation (9),
9. Knowledge of equanimity towards conditioned things (30), and
10. Knowledge of adaptation (31).
There are three Emancipations (32):
1. Emancipation through Void (33),
2. Emancipation through Signlessness (34); and
3. Emancipation through Desirelessness (3)
There are three Doors of Emancipation:
1. Contemplation on the Void,
2. Contemplation on the Signlessness, and
3. Contemplation on Desirelessness.
Purity of Morals (36) consists of four kinds of perfect discipline, namely:
1. Moral Discipline as regards the Fundamental Precepts,
2. Discipline as regards sense-restraint,
3. Discipline as regards purity of livelihood,
4. Discipline as regards the four requisites.
Purity of Mind (37) consists of two kinds of concentration, namely,
1. ‘proximate concentration’, and
2. ‘established or ecstatic concentration’.
Purity of Views (38) is the understanding of mind and matter with respect to their characteristics, function, mode of appearance, and proximate cause.
Purity of Transcending Doubts (39) is the comprehension of the causes of those very mind and matter.
After comprehending the causes, the meditator, considering the methods of aggregates, etc., formulates in groups the conditioned things of the triple plane, that have arisen with causes, differing according to the past, etc., and that have been comprehended in the foregoing manner. Now he meditates on the three characteristics – impermanence in the sense of dissolution, suffering in the sense of fearfulness, and soullessness in the sense of unsubstantiality – by way of duration, continuity, and momentariness. To him who meditates on the arising and passing away of things by means of the knowledge so named with respect to causes and momentariness there arise –
an aura, joy, quietude, excessive faith, effort, happiness, wisdom, mindfulness equanimity and a liking (for that state).
Purity of Vision in discerning what is the Path and what is not the Path (40), is the determining of characteristics of Path and not Path by understanding an aura etc., as inimical impediments of insight.
Getting rid of these inimical impediments, the meditator reflects on the three Characteristics. Now to him, starting from the knowledge of arising and passing away, and extending up to the knowledge of adaptation, there arise in one continuous stream of contemplation, nine kinds of Insight. By Purity of Vision that discerns the method (41) is meant these nine kinds of knowledge.
When he thus practices contemplation, owing to the ripening of insight (he feels) ‘Now the development (of the path) (42) will arise’. Thereupon arresting the life-continuum, arises mind-door consciousness, followed by two or three (moments of) insight consciousness having for their object any of the Characteristics such as impermanence etc. They are termed ‘preliminary’, ‘proximate’, and ‘adaptation’ (moments) (43).
That knowledge of equanimity towards conditioned things, together with knowledge that conforms (to the truths), when perfected, is also termed ‘Insight of emergence leading to the Path (44).
There after the gotrabhū-consciousness (45), having Nibbāna as its object occurs, overcoming the lineage of the worldlings, and evolving the lineage of the Ariyas*.
* The thought-process of a Stream-Winner: manodvārāvajjana – parikamma – upacāra – anuloma – gotrabhū – magga – phala – phala – bhavanga.
Immediately after that consciousness, the Path (of the Stream-Winner)*, realizing the Truth of suffering, eradicating the Truth of its cause, realizing the Truth of its cessation, and developing the Truth of the Way to its cessation, descends into the (supramundane) appanā thought-process.
After that Path-consciousness two or three moments of Fruit-consciousness arise and subside into the life-continuum (46). Then, arresting the life-continuum, the knowledge of reflection occurs.
The wise man reflects (47) on the Path, Fruit, Nibbāna, defilements destroyed, and either reflects or does not reflect on the remaining defilements.
Thus the fourfold Path which has to be developed by degrees by means of the sixfold purity is called the ‘Purity of Intuitive Knowledge’ (48).
Herein this is the section on Purity.
* The thought-process of a Stream-Winner:
24. Vipassanā or Insight is the third and final stage on the Path of Sainthood. The chief object of Insight is to understand things as they truly are.
25. Anicca, i.e., the fleeting nature of both mind and matter. Changeableness is a characteristic of everything that is conditioned. All conditioned things are constantly changing, not remaining static for two consecutive moments. Mind, in fact, changes even faster than matter. Normally matter endures only for seventeen thought-moments. Commentators state that, during the time occupied by a flash of lightning, billions of thought-moments may arise.
26. Dukkha – All conditioned things are subject to suffering. Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering. Union with the unpleasant is suffering. Separation from the pleasant is suffering. Not to get what one desires is suffering. In brief, the five aggregates of attachment are suffering.
27. Anattā – Or Soullessness is the crux of Buddhism. As there is no permanent entity in matter, so also there is no unchanging entity in mind conceived as an ‘ego’ or soul’. In everything mundane and supramundane conditioned and non-conditioned, there is no permanent soul. Hence the Buddha in the Dhammapada stated ‘sabbe dhammā anattā – all dhammas are soulless’. With regard to anicca and dukkha the Buddha said ‘sankhārā – conditioned things’. With regard to anattā, the Buddha employed the term dhammā to include supramundane unconditioned Nibbāna as well.
It may be mentioned that it was after hearing the ‘Anattalakkhana Sutta’, the discourse on soullessness, that the first five monks attained Arahatship.
The aspirant does not usually meditate on all these three characteristics. Of them, he takes only that which appeals to him most. Deliverance, gained by meditating on one of them, is named accordingly.
28. Sammasanañana – Lit., ‘handling-knowledge’, is the investigating of aggregates as composite (kalāpavasena).
29. Patisankhāñāna is the recontemplation of conditioned things in order to find out the means to escape the refrom.
30. Sankhārupekkhā-ñāna is perfect equanimity towards all conditioned things, having neither attachment nor aversion, resulting from developing the foregoing different kinds of Insight.
31. Anuloma-ñāna is the ‘adaptation knowledge’ gained by perfecting the foregoing nine kinds of Insight. It is so called because it conforms itself to 37 Factors of Enlightenment and qualifies the aspirant for the higher path.
32. Vimokkha – so called because the deliver one from the ten Fetters, etc.
33. Suññata – devoid of a soul. Emancipation gained by meditating on soullessness (anattā) is called suññata-vimokkha.
34. Animitta – free from the signs of permanence, etc. Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘impermanence’ (anicca) is called animitta-vimokkha.
35. Appanihita – free from the hankering of craving. Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘suffering’ (dukkha) is called appanihita-vimokkha.
36. Sīlavisuddhi – Purity of Morals, is the first of seven ‘Purities’. It consists of four kinds, all pertaining to the life of a Bhikkhu.
The first is pātimokkhasamvarasīla. ‘That which saves one who observes it from woeful states’ is the commentarial explanation of ‘pātimokkha’.Pā is also explained as the Buddhas Teaching. Atipamokkha means extremely important. Pātimokkha therefore means “Fundamental Teaching” or “Fundamental Precepts”. It deals with 220* disciplinary rules which every Bhikkhu is expected to observe. As it restrains one from evil deeds, etc., it is termed ‘samvara’. Sīla is used in the sense of ‘composure’ (samādhāna) and ‘support’ (upadhārana). It is so called because it tends to discipline thoughts, words, and deeds, and because it acts as a support for other virtues. Indrivasamvarasīla the second sīla, deals with the control of the six senses. ājīvapārisuddhisīla, the third sīla, deals with the right livelihood of a Bhikkhu. In obtaining the necessaries of life, a Bhikkhu should not act in an unbecoming way. Paccayasannissitasīla the fourth sīla, is concerned with the unselfish use of the four requisites – robes, alms, lodging, and medicine.
*227 including seven ways of settling disputes (adhikarana samatha dhamma).
37. Cittavisuddhi – is the second ‘Purity. It is the purity of mind, gained by developing the jhānas, temporarily inhibiting the Hindrances. A purified mind is like a polished mirror where everything is reflected in its true perspective. With a purified mind one can see things as they truly are.
38. Ditthivisuddhi – is the third ‘Purity’. It is so called because it purifies one from the false theory of a permanent soul. This correct comprehension results from investigating mind and matter as regards their salient characteristics (lakkhana), function or essential properties (rasa), the way of manifestation (paccupatthāna), and their immediate cause (padatthāna).
39. Kankhāvitaranavisuddhi – is the fourth ‘Purity’ which attempts to transcend skeptical doubts as regards cause and effect, the past, the present, and the future. This is called a purity because it removes the stain of erroneous views of ‘chance’, causelessness’, etc.
To achieve this purity one meditates on the various causes that tend to produce present mind and matter, and on the causes that sustain them in the present. He understands that present mind and matter at conception were conditioned by past ignorance, craving, grasping and Kamma, and, during lifetime, matter is conditioned by kamma, mind, seasonal phenomena, and edible food, while mind is sustained by the senses and their corresponding objects. Thus he realizes the second noble truth of the cause of suffering and rids himself of doubts.
40. Maggāmaggañānadassanavisuddhi – This is the fifth ‘Purity’.
The aspirant ho has cleared his doubts, meditates again with better understanding on the three characteristics of anicca, dukkha, and anattā. He realizes that life is a mere flowing, a continuous undivided movement. He finds no genuine happiness, for every form of pleasure is only a prelude to pain. What is transient is painful, and where change and sorrow prevail there cannot be a permanent ego or soul. The arising and passing away of conditioned things become very conspicuous to him. As he is thus absorbed in meditation he witnesses an aura (obhāso) emanating from his body as a result of his keen insight. He experiences also an unprecedented joy (pīti), happiness (sukha), and quietude (passaddhi). He becomes strenuous (paggaho) and even-minded (upekkhā). His religious fervour increases (adhimokkha), mindfulness (sati) strengthens, and wisdom (ñāna) ripens. Laboring under the misconception that he has attained Sainthood, chiefly owing to the presence of the aura, he yearns (nikanti) for this state of mind. Soon he realizes that these temptations are only impediments (upakkilesa) to Insight, and that he has not really attained Sainthood. Accordingly he endeavours to distinguish between the right and wrong path (maggāmaggañānadassana). It is called a ‘purity because it clears up the misconception as regards the actual ‘path’. He understands, ‘This is the right path, that is the wrong path’.
41. Patipadāñānadassanavisuddhi – is the sixth ‘Purity’. This term is collectively applied to the nine kinds of Insight beginning with the knowledge as regards the arising and passing away of conditioned things, and ending with the knowledge of adaptation that occurs in the Path thought-moment immediately preceding the gotrabhū moment. (See p. *, footnote )
42. Appanā – the supramundane Path (lokuttara-magga).
44. Vutthānagāminīvipassanā – is the name given to both sankhārupekkhā-ñāna and anuloma-ñāna of the ten kinds of Insight. It is so called because it leads to the Path emerging from woeful states and signs of conditioned things.
45. Gotrabhū – lit, means ‘overcoming the worldly lineage’. The object of this thought-moment is Nibbāna, but the actual realization of Nibbāna by the eradication of passions occurs at the Path thought-moment that immediately follows. This particular thought-moment in the three higher stages of Sainthood is termed ‘vodāna’ (pure) as the aspirant is already an Ariya.
46. Immediately after the gotrabhū thought-moment there arises the Path thought-moment of the Sotāpanna. It is at this stage that one comprehends the Truth of Suffering, eradicates craving, the cause of suffering, and actually realizes Nibbāna for the first time in his life. The eight factors that constitute the Noble Path are also fully developed at this stage. This particular thought-moment is termed ‘sotāpatti-magga’.Sota here means the stream that leads to Nibbāna. It is the Noble Eightfold Path. āpatti means ‘entering for the first time’. It is called ‘magga’ because it arises, destroying the passions. This Path thought-moment arises only once in the course of one’s lifetime, and is immediately followed by two or three ‘Fruit’ (phala) moments before the stream of consciousness lapses into bhavanga. This is the reason why the Dhamma is called ‘akālika’ (immediately effective).
47. Paccavekkhanañānāni – As a rule after each of the four stages of Sainthood one reflects on the Path and Fruit one has attained, on the Nibbāna one has realized, on the defilements one has destroyed, and in the case of the first three stages, on the defilements one has yet to destroy. An Arahat who has no more defilements to destroy knows that he is delivered.
There are altogether 19 kinds of such reflective knowledge, 15 pertaining to the first three stages of Sainthood, and 4 to the last stage.
The Pāli phrase – n’āparam itthatthāya – No more of this state again – refers to this process of reflection.
48. Nānadassanavisuddhi is the name given to the contemplative knowledge, a mental state of wisdom found in the Path-Consciousness. It is called a ‘purity’, because it is completely free from all stains or defilements, resulting from the realization of the four Truths. It is the seventh ‘purity’.
§ 7. Tattha anattānupassanāattābhinivesam muñcanti. Suññatānupassanā nāma vimokkhamukham hoti. Aniccānupassanā vipallāsanimittam muñcanti, animittānupassanā nāma. Dukkhānupassana tanhāpanidhim muñcanti, appanihitānupassanā nāma. Tasmā yadi vuttthānagāminīvipassanā anattato vipassati, suññato vimokkho nāma hoti maggo.Yadi aniccato vipassati, animitto vimokkho nāma. Yadi dukkhato vipassati appanihito vimokkho nāmā’ti ca maggo vipassanāgamanavasena tīni nāmāni labbhati. Tathā phalañca maggāgamana-vasena maggavīthiyam. Phalasamāpattivīthiyam pana yathāvuttanayena vipassantānam yathāsakam phalamuppajjamānam pi vipassanāgamanavasen’ evasuññatādivimokkho’ ticapavuccati. ālambanavasena pana sarasavasena ca nāmattayam sabbattha sabbesampi samameva.
Ayam ettha vimokkhabhedo.
§ 8. Ettha pana sotāpattimaggam bhāvetvā ditthivicikicchāpahānena pahīnāpāyagamano sattakkhattuparamo sotāpanno nāma hoti.
Sakadāgāmimaggam bhāvetvā rāgadosamohānam tanukaratta sakadāgāmi nāma hoti. Sakid’eva imam lokam āgantvā anāgāmimaggam bhāvetvā kāmarāgavyāpādānam anavasesappahānena anāgāmi nāma hoti, anāgantvā itthattam.
Arahattamaggam bhāvetvā anavasesakilesappahānena arahā nāma hoti, Khīnāsavo loke aggadakkhineyyo.
Ayam ettha puggalabhedo.
§ 7. Therein, the contemplation of no-soul, that discards the clinging to a soul (49), becomes an avenue of Emancipation and is termed ‘Void-contemplation’. The contemplation of impermanence, that discards the signs of false notion (50), becomes an avenue of Emancipation, and is termed ‘Signless-contemplation. The contemplation of suffering, that discards the hankering of attachment (51), becomes an avenue of Emancipation and is termed ‘Unhankering-contemplation’ .
Hence if with the Emergence Insight leading to the Path, one contemplates on no-soul, then the Path is known as ‘Void-Emancipation’; if one contemplates on impermanence then the Path is known as ‘Signless-Emancipation; if one contemplates on sorrow, then the Path is known as ‘Unhankering-Emancipation. Thus the Path receives three names according to the way of Insight. Likewise, the Fruit, (occurring) in the Path thought-process, receives these three names according to the way of the Path.
However, in the thought-process as regards the attainment to fruition, to those who contemplate in the foregoing manner, the Fruits that arise respectively in each case, are termed ‘Void-Emancipation’, etc., only in accordance with the way of Insight. But, as regards objects and respective functions, the triad of names is applied equally to all (Paths and Fruits) everywhere.
Herein this is the section on Emancipation.
§ 8. Herein, developing the Path of Stream-Attainment (52), eradicating false views and doubts, and escaping from going to woeful states, one becomes a Stream-Winner who is born seven times at most.
Developing the Path of once-Returning (53), and attenuating lust, hatred, and ignorance, one becomes a Once-Returner, returning to this world only once.
Developing the path of Never-Returning (54), and totally eradicating sensual desires and hatred, one becomes a Never-Returner not returning to this (Sentient) state.
Developing the Path of the Worthy, and totally eradicating all defilements, one becomes a Worthy One (55), who is free from Corruptions, and who is fit to receive the highest offerings in this world.
Herein this is the section on Individuals.
49. Attābhinivesa – The stronghold of a soul like the doer of action, the reaper of fruit, ‘this is my soul’.
50. Vipallāsanimittam – Three vipallāsas or misconceptions are discarded by meditating on ‘impermanence’. They are ‘erroneous perception’ (saññā-vipallāsa), ‘erroneous ideas’ (citta-vipallāsa), and ‘erroneous views’ (ditthi-vipallāsa). On account of these three misconceptions people regard what is impermanent as permanent.
51. Tanhāpanidhi – Such hankerings like ‘this is mine’, ‘this is happiness’.
52. Sotāpanno – One who has entered the stream that leads to Nibbāna for the first time. There are three classes of Sotāpannas, namely:
i. Those who will be born seven times at most in heavenly and earthly realms (sattakkhattuparama). Before seeking an eighth birth, they attain Arahatship.
ii. Those who seek birth in noble families two or three times before they attain Arahatship (kolamkola).
iii. Those who are born only once more before they attain Arahatship (ekabījī).
A Sotāpanna has unshakable confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma, and the Sangha. He neither violates the five precepts nor commits the heinous crimes. Free from birth in woeful states, he is ever destined for enlightenment.
53. Sakadāgāmi – One who returns to this world of human beings only once. After attaining Sakadāgāmi in this life, he may be born in a heavenly realm and attain Arahatship seeking birth in the human plane.
There are five kinds of Sakadāgāmis, namely:
i. Those who attain Sakadāgāmi here and attain Parinibbāna here itself.
ii. Those who attain Sakadāgāmi in a heavenly realm and attain Parinibbāna there.
iii. Those who attain Sakadāgāmi here and attain Parinibbāna in a heavenly realm.
iv. Those who attain Sakadāgāmi in a heavenly realm and attain Parinibbāna in this human plane.
v. Those who attain Sakadāgāmi here and, having being born in a heavenly realm, seek birth in this human plane and attain Parinibbāna.
54. Anāgāmi – one who will not return to this Sense sphere (kāmaloka). Such beings are born in the ‘Pure Abodes’ (suddhāvāsa), higher Brahma realms where Anāgāmis abide till they attain Arahatship.
There are five classes of Anāgāmis:
i. Those who attain Parinibbāna within the first half life-span in the Pure Abodes (antaraparinibbāyi).
ii. Those who attain Parinibbāna having lived more than half a life-span (upahaccaparinibbāyi).
iii. Those who attain Parinibbāna with exertion (sasankhāra parinibbāyi).
iv. Those who attain Parinibbāna without exertion (asasankhāra parinibbāyi).
v. Those who, passing beyond one Brahma realm to another higher Brahma realm, attain Parinibbāna in the Highest Brahma realm (uddhamsota akanitthagāmi).
55. Khīnāsavo – synonymous with an Arahat, a Worthy One, because he has destroyed all the defilements.
The Path of Purification
When the jhānas are developed, the mind is so purified, that it resembles a polished mirror, where everything is clearly reflected in true perspective. Still, there is not complete freedom from unwholesome thoughts, for, by concentration, the evil tendencies are only temporarily inhibited. They may rise to the surface at quite unexpected moments.
Discipline regulates words and deeds; concentration controls the mind; but it is Insight (paññā) the third and the final stage, that enables the aspirant to Sainthood to eradicate wholly the defilements inhibited by samādhi.
At the outset he cultivates ‘Purity of Vision’ (ditthi visuddhi) (the third member of the Path of Purity) in order to see things as they truly are. With a one-pointed mind he analyses and examines this so-called being. This searching examination shows that what he has called ‘I’, is merely a complex compound of mind and matter which are in a state of constant flux.
Having thus gained a correct view of the real nature of this so-called being, freed from the false notion of a permanent soul, he searches for the causes of this ‘I’ personality. He realizes that there is nothing in the world which is not conditioned by some cause or causes, past or present, and that his present existence is due to past ignorance (avijjā), craving (tanhā), attachment (upādāna), Kamma, and physical food of the present life. On account of these five causes this so-called being has arisen, and as past causes have conditioned the present, so the present will condition the future. Meditating thus, he transcends all doubts with regard to past, present and future (kankhāvitaranavisuddhi, the fourth member of the Path of Purity).
Thereupon he contemplates the truth that all conditioned things are transient (anicca), subject to suffering (dukkha), and devoid of an immortal soul (anattā). Wherever he turns his eyes he sees naught but these three characteristics standing out in bold relief. He realizes that life is a flux conditioned by internal and external causes. Nowhere does he find any genuine happiness for everything is fleeting.
As he thus contemplates the real nature of life, and is absorbed in meditation a day comes, when, to his surprise, he witnesses an aura (obhāsa) emitted by his body. He experiences an unprecedented pleasure happiness and quietude. He becomes even-minded, his religious fervour increases, mindfulness becomes clear and insight keen. Mistaking this advanced state of moral progress for Sainthood, chiefly owing to the presence of the aura, he develops a liking for this mental state. Soon the realization comes that these new developments are impediments to moral progress and he cultivates the purity of knowledge with regard to the Path and Non-Path (maggāmaggañānadassanavisuddhi, the fifth member of the Path of Purity).
Perceiving the right path, he resumes his meditation on the arising (udaya ñāna) and passing away (vaya ñāna) of all conditioned things. Of these two states the latter becomes more impressed on his mind since change is more conspicuous than becoming. Therefore he directs his attention to contemplation of the dissolution of things (bhanga ñāna). He perceives that both mind and matter which constitute this so-called being are in a state of constant flux, not remaining the same for two consecutive moments. To him then comes the knowledge that all dissolving things are fearful (bhaya ñāna). The whole world appears to him like a pit of burning embers, a source of danger. Subsequently he reflects on the wretchedness and vanity (ādīnava ñāna) of the fearful and deluded world, and develops a feeling of disgust (nibbidā ñāna), followed by a strong will for deliverance from it (muñcitukamyatā ñāna).
With this object in view, he resumes his meditation on the three characteristics of transiency, sorrow, and soullessness (patisankhā ñāna), and thereafter develops complete equanimity towards all conditioned things, having neither attachment nor aversion for any worldly object (upekkhā ñāna).*
* These nine kinds of Insight – namely, udaya, vaya, bhanga, bhaya, ādīnava, nibbidā, muñcitukamyatā, patisankhā, upekkhā ñānas are collectively termed patipadāñānadassanavisuddhi and anuloma – Purity of Vision in discerning the method the sixth number of the Path of Purity.
Reaching this point of spiritual culture, he chooses one of the three characteristics for his object of special endeavour and intently cultivates Insight in that particular direction until the glorious day when he first realizes Nibbāna,* his ultimate goal.
* Insight found in this supramundane Path Consciousness is known as nānadassanavisuddhi – Purity of Vision regarding intuitive wisdom, the seventh member of the Path of Purity.
“As the traveler by night sees the landscape around him by a flash of lightning, and the picture so obtained swims long thereafter before his dazzled eyes, so the individual seeker, by the flashing light of insight, glimpses Nibbāna with such clearness that the after-picture never more fades from his mind”. (Dr. Paul Dahlke)
When the spiritual pilgrim realizes Nibbāna for the first time he is called a Sotāpanna (see Chapter I) – one who has entered the stream that leads to Nibbāna for the first time.
The Stream represents the noble Eightfold Path.
A Stream-Winner is no more a worldling (puthujjana), but an Ariya (Noble).
On attaining this first stage of Sainthood he eradicates the following three Fetters (samyojana) that bind him to existence, namely:
1. Sakkāya-ditthi – sati + kāye + ditthi, literally, view when a group exists. Here kāya refers to the five Aggregates of matter, feeling, perception, mental states, and consciousness, or, in other words, to the complex-compound of mind and matter. The view that there is one unchanging entity, a permanent soul, when there is a complex-compound of psycho physical aggregates is termed sakkāya-ditthi. Dhammasangani enumerates twenty kinds of such soul theories (see Dhammasangani Translation, pp. 257-259). Sakkāya-ditthi is usually rendered by self-illusion, theory of individuality, illusion of individualism.
2. Vicikicchā – Doubts. They are doubts about 1. the Buddha, 2. the Dhamma, 3. the Sangha, 4. the disciplinary rules (sikkhā), 5. the past, 6. the future, 7. both the past and the future, and 8. Dependent Arising (paticca-samuppāda). (see Dhammasangani Translation p. 239)
3. Sīlabbataparāmāsa – Adherence to (wrongful) rites and ceremonies.
Dhammasangani explains it thus: “It is the theory held by ascetics an Brahmins outside this doctrine, that purification is obtained by rules of moral conduct, or by rites, or by both rules of moral conduct and rites”.
For the eradication of the remaining seven Fetters a Sotāpanna is reborn seven times at most. He gains implicit confidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. He would not for any reason violate any of the five precepts. He is not subject to states of woe as he is destined for Enlightenment.
With fresh courage as a result of this distant glimpse of Nibbāna, the noble pilgrim makes rapid progress, and perfecting his Insight, becomes a Sakadāgāmi – Once-Returner – reaching the second stage of Sainthood by attenuating two other Fetters, namely, sense-desires (kāmāraga) and ill will (patigha).
Now he is called a Once-Returner because he is born in the human realm only once, should he not attain Arahatship in that birth itself. It is interesting to note that the Ariya Saint who has attained the second stage of Sainthood can only weaken these two powerful Fetters with which he is bound from a beginningless past. At times, though to a slight extent, he harbours thoughts of lust and anger.
It is by attaining the third State of Sainthood, that of the Anāgāmi (Never-Returner), that he completely eradicates these two Fetters. Thereafter he neither returns to this world nor is he born in the celestial realms, since he has rooted out the desire for sensual gratification. After death he is reborn in the Pure Abodes (Suddhāvāsa), an environment exclusively reserved for Anāgāmis and Arahats.
A layman may become an Anāgāmi, provided he leads a celibate life.
The Anāgāmi Saint now makes his final advance and destroying the remaining five Fetters, namely, attachment to Realms of Form (rūparāga) attachment to Formless Realms (arūparāga), pride (māna), restlessness (uddhacca), and ignorance (avijjā), attains Arahatship the final state of Sainthood.
Stream-Winners, Once-Returners, Never-Returners are called Sekhas because they have yet to undergo training. Arahats are called Asekhas because they no longer need any training.
An Arahat, literally, a Worthy One, is not subject to rebirth because he does not accomplish fresh Karmic activities, the seeds of his reproduction in matter have all been destroyed.
The Arahat realizes that what was to be accomplished has been done. A heavy burden of sorrow has finally been relinquished, and all forms of craving and all shades of ignorance are totally annihilated. The happy pilgrim now stands on heights more than celestial, far removed from uncontrolled passions and the defilements of the world.
§ 9. Phalasamāpattivīthiyam pan’ettha sabbesam piyathāsakaphalavasena sādhāranā’va.Nirodhasamāpattisamāpajjanam pana anāgāminañ c’eva arahattānañ ca labbhati.
Tattha yathākkamam pathamajjhānādiMahāggatasamāpattim samāpajjitvā vutthāya tattha gate sankhāradhamme tatthatatth’eva vipassanto yāva ākiñcaññāyatanamgantvā tato param adhittheyyādikam pubbakiccam katvā n’eva saññā n’āsaññāyatanam samapajjati. Tassa dvinnam appanājavanānam parato vocchijjāti cittasantati. Tato nirodhasamāpanno hoti.
Vutthānakāle pana anāgāmino anāgāmiphalacittam arahato arahattaphalacittam ekavāram pavattitvā bhavangapāto hoti. Tato param paccavekkhanañānam pavattati.
Ayam ettha samāpattibhedo.
Nitthito ca vipassanākammatthānanayo.
Bhāvetabbam pan’icc’evam bhāvanādvayam uttamam
Patipattirasassādam patthayantena sāsane.
Iti Abhidhammattha Sangahe Kammatthānasangaha-Vibhāgo nāma navamo paricchedo.
Nambavhayena panidhāya parānukampam
Yam patthitam pakaranam parinitthitantam.
2. Puññena tena vipulena tumūlasomam
Its Anuruddhācariyena racitam Abhidhammatthasangaham nāma pakaranam nitthitam.
§ 9. Herein ‘the Attainment to Fruition’ is common to all in accordance with their respective fruits.
But ‘the Attainment to Cessation (56) is possible only to Never-Returners and Arahats.
In this case, one attains successively to the great ecstasies like the first jhāna, etc., and emerging therefrom contemplates on the conditioned things in each of those jhānas. Thus he proceeds up to ‘the State of Nothingness’. Then, having attended to the preliminary duties such as resolving, etc., he attains to the state of Neither-Perception nor Non-Perception’. Now after two ecstatic javana thought-moments his stream of consciousness is suspended. Thereafter he attains to (Supreme) ‘Cessation’.
At the time of rising, if to a Never-Returner, an Anāgāmi Fruit consciousness or to an Arahat, an Arahat Fruit consciousness, occurs only for a single moment and then lapses into bhavanga. This is followed by the knowledge of reflection.
Herein this is the Section on Attainments.
The end of exercises on mental culture or Insight.
One who wishes to enjoy the essence of practice in this Dispensation should thus develop the sublime dual meditation.
This is the ninth chapter of the Compendium of Abhidhamma which deals with the Exercise on Meditation.
As invited by Namba, a person of refined manners, belonging to a respectable family, full of faith and replete with sterling virtues, to compose a treatise out of compassion for others, this book has been completed.
By this great merit may the modest monks, ho are purified by wisdom and who shine in discipline, remember till the end of the world the most famous Tumūlasoma Monastery, the abode of grain, for the acquisition of merit and for their happiness.
Thus ends the treatise called the Abhidhammattha Sangaha composed by the great teacher, Anuruddha.
56. Nirodhasamāpatti – Lit., ‘attainment to cessation’. It is so called because during this period the stream of consciousness temporarily ceases to flow. Mind is suspended, but vitality persists.
It is only an Anāgāmi or an Arahat who has developed the rūpa and arūpajhānas who can attain to this supreme state of ecstasy.
When such a person wishes to attain to nirodhasamāpatti, he first attains to the first jhāna and, emerging from it, he meditates on the transiency, sorrowfulness, and soullessness of conditioned states found in that particular jhāna. Likewise, he attains, in order, to the remaining jhānas and meditates in the same way until the arūpaj jhāna of ‘Nothingness’.
Emerging from this jhāna, he makes the following four resolutions:
(i) that his fourfold requisites be not destroyed,
(ii) that he should arise in time when his services are needed by the Sangha,
(iii) that he should arise in time when he is summoned by the Buddha,
(iv) whether he will live for more than seven days from that moment.
He has to think of his age-limit as this ecstatic state normally extends to seven days.
After making these resolutions, he attains to the last arūpaj jhāna of ‘Neither Perception nor Non-Perception’, and remains in that state for two javana thought moments. Immediately after, he attains to nirodha-samāpatti when his stream of consciousness, is temporarily suspended. After seven days he emerges from this state and experiences for a single moment an Anāgāmi Phala consciousness in the case of an Anāgāmi, or an Arahat Phala consciousness in the case of an Arahat. Thereafter arises the bhavanga citta.
For details see Visuddhi-Magga.