2. Mucalindavaggo

1. Mucalindasuttavaṇṇanā

11. Mucalindavaggassa paṭhame mucalindamūleti ettha mucalindo vuccati nīparukkho. So ‘‘niculo’’tipi vuccati, tassa samīpe. Keci pana ‘‘mucaloti tassa rukkhassa nāmaṃ, taṃ vanajeṭṭhakatāya pana mucalindoti vutta’’nti vadanti. Mahā akālameghoti asampatte vassakāle uppannamahāmegho. So hi gimhānaṃ pacchime māse sakalacakkavāḷagabbhaṃ pūrento udapādi. Sattāhavaddalikāti tasmiṃ uppanne sattāhaṃ avicchinnavuṭṭhikā ahosi. Sītavātaduddinīti sā ca sattāhavaddalikā udakaphusitasammissena sītavātena samantato paribbhamantena dusitadivasattā duddinī nāma ahosi. Mucalindo nāma nāgarājāti tasseva mucalindarukkhassa samīpe pokkharaṇiyā heṭṭhā nāgabhavanaṃ atthi, tattha nibbatto mahānubhāvo nāgarājā. Sakabhavanāti attano nāgabhavanato. Sattakkhattuṃ bhogehi parikkhipitvāti sattavāre attano sarīrabhogehi bhagavato kāyaṃ parivāretvā. Uparimuddhani mahantaṃ phaṇaṃ vihaccāti bhagavato muddhappadesassa upari attano mahantaṃ phaṇaṃ pasāretvā. ‘‘Phaṇaṃ karitvā’’tipi pāṭho, so evattho.

Tassa kira nāgarājassa etadahosi ‘‘bhagavā ca mayhaṃ bhavanasamīpe rukkhamūle nisinno, ayañca sattāhavaddalikā vattati, vāsāgāramassa laddhuṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti. So sattaratanamayaṃ pāsādaṃ nimminituṃ sakkontopi ‘‘evaṃ kate kāyasāro gahito na bhavissati, dasabalassa kāyaveyyāvaccaṃ karissāmī’’ti mahantaṃ attabhāvaṃ katvā satthāraṃ sattakkhattuṃ bhogehi parikkhipitvā upari phaṇaṃ katvā dhāresi. ‘‘Parikkhepabbhantaraṃ lohapāsāde bhaṇḍāgāragabbhappamāṇaṃ ahosī’’ti khandhakaṭṭhakathāyaṃ (mahāva. aṭṭha. 5) vuttaṃ. Majjhimaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana ‘‘heṭṭhālohapāsādappamāṇa’’nti (ma. ni. aṭṭha. 1.284). ‘‘Icchiticchitena iriyāpathena satthā viharissatī’’ti kira nāgarājassa ajjhāsayo. Bhagavā pana yathānisinnova sattāhaṃ vītināmesi. Tañca ṭhānaṃ supihitavātapānaṃ suphusitaaggaḷadvāraṃ kūṭāgāraṃ viya ahosi. Mābhagavantaṃ sītantiādi tassa tathā karitvā ṭhānakāraṇaparidīpanaṃ. So hi ‘‘mā bhagavantaṃ sītaṃ bādhayittha, mā uṇhaṃ, mā ḍaṃsādisamphasso bādhayitthā’’ti tathā karitvā aṭṭhāsi.

Tattha kiñcāpi sattāhavaddalikāya uṇhameva natthi, sace pana antarantarā megho vigaccheyya, uṇhaṃ bhaveyya, tampi mā bādhayitthāti evaṃ tassa cintetuṃ yuttaṃ. Keci panettha vadanti ‘‘uṇhaggahaṇaṃ bhogaparikkhepassa vipulabhāvakaraṇe kāraṇakittanaṃ. Khuddake hi tasmiṃ bhagavantaṃ nāgassa sarīrasambhūtā usmā bādheyya, vipulabhāvakaraṇena pana tādisaṃ ‘mā uṇhaṃ bādhayitthā’ti tathā karitvā aṭṭhāsī’’ti.

Viddhanti ubbiddhaṃ, meghavigamena dūrībhūtanti attho. Vigatavalāhakanti apagatameghaṃ. Devanti ākāsaṃ. Viditvāti ‘‘idāni vigatavalāhako ākāso, natthi bhagavato sītādiupaddavo’’ti ñatvā. Viniveṭhetvāti apanetvā. Sakavaṇṇanti attano nāgarūpaṃ. Paṭisaṃharitvāti antaradhāpetvā. Māṇavakavaṇṇanti kumārakarūpaṃ.

Etamatthanti vivekasukhappaṭisaṃvedino yattha katthaci sukhameva hotīti etamatthaṃ sabbākārena jānitvā. Imaṃ udānanti imaṃ vivekasukhānubhāvadīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha sukho vivekoti nibbānasaṅkhāto upadhiviveko sukho. Tuṭṭhassāti catumaggañāṇasantosena tuṭṭhassa. Sutadhammassāti pakāsitadhammassa vissutadhammassa. Passatoti taṃ vivekaṃ, yaṃ vā kiñci passitabbaṃ nāma, taṃ sabbaṃ attano vīriyabalādhigatena ñāṇacakkhunā passantassa. Abyāpajjanti akuppanabhāvo, etena mettāpubbabhāgo dassito. Pāṇabhūtesu saṃyamoti sattesu ca saṃyamo avihiṃsanabhāvo sukhoti attho. Etena karuṇāpubbabhāgo dassito.

Sukhā virāgatā loketi vigatarāgatāpi loke sukhā. Kīdisī? Kāmānaṃ samatikkamoti, yā kāmānaṃ samatikkamoti vuccati, sā vigatarāgatāpi sukhāti attho, etena anāgāmimaggo kathito. Asmimānassa yo vinayoti iminā pana arahattaṃ kathitaṃ. Arahattañhi asmimānassa paṭippassaddhivinayoti vuccati, ito parañca sukhaṃ nāma natthi, tenāha ‘‘etaṃ ve paramaṃ sukha’’nti. Evaṃ arahattena desanāya kūṭaṃ gaṇhīti.

Paṭhamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

2. Rājasuttavaṇṇanā

12. Dutiye sambahulānanti vinayapariyāyena tayo janā ‘‘sambahulā’’ti vuccanti, tato paraṃ saṅgho. Suttantapariyāyena pana tayo tayo eva, tato uddhaṃ sambahulā. Tasmā idhāpi suttantapariyāyena sambahulāti veditabbā. Upaṭṭhānasālāyanti dhammasabhāmaṇḍape. Sā hi dhammaṃ desetuṃ āgatassa tathāgatassa bhikkhūnaṃ upaṭṭhānakaraṇaṭṭhānanti ‘‘upaṭṭhānasālā’’ti vuccati. Atha vā yattha bhikkhū vinayaṃ vinicchinanti, dhammaṃ kathenti, sākacchaṃ samāpajjanti, sannipatanavasena pakatiyā upatiṭṭhanti, sā sālāpi maṇḍapopi ‘‘upaṭṭhānasālā’’tveva vuccati. Tatthāpi hi buddhāsanaṃ niccaṃ paññattameva hoti. Idañhi buddhānaṃ dharamānakāle bhikkhūnaṃ cārittaṃ. Sannisinnānanti nisajjanavasena saṅgamma nisinnānaṃ. Sannipatitānanti tato tato āgantvā sannipatanavasena sannipatitānaṃ. Atha vā buddhāsanaṃ purato katvā satthu sammukhe viya ādaruppattiyā sakkaccaṃ nisīdanavasena sannisinnānaṃ, samānajjhāsayattā aññamaññasmiṃ ajjhāsayena suṭṭhu sammā ca nipatanavasena sannipatitānaṃ. Ayanti idāni vuccamānaṃ niddisati. Antarākathāti kammaṭṭhānamanasikārauddesaparipucchādīnaṃ antarā aññā ekā kathā, atha vā majjhanhike laddhassa sugatovādassa, sāyaṃ labhitabbassa dhammassavanassa ca antarā pavattattā antarākathā, samaṇasamācārasseva vā antarā pavattā aññā ekā kathāti antarākathā. Udapādīti uppannā.

Imesaṃ dvinnaṃ rājūnanti niddhāraṇe sāmivacanaṃ. Mahaddhanataro vātiādīsu pathaviyaṃ nikhaṇitvā ṭhapitaṃ sattaratananicayasaṅkhātaṃ mahantaṃ dhanaṃ etassāti mahaddhano, dvīsu ayaṃ atisayena mahaddhanoti mahaddhanataro. Vāsaddo vikappattho. Sesapadesupi eseva nayo. Ayaṃ pana viseso – niccaparibbayavasena mahanto bhogo etassāti mahābhogo. Devasikaṃ pavisanaāyabhūto mahanto koso etassāti mahākoso. Apare pana ‘‘devasikaṃ pavisanaāyabhūtaṃ maṇisārapheggugumbādibhedabhinnaṃ pariggahavatthu dhanaṃ, tadeva sāragabbhādīsu nihitaṃ koso’’ti vadanti. Vajiro, mahānīlo, indanīlo, marakato, veḷuriyo, padumarāgo, phussarāgo, kakketano, pulāko, vimalo, lohitaṅko , phaliko, pavāḷo, jotiraso, gomuttako, gomedako, sogandhiko, muttā, saṅkho, añjanamūlo, rājapaṭṭo, amataṃsako, piyako, brāhmaṇī cāti catubbīsati maṇi nāma. Satta lohāni kahāpaṇo ca sāro nāma. Sayanacchādanapāvuraṇagajadantasilādīni pheggu nāma. Candanāgarukuṅkumatagarakappūrādi gumbā nāma. Tattha purimena ādisaddena sālivīhiādimuggamāsādipubbaṇṇāparaṇṇabhedaṃ dhaññavikatiṃ ādiṃ katvā yaṃ sattānaṃ upabhogaparibhogabhūtaṃ vatthu, taṃ sabbaṃ saṅgayhati. Mahantaṃ vijitaṃ raṭṭhaṃ etassāti mahāvijito. Mahanto hatthiassādivāhano etassāti mahāvāhano. Mahantaṃ senābalañceva thāmabalañca etassāti mahabbalo. Icchitanibbattisaṅkhātā puññakammanipphannā mahatī iddhi etassāti mahiddhiko. Tejasaṅkhāto ussāhamantapabhusattisaṅkhāto vā mahanto ānubhāvo etassāti mahānubhāvo.

Ettha ca paṭhamena āyasampadā, dutiyena vittūpakaraṇasampadā, tatiyena vibhavasampadā, catutthena janapadasampadā, pañcamena yānasampadā, chaṭṭhena parivārasampadāya saddhiṃ attasampadā, sattamena puññakammasampadā, aṭṭhamena pabhāvasampadā tesaṃ rājūnaṃ pakāsitā hoti. Tena yā sā sāmisampatti, amaccasampatti, senāsampatti, raṭṭhasampatti, vibhavasampatti, mittasampatti, duggasampattīti satta pakatisampadā rājūnaṃ icchitabbā. Tā sabbā yathārahaṃ paridīpitāti veditabbā.

Dānādīhi catūhi saṅgahavatthūhi parisaṃ rañjetīti rājā. Magadhānaṃ issaroti māgadho. Mahatiyā senāya samannāgatattā seniyagottattā vā seniyo. Bimbi vuccati suvaṇṇaṃ, tasmā sārabimbivaṇṇatāya bimbisāro. Keci pana ‘‘nāmamevetaṃ tassa rañño’’ti vadanti. Paccāmittaṃ parasenaṃ jinātīti pasenadi. Kosalaraṭṭhassa adhipatīti kosaloAyañcarahīti ettha carahīti nipātamattaṃ. Vippakatāti apariyositā. Ayaṃ tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ antarākathā aniṭṭhitāti attho.

Sāyanhasamayanti sāyanhe ekaṃ samayaṃ. Paṭisallānā vuṭṭhitoti tato tato rūpādiārammaṇato cittassa paṭisaṃharaṇato paṭisallānasaṅkhātāya phalasamāpattito yathākālaparicchedaṃ vuṭṭhito. Bhagavā hi pubbaṇhasamayaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaparivuto sāvatthiṃ pavisitvā bhikkhūnaṃ sulabhapiṇḍapātaṃ katvā katabhattakicco bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ sāvatthito nikkhamitvā vihāraṃ pavisitvā gandhakuṭippamukhe ṭhatvā vattaṃ dassetvā ṭhitānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ yathāsamuṭṭhitaṃ sugatovādaṃ datvā tesu araññarukkhamūlādidivāṭṭhānaṃ uddissa gatesu gandhakuṭiṃ pavisitvā phalasamāpattisukhena divasabhāgaṃ vītināmetvā yathākālaparicchede samāpattito vuṭṭhāya, ‘‘mayhaṃ upagamanaṃ āgamayamānā catasso parisā sakalavihāraṃ paripūrentiyo nisinnā, idāni me dhammadesanatthaṃ dhammasabhāmaṇḍalaṃ upagantuṃ kālo’’ti āsanato vuṭṭhāya, kesarasīho viya kañcanaguhāya surabhigandhakuṭito nikkhamitvā yūthaṃ upasaṅkamanto mattavaravāraṇo viya akāyacāpallena cāruvikkantagamano asītianubyañjanappaṭimaṇḍitabāttiṃsamahāpurisalakkhaṇasamujjalāya byāmappabhāya parikkhepavilāsasampannāya pabhassaraketumālālaṅkatāya nīlapītalohitodātamañjiṭṭhapabhassarānaṃ vasena chabbaṇṇabuddharaṃsiyo vissajjentiyā acinteyyānubhāvāya anupamāya buddhalīlāya samannāgatāya rūpakāyasampattiyā sakalavihāraṃ ekālokaṃ kurumāno upaṭṭhānasālaṃ upasaṅkami. Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘atha kho bhagavā…pe… tenupasaṅkamī’’ti.

Evaṃ upasaṅkamitvā vattaṃ dassetvā nisinne te bhikkhū tuṇhībhūte disvā ‘‘mayi akathente ime bhikkhū buddhagāravena kappampi na kathessantī’’ti kathāsamuṭṭhāpanatthaṃ ‘‘kāya nuttha, bhikkhave’’tiādimāha. Tattha kāya nutthāti katamāya nu bhavatha. ‘‘Kāya notthā’’tipi pāḷi, so evattho, ‘‘kāya nvetthā’’tipi paṭhanti, tassa katamāya nu etthāti attho. Tatrāyaṃ saṅkhepattho – bhikkhave, katamāya nāma kathāya idha sannisinnā bhavatha, katamā ca tumhākaṃ kathā mamāgamanapaccayā aniṭṭhitā, taṃ niṭṭhāpessāmīti evaṃ sabbaññupavāraṇāya pavāresi.

Na khvetanti na kho etaṃ, ayameva vā pāṭho. ‘‘Na khota’’ntipi paṭhanti, na kho etaṃ icceva padavibhāgo. Kulaputtānanti jātiācārakulaputtānaṃ. Saddhāti saddhāya, kammaphalasaddhāya ratanattayasaddhāya ca. Agārasmāti gharato, gahaṭṭhabhāvāti attho. Anagāriyanti pabbajjaṃ. Pabbajitānanti upagatānaṃ . Yanti kiriyāparāmasanaṃ. Tatthāyaṃ padayojanā – ‘‘bhikkhave, tumhe neva rājābhinītā na corābhinītā na iṇaṭṭā na jīvitapakatā pabbajitā, atha kho saddhāya agārato nikkhamitvā mama sāsane pabbajitā, tumhe etarahi evarūpiṃ rājappaṭisaṃyuttaṃ tiracchānakathaṃ katheyyātha, yaṃ evarūpāya kathāya kathanaṃ, etaṃ tumhākaṃ na kho patirūpaṃ na yuttamevā’’ti.

Evaṃ sannipatitānaṃ pabbajitānaṃ appatirūpaṃ paṭikkhipitvā idāni nesaṃ patirūpaṃ paṭipattiṃ anujānanto ‘‘sannipatitānaṃ vo, bhikkhave, dvayaṃ karaṇīyaṃ dhammī vā kathā ariyo vā tuṇhībhāvo’’ti āha. Tattha voti tumhākaṃ. Karaṇīyanti hi padaṃ apekkhitvā kattari sāmivacanametaṃ, tasmā tumhehīti attho. Dvayaṃ karaṇīyanti dve kātabbā. Dhammī kathāti catusaccadhammato anapetā kathā, pavattinivattiparidīpinī dhammadesanāti attho. Dasakathāvatthusaṅkhātāpi hi dhammakathā tadekadesā evāti. Ariyoti ekantahitāvahattā ariyo, visuddho uttamoti vā ariyo. Tuṇhībhāvoti samathavipassanābhāvanābhūtaṃ akathanaṃ. Keci pana ‘‘vacīsaṅkhārapaṭipakkhabhāvato dutiyajjhānaṃ ariyo tuṇhībhāvo’’ti vadanti. Apare ‘‘catutthajjhānaṃ ariyo tuṇhībhāvo’’ti vadanti. Ayaṃ panettha attho – ‘‘bhikkhave, cittavivekassa paribrūhanatthaṃ vivekaṭṭhakāyā suññāgāre viharantā sace kadāci sannipatatha, evaṃ sannipatitehi tumhehi ‘assutaṃ sāveti sutaṃ vā pariyodapetī’ti vuttanayena aññamaññassūpakārāya khandhādīnaṃ aniccatādipaṭisaṃyuttā dhammakathā vā pavattetabbā, aññamaññaṃ abyābādhanatthaṃ jhānasamāpattiyā vā viharitabba’’nti.

Tattha purimena karaṇīyavacanena anotiṇṇānaṃ sāsane otaraṇūpāyaṃ dasseti, pacchimena otiṇṇānaṃ saṃsārato nissaraṇūpāyaṃ. Purimena vā āgamaveyyattiye niyojeti, pacchimena adhigamaveyyattiye. Atha vā purimena sammādiṭṭhiyā paṭhamaṃ uppattihetuṃ dīpeti, dutiyena dutiyaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Dveme, bhikkhave, hetū dve paccayā sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya parato ca ghoso, paccattañca yoniso manasikāro’’ti (a. ni. 2.127).

Purimena vā lokiyasammādiṭṭhiyā mūlakāraṇaṃ vibhāveti, pacchimena lokuttarasammādiṭṭhiyā mūlakāraṇanti evamādinā ettha yojanā veditabbā.

Etamatthaṃ viditvāti tehi bhikkhūhi kittitakāmasampattito jhānādisampatti santatarā ceva paṇītatarā cāti etamatthaṃ sabbākārato viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti imaṃ ariyavihārasukhānubhāvadīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha yañca kāmasukhaṃ loketi lokasaddo ‘‘khandhaloko āyatanaloko dhātuloko’’tiādīsu (mahāni. 3, 7; cūḷani. ajitamāṇavapucchāniddesa 2) saṅkhāresu āgato.

‘‘Yāvatā candimasūriyā pariharanti,

Disā bhanti virocanā;

Tāva sahassadhā loko,

Ettha te vattatī vaso’’ti. –

Ādīsu (ma. ni. 1.503) okāse āgato. ‘‘Addasā kho bhagavā buddhacakkhunā lokaṃ volokento’’tiādīsu (mahāva. 9; ma. ni. 1.283) sattesu. Idha pana sattaloke okāsaloke ca veditabbo. Tasmā avīcito paṭṭhāya upari brahmalokato heṭṭhā etasmiṃ loke yaṃ vatthukāme paṭicca kilesakāmavasena uppajjanato kāmasahagataṃ sukhaṃ. Yañcidaṃ diviyaṃ sukhanti yañca idaṃ divi bhavaṃ dibbavihāravasena ca laddhabbaṃ brahmānaṃ manussānañca rūpasamāpattisukhaṃ. Taṇhakkhayasukhassāti yaṃ āgamma taṇhā khīyati, taṃ nibbānaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā taṇhāya ca paṭipassambhanavasena pavattaphalasamāpattisukhaṃ taṇhakkhayasukhaṃ nāma, tassa taṇhakkhayasukhassa. Eteti liṅgavipallāsena niddeso, etāni sukhānīti attho. Keci ubhayampi sukhasāmaññena gahetvā ‘‘eta’’nti paṭhanti, tesaṃ ‘‘kalaṃ nāgghatī’’ti pāṭhena bhavitabbaṃ.

Soḷasinti soḷasannaṃ pūraṇiṃ. Ayañhettha saṅkhepattho – cakkavattisukhaṃ ādiṃ katvā sabbasmiṃ manussaloke manussasukhaṃ, nāgasupaṇṇādiloke nāgādīhi anubhavitabbaṃ sukhaṃ, cātumahārājikādidevaloke chabbidhaṃ kāmasukhanti yaṃ ekādasavidhe kāmaloke uppajjantaṃ kāmasukhaṃ, yañca idaṃ rūpārūpadevesu dibbavihārabhūtesu rūpārūpajjhānesu ca uppannattā ‘‘diviya’’nti laddhanāmaṃ lokiyajjhānasukhaṃ, sakalampi tadubhayaṃ taṇhakkhayasukhasaṅkhātaṃ phalasamāpattisukhaṃ soḷasa bhāge katvā tato ekabhāgaṃ soḷasabhāgaguṇe laddhaṃ ekabhāgasaṅkhātaṃ kalaṃ na agghatīti.

Ayañca atthavaṇṇanā phalasamāpattisāmaññena vuttā. Pāḷiyaṃ avisesena taṇhakkhayassa āgatattā paṭhamaphalasamāpattisukhassāpi kalaṃ lokiyaṃ na agghati eva. Tathā hi vuttaṃ –

‘‘Pathabyā ekarajjena, saggassa gamanena vā;

Sabbalokādhipaccena, sotāpattiphalaṃ vara’’nti. (dha. pa. 178);

Sotāpattisaṃyuttepi vuttaṃ –

‘‘Kiñcāpi, bhikkhave, rājā cakkavattī catunnaṃ dīpānaṃ issariyādhipaccaṃ rajjaṃ kāretvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ sahabyataṃ, so tattha nandane vane accharāsaṅghaparivuto dibbehi ca pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti, so catūhi dhammehi asamannāgato. Atha kho so aparimuttova nirayā, aparimutto tiracchānayoniyā, aparimutto pettivisayā, aparimutto apāyaduggativinipātā. Kiñcāpi, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako piṇḍiyālopena yāpeti, nantakāni ca dhāreti, so catūhi dhammehi samannāgato, atha kho so parimutto nirayā, parimutto tiracchānayoniyā, parimutto pettivisayā, parimutto apāyaduggativinipātā.

‘‘Katamehi catūhi? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ…pe… buddho bhagavā’ti. Dhamme aveccappasādena…pe… viññūhī’ti. Saṅghe aveccappasādena…pe… puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ti. Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti akhaṇḍehi…pe… samādhisaṃvattanikehi. Imehi catūhi dhammehi samannāgato hoti. Yo ca, bhikkhave, catunnaṃ dīpānaṃ paṭilābho, yo catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābho, catunnaṃ dīpānaṃ paṭilābho catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābhassa kalaṃ nāgghati soḷasi’’nti (saṃ. ni. 5.997).

Evaṃ bhagavā sabbattha lokiyasukhaṃ sauttaraṃ sātisayaṃ, lokuttarasukhameva anuttaranti atisayanti bhājesīti.

Dutiyasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

3. Daṇḍasuttavaṇṇanā

13. Tatiye kumārakāti dārakā. Antarā ca sāvatthiṃ antarā ca jetavananti antarāsaddo ‘‘tadantaraṃ ko jāneyya, aññatra tathāgatā’’ti (a. ni. 6.44; 10.75), ‘‘janā saṅgamma mantenti, mañca tvañca kimantara’’ntiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 1.228) kāraṇe āgato. ‘‘Addasā maṃ, bhante, aññatarā itthī vijjantarikāya bhājanaṃ dhovantī’’tiādīsu (ma. ni. 2.149) khaṇe. ‘‘Yassantarato na santi kopā’’tiādīsu (udā. 20) citte. ‘‘Antarā vosānamāpādī’’tiādīsu vemajjhe. ‘‘Apicāyaṃ, bhikkhave, tapodā dvinnaṃ mahānirayānaṃ antarikāya āgacchatī’’tiādīsu (pārā. 231) vivare . Svāyamidhāpi vivare veditabbo. Tasmā sāvatthiyā ca jetavanassa ca vivareti, evamettha attho veditabbo. Antarāsaddayogato cettha upayogavacanaṃ ‘‘antarā ca sāvatthiṃ antarā ca jetavana’’nti. Īdisesu ṭhānesu akkharacintakā ‘‘antarā gāmañca nadiñca gacchatī’’ti ekameva antarāsaddaṃ payujjanti, so dutiyapadenapi yojetabbo hoti. Idha pana yojetvā vutto.

Ahiṃ daṇḍena hanantīti bilato nikkhamitvā gocarāya gacchantaṃ kaṇhasappaṃ chātajjhattaṃ anubandhitvā yaṭṭhīhi pothenti. Tena ca samayena bhagavā sāvatthiṃ piṇḍāya gacchanto antarāmagge te dārake ahiṃ daṇḍena hanante disvā ‘‘kasmā kumārakā imaṃ ahiṃ daṇḍena hanathā’’ti pucchitvā ‘‘ḍaṃsanabhayena, bhante’’ti ca vutte ‘‘ime attano sukhaṃ karissāmāti imaṃ paharantā nibbattaṭṭhāne dukkhaṃ anubhavissanti, aho avijjāya nikatikosalla’’nti dhammasaṃvegaṃ uppādesi. Teneva ca dhammasaṃvegena udānaṃ udānesi. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘atha kho bhagavā’’tiādi.

Tattha etamatthaṃ viditvāti ‘‘ime dārakā attasukhāya paradukkhaṃ karontā sayaṃ parattha sukhaṃ na labhissantī’’ti etamatthaṃ jānitvāti evameke vaṇṇenti. Aññesaṃ duppaṭipannānaṃ sukhapariyesanaṃ āyatiṃ dukkhāya saṃvattati, suppaṭipannānaṃ ekantena sukhāya saṃvattati. Tasmā ‘‘paravihesāvinimuttā accantameva sukhabhāgino vata mayhaṃ ovādappaṭikarā’’ti somanassavasenevetampi satthā udānaṃ udānesīti vadanti. Apare pana bhaṇanti ‘‘evaṃ tehi kumārakehi pavattitaṃ paraviheṭhanaṃ sabbākārena ādīnavato viditvā paravihesāya parānukampāya ca yathākkamaṃ ādīnavānisaṃsavibhāvanaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesī’’ti.

Tattha sukhakāmānīti ekanteneva attano sukhassa icchanato sukhānugiddhāni. Bhūtānīti pāṇino. Yo daṇḍena vihiṃsatīti ettha daṇḍenāti desanāmattaṃ, daṇḍena vā leḍḍusatthapāṇippahārādīhi vāti attho. Atha vā daṇḍenāti daṇḍanena. Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yo sukhakāmāni sabbabhūtāni jātiādinā ghaṭṭanavasena vacīdaṇḍena vā pāṇimuggarasatthādīhi pothanatāḷanacchedanādivasena sarīradaṇḍena vā sataṃ vā sahassaṃ vā ṭhāpanavasena dhanadaṇḍena vāti imesu daṇḍesu yena kenaci daṇḍena vihiṃsati viheṭheti dukkhaṃ pāpeti, attano sukhamesāno, pecca so na labhate sukhanti so puggalo attano sukhaṃ esanto gavesanto patthento pecca paraloke manussasukhaṃ dibbasukhaṃ nibbānasukhanti tividhampi sukhaṃ na labhati, aññadatthu tena daṇḍena dukkhameva labhatīti attho.

Pecca so labhate sukhanti yo khantimettānuddayasampanno ‘‘yathāhaṃ sukhakāmo dukkhappaṭikūlo, evaṃ sabbepī’’ti cintetvā sampattaviratiādīsu ṭhito vuttanayena kenaci daṇḍena sabbānipi bhūtāni na hiṃsati na bādhati, so puggalo paraloke manussabhūto manussasukhaṃ, devabhūto dibbasukhaṃ, ubhayaṃ atikkamanto nibbānasukhaṃ labhatīti. Ettha ca tādisassa puggalassa avassaṃbhāvitāya taṃ sukhaṃ paccuppannaṃ viya hotīti dassanatthaṃ ‘‘labhate’’ti vuttaṃ. Purimagāthāyapi eseva nayo.

Tatiyasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

4. Sakkārasuttavaṇṇanā

14. Catutthe tena kho pana samayena bhagavā sakkato hotīti kappānaṃ satasahassādhikesu catūsu asaṅkhyeyyesu paripūritassa puññasambhāravisesassa phalabhūtena ‘‘ito paraṃ mayhaṃ okāso natthī’’ti ussahajātena viya uparūpari vaḍḍhamānena sakkārādinā bhagavā sakkato hoti. Sabbadisāsu hi yamakamahāmegho vuṭṭhahitvā mahoghaṃ viya sabbapāramiyo ‘‘ekasmiṃ attabhāve vipākaṃ dassāmā’’ti sampiṇḍitā viya bhagavato lābhasakkāramahoghaṃ nibbattayiṃsu. Tato annapānavatthayānamālāgandhavilepanādihatthā khattiyabrāhmaṇādayo āgantvā ‘‘kahaṃ buddho, kahaṃ bhagavā, kahaṃ devadevo, kahaṃ narāsabho, kahaṃ purisasīho’’ti bhagavantaṃ pariyesanti. Sakaṭasatehi paccaye āharitvā okāsaṃ alabhamānā samantā gāvutappamāṇepi sakaṭadhurena sakaṭadhuraṃ āhacca tiṭṭhanti ceva anubandhanti ca andhakavindabrāhmaṇādayo viya. Sabbaṃ taṃ khandhake (mahāva. 282) tesu tesu ca suttesu āgatanayena veditabbaṃ. Yathā ca bhagavato, evaṃ bhikkhusaṅghassāti. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Yāvatā kho, cunda, etarahi saṅghā vā gaṇā vā loke uppannā, nāhaṃ, cunda, aññaṃ ekasaṅghampi samanupassāmi evaṃ lābhaggayasaggappattaṃ, yatharivāyaṃ, cunda, bhikkhusaṅgho’’ti (dī. ni. 3.176).

Svāyaṃ bhagavato ca bhikkhusaṅghassa ca uppanno lābhasakkāro ekato hutvā dvinnaṃ mahānadīnaṃ udakogho viya appameyyo ahosi. Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘tena kho pana samayena bhagavā sakkato hoti…pe… parikkhārānaṃ, bhikkhusaṅghopi sakkato…pe… parikkhārāna’’nti.

Titthiyā pana pubbe akatapuññatāya ca duppaṭipannatāya ca asakkatā agarukatā, buddhuppādena pana visesato vipannasobhā sūriyuggamane khajjopanakā viya nippabhā nittejā hatalābhasakkārā ahesuṃ. Te tādisaṃ bhagavato saṅghassa ca lābhasakkāraṃ asahamānā issāpakatā ‘‘evaṃ ime pharusāhi vācāhi ghaṭṭetvāva palāpessāmā’’ti usūyā visuggāraṃ uggirantā tattha tattha bhikkhū akkosantā paribhāsantā vicariṃsu . Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘aññatitthiyā pana paribbājakā asakkatā honti…pe… parikkhārānaṃ. Atha kho te aññatitthiyā paribbājakā bhagavato sakkāraṃ asahamānā bhikkhusaṅghassa ca gāme ca araññe ca bhikkhū disvā asabbhāhi pharusāhi vācāhi akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesentī’’ti.

Tattha asabbhāhīti asabhāyoggāhi sabhāyaṃ sādhujanasamūhe vattuṃ ayuttāhi, duṭṭhullāhīti attho. Pharusāhīti kakkhaḷāhi mammacchedikāhi. Akkosantīti jātiādīhi akkosavatthūhi khuṃsenti. Paribhāsantīti bhaṇḍanavasena bhayaṃ uppādentā tajjenti. Rosentīti yathā parassa roso hoti, evaṃ anuddhaṃsanavasena rosaṃ uppādenti. Vihesentīti viheṭhenti, vividhehi ākārehi aphāsuṃ karonti.

Kathaṃ panete samantapāsādike bhagavati bhikkhusaṅghe ca akkosādīni pavattesunti? Bhagavato uppādato pahīnalābhasakkāratāya upahatacittā pathaviṃ khaṇitvā pakkhalantā viya avaṇe veḷuriyamaṇimhi vaṇaṃ uppādentā viya ca sundarikaṃ nāma paribbājikaṃ saññāpetvā tāya satthu bhikkhūnañca avaṇṇaṃ vuṭṭhāpetvā akkosādīni pavattesuṃ. Taṃ panetaṃ sundarīvatthu parato sundarīsutte (udā. 38) pāḷiyaṃyeva āgamissati, tasmā yamettha vattabbaṃ, taṃ tattheva vaṇṇayissāma.

Bhikkhū bhagavato santikaṃ upasaṅkamitvā taṃ pavattimārocesuṃ. Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘atha kho sambahulā bhikkhū yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu…pe… vihesentī’’ti. Taṃ vuttatthameva.

Etamatthaṃviditvāti etaṃ issāpakatānaṃ titthiyānaṃ vippaṭipattiṃ sabbākārato viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti imaṃ tehi kate vippakāre pasannacittehi ca parehi kate upakāre tādibhāvānubhāvadīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha gāme araññe sukhadukkhaphuṭṭhoti gāme vā araññe vā yattha katthaci sukhena dukkhena ca phuṭṭho sukhadukkhāni anubhavanto, tesaṃ vā paccayehi samaṅgībhūto. Nevattato no parato dahethāti ‘‘ahaṃ sukhito , ahaṃ dukkhito, mama sukhaṃ, mama dukkhaṃ, parenidaṃ mayhaṃ sukhadukkhaṃ uppādita’’nti ca neva attato na parato taṃ sukhadukkhaṃ ṭhapetha. Kasmā? Na hettha khandhapañcake ahanti vā mamanti vā paroti vā parassāti vā passitabbayuttakaṃ kiñci atthi, kevalaṃ saṅkhārā eva pana yathāpaccayaṃ uppajjitvā khaṇe khaṇe bhijjantīti. Sukhadukkhaggahaṇañcettha desanāsīsaṃ, sabbassāpi lokadhammassa vasena attho veditabbo. Iti bhagavā ‘‘nāhaṃ kvacani, kassaci kiñcanatasmiṃ, na ca mama kvacani, katthaci kiñcanatatthī’’ti catukoṭikaṃ suññataṃ vibhāvesi.

Idāni tassa attato parato ca adahanassa kāraṇaṃ dasseti ‘‘phusanti phassā upadhiṃ paṭiccā’’ti. Ete sukhavedanīyā dukkhavedanīyā ca phassā nāma khandhapañcakasaṅkhātaṃ upadhiṃ paṭicca tasmiṃ sati yathāsakaṃ visayaṃ phusanti, tattha pavattantiyeva. Adukkhamasukhā hi vedanā santasabhāvatāya sukhe eva saṅgahaṃ gacchatīti duvidhasamphassavasenevāyaṃ atthavaṇṇanā katā.

Yathā pana te phassā na phusanti, taṃ dassetuṃ ‘‘nirupadhiṃ kena phuseyyuṃ phassā’’ti vuttaṃ. Sabbaso hi khandhūpadhiyā asati kena kāraṇena te phassā phuseyyuṃ, na taṃ kāraṇaṃ atthi. Yadi hi tumhe akkosādivasena uppajjanasukhadukkhaṃ na icchatha, sabbaso nirupadhibhāveyeva yogaṃ kareyyāthāti anupādisesanibbānadhātuyā gāthaṃ niṭṭhapesi. Evaṃ iminā udānena vaṭṭavivaṭṭaṃ kathitaṃ.

Catutthasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

5. Upāsakasuttavaṇṇanā

15. Pañcame icchānaṅgalakoti icchānaṅgalanāmako kosalesu eko brāhmaṇagāmo, taṃnivāsitāya tattha vā jāto bhavoti vā icchānaṅgalako. Upāsakoti tīhi saraṇagamanehi bhagavato santike upāsakabhāvassa paveditattā upāsako pañcasikkhāpadiko buddhamāmako, dhammamāmako, saṅghamāmako. Kenacideva karaṇīyenāti uddhārasodhāpanādinā kenacideva kattabbena. Tīretvāti niṭṭhāpetvā. Ayaṃ kira upāsako pubbe abhiṇhaṃ bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamitvā payirupāsati, so katipayaṃ kālaṃ bahukaraṇīyatāya satthu dassanaṃ nābhisambhosi. Tenāha bhagavā – ‘‘cirassaṃ kho tvaṃ, upāsaka, imaṃ pariyāyamakāsi, yadidaṃ idhāgamanāyā’’ti.

Tattha cirassanti cirena. Pariyāyanti vāraṃ. Yadidanti nipāto, yo ayanti attho. Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – idha mama santike āgamanāya yo ayaṃ ajja kato vāro, taṃ imaṃ cirena papañcaṃ katvā akāsīti. Cirapaṭikāhanti cirapaṭiko ahaṃ, cirakālato paṭṭhāya ahaṃ upasaṅkamitukāmoti sambandho. Kehici kehicīti ekaccehi ekaccehi. Atha vā kehici kehicīti yehi vā tehi vā. Tattha gāravaṃ dasseti. Satthari abhippasannassa hi satthudassanadhammassavanesu viya na aññattha ādaro hoti. Kiccakaraṇīyehīti ettha avassaṃ kātabbaṃ kiccaṃ, itaraṃ karaṇīyaṃ. Paṭhamaṃ vā kātabbaṃ kiccaṃ, pacchā kātabbaṃ karaṇīyaṃ. Khuddakaṃ vā kiccaṃ, mahantaṃ karaṇīyaṃ. Byāvaṭoti ussukko. Evāhanti evaṃ iminā pakārena ahaṃ nāsakkhiṃ upasaṅkamituṃ, na agāravādināti adhippāyo.

Etamatthaṃ viditvāti dullabhe buddhuppāde manussattalābhe ca sattānaṃ sakiñcanabhāvena kiccapasutatāya kusalantarāyo hoti, na akiñcanassāti etamatthaṃ sabbākārato viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti tadatthaparidīpanameva imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha sukhaṃ vata tassa na hoti kiñcīti yassa puggalassa kiñci rūpādīsu ekavatthumpi ‘‘mameta’’nti taṇhāya pariggahitabhāvena na hoti natthi na vijjati, sukhaṃ vata tassa puggalassa, aho sukhamevāti attho. ‘‘Na hosī’’tipi pāṭho, tassa atītakālavasena attho veditabbo. Keci pana na hoti kiñcīti padassa ‘‘rāgādikiñcanaṃ yassa na hotī’’ti atthaṃ vaṇṇenti, taṃ na sundaraṃ pariggahadhammavasena desanāya āgatattā. Rāgādikiñcananti pariggahetabbassāpi saṅgahe sati yuttameva vuttaṃ siyā atha vā yassa puggalassa kiñci appampi kiñcanaṃ palibodhajātaṃ rāgādikiñcanābhāvato eva na hoti, taṃ tassa akiñcanattaṃ sukhassa paccayabhāvato sukhaṃ vataṃ, aho sukhanti attho. Kassa pana na hoti kiñcananti ce, āha ‘‘saṅkhātadhammassa bahussutassā’’ti. Yo catūhipi maggasaṅkhāhi soḷasakiccanipphattiyā saṅkhātadhammo katakicco, tato eva paṭivedhabāhusaccena bahussuto, tassa.

Iti bhagavā akiñcanabhāve ānisaṃsaṃ dassetvā sakiñcanabhāve ādīnavaṃ dassetuṃ ‘‘sakiñcanaṃ passā’’tiādimāha. Tassattho – rāgādikiñcanānaṃ āmisakiñcanānañca atthitāya sakiñcanaṃ, sakiñcanattā eva aladdhānañca laddhānañca kāmānaṃ pariyesanārakkhaṇahetu kiccakaraṇīyavasena ‘‘ahaṃ mamā’’ti gahaṇavasena ca vihaññamānaṃ vighātaṃ āpajjamānaṃ passāti dhammasaṃvegappatto satthā attano cittaṃ vadati. Jano janasmiṃ paṭibandharūpoti sayaṃ añño jano samāno aññasmiṃ jane ‘‘ahaṃ imassa, mama aya’’nti taṇhāvasena paṭibandhasabhāvo hutvā vihaññati vighātaṃ āpajjati. ‘‘Paṭibaddhacitto’’tipi pāṭho. Ayañca attho –

‘‘Puttā matthi dhanammatthi, iti bālo vihaññati;

Attā hi attano natthi, kuto puttā kuto dhana’’nti. (dha. pa. 62) –

Ādīhi suttapadehi dīpetabboti.

Pañcamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

6. Gabbhinīsuttavaṇṇanā

16. Chaṭṭhe aññatarassa paribbājakassāti ekassa kuṭumbikassa paribbājakassa. Daharāti taruṇī. Māṇavikāti brāhmaṇadhītāya vohāro. Pajāpatīti bhariyā. Gabbhinīti āpannasattā. Upavijaññāti ajja suveti paccupaṭṭhitavijāyanakālā hotīti sambandho. So kira brāhmaṇajātiko sabhariyo vādapatthassame ṭhito, tena naṃ sapajāpatikaṃ paribbājakavohārena samudācaranti. Bhariyā panassa brāhmaṇajātikattā brāhmaṇāti ālapati. Telanti tilatelaṃ. Telasīsena cettha yaṃ yaṃ vijātāya pasavadukkhappaṭikāratthaṃ icchitabbaṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ sappiloṇādiṃ āharāti āṇāpeti. Yaṃ me vijātāya bhavissatīti yaṃ telādi mayhaṃ vijātāya bahinikkhantagabbhāya upakārāya bhavissati. ‘‘Paribbājikāyā’’tipi pāṭho. Kutoti kasmā ṭhānā, yato ñātikulā vā mittakulā vā telādiṃ āhareyyaṃ, taṃ ṭhānaṃ me natthīti adhippāyo. Telaṃāharāmīti vattamānasamīpatāya vattamānaṃ katvā vuttaṃ, telaṃ āharissāmīti attho. Samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā sappissa vā telassa vāti ca samuccayattho vā-saddo ‘‘aggito vā udakato vā mithubhedā vā’’tiādīsu (mahāva. 286; dī. ni. 2.152; udā. 76) viya. Sappissa vā telassa vāti paccatte sāmivacanaṃ, sappi ca telañca yāvadatthaṃ pātuṃ pivituṃ dīyatīti attho. Apare pana ‘‘sappissa vā telassa vāti avayavasambandhe sāmivacanaṃ. Sappitelasamudāyassa hi avayavo idha yāvadatthasaddena vuccatī’’ti vadanti. No nīharitunti bhājanena vā hatthena vā bahi netuṃ no dīyati, ucchadditvānāti vamitvā, yaṃnūna dadeyyanti sambandho. Evaṃ kirassa ahosi ‘‘ahaṃ rañño koṭṭhāgāraṃ gantvā telaṃ kaṇṭhamattaṃ pivitvā tāvadeva gharaṃ āgantvā ekasmiṃ bhājane yathāpītaṃ vamitvā uddhanaṃ āropetvā pacissāmi, yaṃ pittasemhādimissitaṃ, taṃ agginā jhāyissati, telaṃ pana gahetvā imissā paribbājikāya kamme upanessāmī’’ti.

Uddhaṃ kātunti vamanavasena uddhaṃ nīharituṃ. Na pana adhoti viriñcanavasena heṭṭhā nīharituṃ na pana sakkoti. So hi ‘‘adhikaṃ pītaṃ sayameva mukhato niggamissatī’’ti pivitvā āsayassa arittatāya aniggate vamanavirecanayogaṃ ajānanto alabhanto vā kevalaṃ dukkhāhi vedanāhi phuṭṭho āvaṭṭati ca parivaṭṭati ca. Dukkhāhīti dukkhamāhi. Tibbāhīti bahalāhi tikhiṇāhi vā. Kharāhīti kakkhaḷāhi. Kaṭukāhīti ativiya aniṭṭhabhāvena dāruṇāhi. Āvaṭṭatīti ekasmiṃyeva ṭhāne anipajjitvā attano sarīraṃ ito cito ākaḍḍhanto āvaṭṭati. Parivaṭṭatīti ekasmiṃ padese nipannopi aṅgapaccaṅgāni parito khipanto vaṭṭati, abhimukhaṃ vā vaṭṭanto āvaṭṭati, samantato vaṭṭanto parivaṭṭati.

Etamatthaṃ viditvāti ‘‘sakiñcanassa appaṭisaṅkhāparibhogahetukā ayaṃ dukkhuppatti, akiñcanassa pana sabbaso ayaṃ natthī’’ti etamatthaṃ sabbākārato jānitvā tadatthappakāsanaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha sukhino vatāti sukhino vata sappurisā. Ke pana teti? Ye akiñcanā, ye rāgādikiñcanassa pariggahakiñcanassa ca abhāvena akiñcanā, kesaṃ panidaṃ kiñcanaṃ natthīti āha – ‘‘vedaguno hi janā akiñcanā’’ti, ye ariyamaggañāṇasaṅkhātaṃ vedaṃ gatā adhigatā, tena vā vedena nibbānaṃ gatāti vedaguno, te ariyajanā khīṇāsavapuggalā anavasesarāgādikiñcanānaṃ aggamaggena samucchinnattā akiñcanā nāma. Asati hi rāgādikiñcane kuto pariggahakiñcanassa sambhavo. Evaṃ gāthāya purimabhāgena arahante pasaṃsitvā aparabhāgena andhaputhujjane garahanto ‘‘sakiñcanaṃ passā’’tiādimāha. Taṃ purimasutte vuttatthameva. Evaṃ imāyapi gāthāya vaṭṭavivaṭṭaṃ kathitaṃ.

Chaṭṭhasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

7. Ekaputtakasuttavaṇṇanā

17. Sattame ekaputtakoti eko putto, so ca anukampitabbaṭṭhena ekaputtako, piyāyitabbaṭṭhena piyo, manassa vaḍḍhanaṭṭhena manāpo. Sarīrasobhāsampattiyā vā dassanīyaṭṭhena piyo, sīlācārasampattiyā kalyāṇadhammatāya manāpo. Kaleti satte khepetīti kālo, maraṇaṃ. Taṃ kato pattoti kālaṅkato, kālena vā maccunā kato naṭṭho adassanaṃ gatoti kālaṅkato, matoti attho.

Sambahulā upāsakāti sāvatthivāsino bahū upāsakā mataputtaupāsakassa sahasokībhāvena yāva āḷāhanā pacchato gantvā matasarīrassa kattabbaṃ kāretvā paṭinivattā yathānivatthāva udakaṃ otaritvā sīsaṃnhātā vatthāni pīḷetvā anotāpetvāva ekaṃ nivāsetvā ekaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ katvā upāsakaṃ purato katvā ‘‘sokavinodanaṃ dhammaṃ satthu santike sossāmā’’ti bhagavantaṃ upasaṅkamiṃsu. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘allakesā’’tiādi.

Tattha allavatthāti udakena tintavatthā. Divā divassāti divasassapi divā, majjhanhike kāleti attho. Yasmā jānantāpi tathāgatā pucchanti , jānantāpi na pucchanti. Kālaṃ viditvā pucchanti, kālaṃ viditvā na pucchanti, tasmā jānantoyeva bhagavā kathāsamuṭṭhāpanatthaṃ pucchanto ‘‘kiṃ nu kho tumhe upāsakā’’tiādimāha. Tassattho – tumhe upāsakā aññesu divasesu mama santikaṃ āgacchantā otāpitasuddhavatthā sāyanhe āgacchatha, ajja pana allavatthā allakesā ṭhitamajjhanhike kāle idhāgatā, taṃ kiṃ kāraṇanti. Tena mayanti tena puttaviyogajanitacittasantāpena balavasokābhibhūtatāya evaṃbhūtā mayaṃ idhūpasaṅkamantāti.

Etamatthaṃ viditvāti piyavatthusambhavā sokadukkhadomanassādayo, asati piyavatthusmiṃ sabbaso ete na santīti etamatthaṃ sabbākārato jānitvā tadatthappakāsanaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha piyarūpassādagadhitāseti piyasabhāvesu rūpakkhandhādīsu sukhavedanassādena gadhitā paṭibaddhacittā. Gadhitāseti hi gadhitāiccevattho. Seti vā nipātamattaṃ. Piyarūpā nāma cakkhādayo puttadārādayo ca. Vuttañhetaṃ – ‘‘kiñca loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ cakkhu loke …pe… dhammataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpa’’nti (cūḷani. hemakamāṇavapucchāniddesa 55).

‘‘Khettaṃ vatthuṃ hiraññaṃ vā, gavassaṃ dāsaporisaṃ;

Thiyo bandhū puthu kāme, yo naro anugijjhatī’’ti ca. (su. ni. 775);

Tasmā tesu piyarūpesu assādena giddhā mucchitā ajjhāpannāti attho. Ke pana te piyarūpassādagadhitāti te dasseti ‘‘devakāyāputhumanussā cā’’ti, cātumahārājikādayo bahudevasamūhā ceva jambudīpakādikā bahumanussā ca. Aghāvinoti kāyikacetasikadukkhena dukkhitā. Parijunnāti jarārogādivipattiyā yobbanārogyādisampattito parihīnā. Yathālābhavasena vāyamattho devamanussesu veditabbo. Atha vā kāmañcekantasukhasamappitānaṃ devānaṃ dukkhajarārogā na sambhavanti, tadanativattasabhāvatāya pana tepi ‘‘aghāvino’’ti ‘‘parijunnā’’ti ca vuttā. Tesampi vā pubbanimittuppattiyā paṭicchannajarāya cetasikarogassa ca vasena dukkhādīnaṃ sambhavo veditabbo. Maccurājassa vasaṃ gacchantīti piyavatthuvisayāya taṇhāya appahīnattā punappunaṃ gabbhūpagamanato dhātuttayissaratāya maccurājasaṅkhātassa maraṇassa vasaṃ hatthameva gacchanti.

Ettāvatā vaṭṭaṃ dassetvā idāni ‘‘ye ve divā’’tiādinā vivaṭṭaṃ dasseti. Tattha ye ve divā ca ratto ca appamattāti ‘‘divasaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhetī’’tiādinā vuttanayena divasabhāge rattibhāge ca daḷhaṃ appamattā appamādappaṭipadaṃ pūrenti. Jahanti piyarūpanti catusaccakammaṭṭhānabhāvanaṃ ussukkāpetvā ariyamaggādhigamena piyarūpaṃ piyajātikaṃ cakkhādipiyavatthuṃ tappaṭibaddhachandarāgajahanena jahanti. Te ve khaṇanti aghamūlaṃ, maccuno āmisaṃ durativattanti te ariyapuggalā aghassa vaṭṭadukkhassa mūlabhūtaṃ, maccunā maraṇena āmasitabbato āmisaṃ, ito bahiddhā kehicipi samaṇabrāhmaṇehi nivattituṃ asakkuṇeyyatāya durativattaṃ, saha avijjāya taṇhaṃ ariyamaggañāṇakudālena khaṇanti, lesamattampi anavasesantā ummūlayantīti. Svāyamattho –

‘‘Appamādo amatapadaṃ, pamādo maccuno padaṃ;

Appamattā na mīyanti, ye pamattā yathā matā’’ti. (dha. pa. 21) –

Ādīhi suttapadehi vitthāretabboti.

Sattamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

8. Suppavāsāsuttavaṇṇanā

18. Aṭṭhame kuṇḍikāyanti evaṃnāmake koliyānaṃ nagare. Kuṇḍadhānavaneti tassa nagarassa avidūre kuṇḍadhānasaṅkhāte vane.

Pubbe kira kuṇḍo nāma eko yakkho tasmiṃ vanasaṇḍe vāsaṃ kappesi, kuṇḍadhānamissakena ca balikammena tussatīti tassa tathā tattha baliṃ upaharanti, tenetaṃ vanasaṇḍaṃ kuṇḍadhānavanantveva paññāyittha. Tassa avidūre ekā gāmapatikā ahosi, sāpi tassa yakkhassa āṇāpavattiṭṭhāne niviṭṭhattā teneva paripālitattā kuṇḍikāti voharīyittha . Aparabhāge tattha koliyarājāno nagaraṃ kāresuṃ, tampi purimavohārena kuṇḍikātveva vuccati. Tasmiñca vanasaṇḍe koliyarājāno bhagavato bhikkhusaṅghassa ca vasanatthāya vihāraṃ patiṭṭhāpesuṃ, tampi kuṇḍadhānavanantveva paññāyittha. Atha bhagavā janapadacārikaṃ caranto anukkamena taṃ vihāraṃ patvā tattha vihāsi. Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kuṇḍikāyaṃ viharati kuṇḍadhānavane’’ti.

Suppavāsāti tassā upāsikāya nāmaṃ. Koliyadhītāti koliyarājaputtī. Sā hi bhagavato aggupaṭṭhāyikā paṇītadāyikānaṃ sāvikānaṃ etadagge ṭhapitā sotāpannā ariyasāvikā. Yañhi kiñci bhagavato yuttarūpaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ bhesajjaṃ vā na tattha aññāhi saṃvidhātabbaṃ atthi, sabbaṃ taṃ sayameva attano paññāya vicāretvā sakkaccaṃ sampādetvā upaneti. Devasikañca aṭṭhasataṃ saṅghabhattapāṭipuggalikabhattāni deti. Yo koci bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā taṃ kulaṃ piṇḍāya paviṭṭho rittahattho na gacchati. Evaṃ muttacāgā payatapāṇī vossaggaratā yācayogā dānasaṃvibhāgaratā. Assā kucchiyaṃ purimabuddhesu katādhikāro pacchimabhaviko sāvakabodhisatto paṭisandhiṃ gaṇhi. Sā taṃ gabbhaṃ kenacideva pāpakammena satta vassāni kucchinā parihari, sattāhañca mūḷhagabbhā ahosi. Tena vuttaṃ – ‘‘satta vassāni gabbhaṃ dhāreti sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhā’’ti.

Tattha satta vassānīti satta saṃvaccharāni, accantasaṃyoge ca idaṃ upayogavacanaṃ. Gabbhaṃ dhāretīti gabbhaṃ vahati, gabbhinī hotīti attho. Sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhāti satta ahāni byākulagabbhā. Gabbho hi paripakko sampajjamāno vijāyanakāle kammajavātehi sañcāletvā parivattito uddhaṃpādo adhosiro hutvā yonimukhābhimukho hoti, evaṃ so katthaci alaggo bahi nikkhamati. Vipajjamāno pana viparivattanavasena yonimaggaṃ pidahitvā tiriyaṃ nipajjati, sayameva vā yonimaggo pidahati, so tattha kammajavātehi aparāparaṃ parivattamāno byākulo mūḷhagabbhoti vuccati. Tassāpi satta divase evaṃ ahosi, tena vuttaṃ ‘‘sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhā’’ti.

Ayañca gabbho sīvalitthero. Tassa kathaṃ satta vassāni gabbhavāsadukkhaṃ, sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhabhāvappatti, mātu cassāpi sotāpannāya ariyasāvikāya tathā dukkhānubhavanaṃ jātanti? Vuccate – atīte kāsikarāje bārāṇasiyaṃ rajjaṃ kārente eko kosalarājā mahantena balenāgantvā bārāṇasiṃ gahetvā taṃ rājānaṃ māretvā tassa aggamahesiṃ attano aggamahesiṃ akāsi. Bārāṇasirañño pana putto pitu maraṇakāle niddhamanadvārena palāyitvā attano ñātimittabandhave ekajjhaṃ katvā anukkamena balaṃ saṃharitvā bārāṇasiṃ āgantvā avidūre mahantaṃ khandhāvāraṃ bandhitvā tassa rañño paṇṇaṃ pesesi ‘‘rajjaṃ vā detu, yuddhaṃ vā’’ti . Rājakumārassa mātā sāsanaṃ sutvā ‘‘yuddhena kammaṃ natthi, sabbadisāsu sañcāraṃ pacchinditvā bārāṇasinagaraṃ parivāretu, tato dārūdakabhattaparikkhayena kilantā nagare manussā vināva yuddhena rājānaṃ gahetvā dassantī’’ti paṇṇaṃ pesesi. So mātu sāsanaṃ sutvā cattāri mahādvārāni rakkhanto satta vassāni nagaraṃ uparundhi, nagare manussā cūḷadvārena nikkhamitvā dārūdakāni āharanti, sabbakiccāni karonti.

Atha rājakumārassa mātā taṃ pavattiṃ sutvā ‘‘bālo mama putto upāyaṃ na jānāti, gacchatha, assa cūḷadvārāni pidhāya nagaraṃ uparundhatūti vadethā’’ti puttassa gūḷhasāsanaṃ pahiṇi. So mātu sāsanaṃ sutvā satta divase tathā akāsi. Nāgarā bahi nikkhamituṃ alabhantā sattame divase tassa rañño sīsaṃ gahetvā kumārassa adaṃsu. Kumāro nagaraṃ pavisitvā rajjaṃ aggahesi. So tadā satta vassāni nagararundhanakammanissandena etarahi satta vassāni mātukucchisaṅkhātāya lohitakumbhiyā vasi, avasesato pana sattāhaṃ nagarūparundhanena sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhabhāvaṃ āpajji. Jātakaṭṭhakathāyaṃ pana ‘‘satta divasāni nagaraṃ rundhitvā gahitakammanissandena sattavassāni lohitakumbhiyaṃ vasitvā sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhabhāvaṃ āpajjī’’ti vuttaṃ. Yaṃ pana so padumuttarasammāsambuddhapādamūle ‘‘lābhīnaṃ aggo bhaveyya’’nti mahādānaṃ datvā patthanaṃ akāsi, yañca vipassissa bhagavato kāle nāgarehi saddhiṃ sahassagghanikaṃ guḷadadhiṃ datvā patthanaṃ akāsi, tassānubhāvena lābhīnaṃ aggo jāto. Suppavāsāpi ‘‘nagaraṃ rundhitvā gaṇha, tātā’’ti pesitabhāvena satta vassāni kucchinā gabbhaṃ pariharitvā sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhājātā . Evaṃ te mātāputtā attano kammassa anurūpaṃ īdisaṃ dukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvediṃsu.

Tīhivitakkehīti ratanattayaguṇānussatipaṭisaṃyuttehi tīhi sammāvitakkehi. Adhivāsetīti mūḷhagabbhatāya uppannadukkhaṃ sahati. Sā hi bhagavato sambuddhabhāvaṃ, ariyasaṅghassa suppaṭipattiṃ, nibbānassa ca dukkhanissaraṇabhāvaṃ anussarantī attano uppajjamānadukkhaṃ amanasikaraṇeneva abhibhavitvā khamati. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘tīhi vitakkehi adhivāsetī’’ti.

Sammāsambuddho vatātiādi tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ pavattiākāradassanaṃ. Tassattho – yo bhagyavantatādīhi kāraṇehi bhagavā lokanātho sammā aviparītaṃ sāmaṃ sayameva sabbadhamme aho vata buddho, so bhagavā evarūpassa etarahi mayā anubhaviyamānassa aññassa ca evaṃjātikassa sakalassa vaṭṭadukkhassa pahānāya accantaṃ anuppādanirodhāya dhammaṃ katheti, aviparītadhammaṃ katheti. Aviparītadhammadesanatāya hi satthu sammāsambodhisiddhi. Tassa yathāvuttaguṇassa bhagavato dhammassavanante jātattā sīladiṭṭhisāmaññena saṃhatattā ca sāvakasaṅghoti laddhanāmo aṭṭhaariyapuggalasamūho suppaṭipanno vata aho vata sammā paṭipanno, yo ariyasaṅgho evarūpassa īdisassa vaṭṭadukkhassa pahānāya anuppādanirodhāya anivattipaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno. Susukhaṃ vata aho vata suṭṭhu sukhaṃ sabbasaṅkhatanissaṭaṃ nibbānaṃ, yasmiṃ nibbāne īdisaṃ vaṭṭadukkhaṃ na upalabbhatīti. Ettha ca paṭipajjamānāpi paṭipannā icceva vuttā paṭipattiyā anivattibhāvato. Atha vā uppannasaddo viya paṭipannasaddo vattamānatthopi veditabbo. Tenevāha ‘‘sotāpattiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno’’ti.

Sāmikanti attano patiṃ koliyarājaputtaṃ. Āmantesīti abhāsi. Mama vacanena bhagavato pāde sirasā vandāhīti mayhaṃ vacanena cakkalakkhaṇappaṭimaṇḍitāni vikasitapadumasassirīkāni bhagavato caraṇāni tava sirasā vandāhi, uttamaṅgena abhivādanaṃ karohīti attho. Appābādhantiādīsu ābādhoti visabhāgavedanā vuccati, yā ekadese uppajjitvāpi sakalasarīraṃ ayapaṭṭena ābandhitvā viya gaṇhati. Ātaṅkoti kicchajīvitakaro rogo. Atha vā yāpetabbarogo ātaṅko, itaro ābādho. Khuddako vā rogo ātaṅko, balavā ābādho. Keci pana ‘‘ajjhattasamuṭṭhāno ābādho, bahiddhāsamuṭṭhāno ātaṅko’’ti vadanti. Tadubhayassāpi abhāvaṃ pucchāti vadati. Gilānasseva ca uṭṭhānaṃ nāma garukaṃ hoti, kāye balaṃ na hoti, tasmā niggelaññatāya lahuparivattisaṅkhātaṃ kāyassa lahuṭṭhānaṃ sarīrabalañca pucchāti vadati. Phāsuvihāranti ṭhānanisinnagamanasayanasaṅkhātesu catūsu iriyāpathesu sukhavihārañca pucchāti vadati. Athassa pucchitabbākāraṃ dassentī ‘‘suppavāsā, bhante’’tiādimāha. Evañca vadehīti idāni vattabbākāraṃ nidasseti.

Paramanti vacanasampaṭicchanaṃ. Tena sādhu, bhadde, yathā vuttaṃ, tathā paṭipajjāmīti dasseti. Koliyaputtoti suppavāsāya sāmiko koliyarājaputto. Sukhinī hotūti sadevake loke aggadakkhiṇeyyo satthā suppavāsāya pesitavandanaṃ sampaṭicchitvā tadanantaraṃ attano mettāvihārasaṃsūcakaṃ buddhāciṇṇaṃ sukhūpasaṃhāraṃ tassā sāmaññato pakāsetvā puna tassā puttassa ca gabbhavipattimūlakadukkhuppattipaṭikkhepamukhena sukhūpasaṃhāraṃ nidassento ‘‘sukhinī…pe… arogā, arogaṃ puttaṃ vijāyatū’’ti āha.

Sahavacanāti bhagavato vacanena saheva. Yasmiṃ kāle bhagavā tathā avoca, tasmiṃyeva kāle tampi kammaṃ parikkhayaṃ agamāsi. Tassa parikkhīṇabhāvaṃ oloketvā satthā tathā abhāsi. Apare pana vadanti – sace tathā satthā nācikkhissā, tato parampi kiñci kālaṃ tassā taṃ dukkhaṃ anubandhissā. Yasmā pana bhagavatā ‘‘sukhinī arogā arogañca puttaṃ vijāyatū’’ti vuttaṃ, tasmā tassa vacanasamakālameva so gabbho byākulabhāvaṃ vijahitvā sukheneva bahi nikkhami, evaṃ tesaṃ mātāputtānaṃ sotthi ahosi. Acinteyyo hi buddhānaṃ buddhānubhāvo. Yathā hi paṭācārāya piyavippayogasambhūtena sokena ummādaṃ patvā –

‘‘Ubho puttā kālakatā, panthe mayhaṃ patī mato;

Mātā pitā ca bhātā ca, ekacitakamhi jhāyare’’ti. (apa. therī 2.2.498) –

Vatvā jātarūpeneva carantiyā ‘‘satiṃ paṭilabhāhi bhaginī’’ti bhagavato vacanasamanantarameva ummādo vūpasami, tathā suppiyāpi upāsikā attanāva attano ūruyaṃ katena mahāvaṇena vuṭṭhātuṃ asakkontī sayanapiṭṭhe nipannā ‘‘āgantvā maṃ vandatū’’ti vacanasamanantarameva vaṇe pākatike jāte sayameva gantvā bhagavantaṃ vandīti evamādīni vatthūni idha udāharitabbānīti.

Evaṃ, bhanteti, bhante, yathā bhagavā saputtāya mātuyā arogabhāvaṃ āsīsanto āha – ‘‘sukhinī arogā arogaṃ puttaṃ vijāyatū’’ti, taṃ evameva. Na hi kadāci buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ vacanassa aññathābhāvoti adhippāyo. Keci pana ‘‘evamatthū’’ti vadanti, apare ‘‘hotū’’ti padassa atthaṃ ānetvā vaṇṇayanti. Abhinanditvāti karavīkarutamañjunā brahmassarena bhagavatā vuccamāne tasmiṃ vacane pītisomanassapaṭilābhato abhimukhabhāvena nanditvā. Anumoditvāti tato pacchāpi sammodanaṃ uppādetvā, cittena vā abhinanditvā vācāya anumoditvā, vacanasampattiyā vā abhinanditvā atthasampattiyā anumoditvā. Sakaṃ gharaṃ paccāyāsīti attano gharaṃ paṭigacchi. Ye pana ‘‘yena sakaṃ ghara’’nti paṭhanti, tesaṃ yadipi ya-ta-saddānaṃ sambandhabhāvato ‘‘tenā’’ti padaṃ vuttameva hoti, tathāpi ‘‘paṭiyāyitvā’’ti pāṭhaseso yojetabbo hoti.

Vijātanti pajātaṃ, pasutanti attho. Acchariyanti andhassa pabbatārohanaṃ viya niccaṃ na hotīti acchariyaṃ, ayaṃ tāva saddanayo. Aṭṭhakathāsu pana ‘‘accharāyoggaṃ acchariya’’nti vuttaṃ , accharaṃ paharituṃ yuttanti attho. Vatāti sambhāvane, aho acchariyanti attho. Bhoti dhammālapanaṃ. Abhūtapubbaṃ bhūtanti abbhutaṃ.

Tathāgatassāti aṭṭhahi kāraṇehi bhagavā tathāgato – tathā āgatoti tathāgato, tathā gatoti tathāgato, tathalakkhaṇaṃ āgatoti tathāgato, tathadhamme yāthāvato abhisambuddhoti tathāgato, tathadassitāya tathāgato, tathavāditāya tathāgato, tathākāritāya tathāgato, abhibhavanaṭṭhena tathāgato.

Kathaṃ bhagavā tathā āgatoti tathāgato? Yathā sabbalokahitāya ussukkamāpannā purimakā sammāsambuddhā āgatāti. Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? Yena abhinīhārena te bhagavanto āgatā, tena aṭṭhaguṇasamannāgatena ayampi bhagavā āgato. Yathā ca te bhagavanto dānapāramiṃ pūretvā sīlanekkhammapaññāvīriyakhantisaccaadhiṭṭhānamettāupekkhāpāramīti imā dasa pāramiyo, dasa upapāramiyo, dasa paramatthapāramiyoti samatiṃsa pāramiyo pūretvā pañca mahāpariccāge pariccajitvā pubbayogapubbacariyadhammakkhānañātatthacariyādayo pūretvā buddhicariyāya koṭiṃ patvā āgatā, tathā ayampi bhagavā āgato. Yathā ca te bhagavanto cattāro satipaṭṭhāne…pe… ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvetvā brūhetvā āgatā, tathā ayampi bhagavā āgato. Evaṃ tathā āgatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathā gatoti tathāgato? Yathā sampatijātā te bhagavanto samehi pādehi pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāya uttarābhimukhā sattapadavītihārena gatā, setacchatte dhāriyamāne sabbāva disā anuvilokesuṃ, āsabhiñca vācaṃ bhāsiṃsu loke attano jeṭṭhaseṭṭhabhāvaṃ pakāsentā, tañca nesaṃ gamanaṃ tathaṃ ahosi avitathaṃ anekesaṃ visesādhigamānaṃ pubbanimittabhāvena, tathā ayampi bhagavā gato, tañcassa gamanaṃ kathaṃ ahosi avitathaṃ tesaññeva visesādhigamānaṃ pubbanimittabhāvena. Evaṃ tathā gatoti tathāgato.

Yathā vā te bhagavanto nekkhammena kāmacchandaṃ pahāya gatā, abyāpādena byāpādaṃ, ālokasaññāya thinamiddhaṃ, avikkhepena uddhaccakukkuccaṃ, dhammavavatthānena vicikicchaṃ pahāya gatā, ñāṇena avijjaṃ padāletvā, pāmojjena aratiṃ vinodetvā, aṭṭhasamāpattīhi aṭṭhārasahi mahāvipassanāhi catūhi ca ariyamaggehi taṃ taṃ paṭipakkhaṃ pahāya gatā, evaṃ ayampi bhagavā gato. Evampi tathā gatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathalakkhaṇaṃ āgatoti tathāgato? Pathavīdhātuyā kakkhaḷalakkhaṇaṃ, āpodhātuyā paggharaṇalakkhaṇaṃ, tejodhātuyā uṇhattalakkhaṇaṃ, vāyodhātuyā vitthambhanalakkhaṇaṃ, ākāsadhātuyā asamphuṭṭhalakkhaṇaṃ, rūpassa ruppanalakkhaṇaṃ, vedanāya vedayitalakkhaṇaṃ, saññāya sañjānanalakkhaṇaṃ, saṅkhārānaṃ abhisaṅkharaṇalakkhaṇaṃ, viññāṇassa vijānanalakkhaṇanti evaṃ pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ, dvādasannaṃ āyatanānaṃ, aṭṭhārasannaṃ dhātūnaṃ, bāvīsatiyā indriyānaṃ, catunnaṃ saccānaṃ, dvādasapadikassa paccayākārassa, catunnaṃ satipaṭṭhānānaṃ, catunnaṃ sammappadhānānaṃ, catunnaṃ iddhipādānaṃ, pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ, pañcannaṃ balānaṃ, sattannaṃ bojjhaṅgānaṃ, ariyassa aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa, sattannaṃ visuddhīnaṃ, amatogadhassa nibbānassāti evaṃ tassa tassa dhammassa yaṃ sabhāvasarasalakkhaṇaṃ, taṃ tathaṃ avitathaṃ anaññathaṃ lakkhaṇaṃ ñāṇagatiyā āgato avirajjhitvā patto adhigatoti tathāgato. Evaṃ tathalakkhaṇaṃ āgatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathadhamme yāthāvato abhisambuddhoti tathāgato? Tathadhammā nāma cattāri ariyasaccāni. Yathāha – ‘‘cattārimāni, bhikkhave, tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Katamāni cattāri? Idaṃ dukkhanti, bhikkhave, tathametaṃ avitathametaṃ anaññathameta’’nti (saṃ. ni. 5.1090) vitthāro. Tāni ca bhagavā abhisambuddho, tasmā tathānaṃ abhisambuddhattā tathāgato.

Apica jarāmaraṇassa jātipaccayasambhūtasamudāgataṭṭho tatho avitatho anaññatho…pe… saṅkhārānaṃ avijjāpaccayasambhūtasamudāgataṭṭho tatho avitatho anaññatho, tathā avijjāya saṅkhārānaṃ paccayaṭṭho…pe… jātiyā jarāmaraṇassa paccayaṭṭho tatho avitatho anaññatho, taṃ sabbaṃ bhagavā abhisambuddho, tasmāpi tathānaṃ abhisambuddhattā tathāgato. Abhisambuddhattho hi ettha gatasaddoti. Evaṃ tathadhamme yāthāvato abhisambuddhoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathadassitāya tathāgato? Yaṃ sadevake…pe… sadevamanussāya pajāya aparimāṇāsu lokadhātūsu aparimāṇānaṃ sattānaṃ cakkhudvāre āpāthamāgacchantaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ nāma atthi, taṃ bhagavā sabbākārato jānāti passati. Evaṃ jānatā passatā ca tena taṃ iṭṭhāniṭṭhādivasena vā diṭṭhasutamutaviññātesu labbhamānakapadavasena vā ‘‘katamaṃ taṃ rūpaṃ rūpāyatanaṃ , yaṃ rūpaṃ catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya vaṇṇanibhā sanidassanaṃ sappaṭighaṃ nīlaṃ pītaka’’ntiādinā (dha. sa. 616) nayena anekehi nāmehi terasahi vārehi dvipaññāsāya nayehi vibhajjamānaṃ tathameva hoti, vitathaṃ natthi. Esa nayo sotadvārādīsu āpāthamāgacchantesu saddādīsu. Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –

‘‘Yaṃ , bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa…pe… sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, tamahaṃ jānāmi, tamahaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, taṃ tathāgatassa viditaṃ, taṃ tathāgato na upaṭṭhāsī’’ti (a. ni. 4.24).

Evaṃ tathadassitāya tathāgato . Tattha tathadassīatthe tathāgatoti padasambhavo veditabbo.

Kathaṃ tathavāditāya tathāgato? Yaṃ rattiṃ bhagavā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho, yañca rattiṃ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyi, etthantare pañcacattālīsavassaparimāṇakālaṃ yaṃ bhagavatā bhāsitaṃ lapitaṃ suttageyyādi, sabbaṃ taṃ parisuddhaṃ paripuṇṇaṃ rāgamadādinimmathanaṃ ekasadisaṃ tathaṃ avitathaṃ. Tenāha –

‘‘Yañca, cunda, rattiṃ tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, yañca rattiṃ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, yaṃ etasmiṃ antare bhāsati lapati niddisati, sabbaṃ taṃ tatheva hoti, no aññathā, tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccatī’’ti (dī. ni. 3.188).

Gadaattho ettha gatasaddo. Evaṃ tathavāditāya tathāgato.

Apica āgadanaṃ āgado, vacananti attho. Tatho avitatho aviparīto āgado assāti dakārassa takāraṃ katvā tathāgatoti evamettha padasiddhi veditabbā.

Kathaṃ tathākāritāya tathāgato? Bhagavato hi vācāya kāyo anulometi, kāyassapi vācā, tasmā yathāvādī tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī ca hoti. Evaṃbhūtassa cassa yathāvācā, kāyopi tathā gato pavattoti attho. Yathā ca kāyo, vācāpi tathā gatā pavattāti tathāgato. Tenāha –

‘‘Yathāvādī , bhikkhave, tathāgato tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī. Iti yathāvādī tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī. Tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccatī’’ti (a. ni. 4.23).

Evaṃ tathākāritāya tathāgato.

Kathaṃ abhibhavanaṭṭhena tathāgato? Yasmā upari bhavaggaṃ heṭṭhā avīciṃ pariyantaṃ karitvā tiriyaṃ aparimāṇāsu lokadhātūsu sabbasatte abhibhavati sīlenapi samādhināpi paññāyapi vimuttiyāpi vimuttiñāṇadassanenapi , na tassa tulā vā pamāṇaṃ vā atthi, atha kho atulo appameyyo anuttaro devadevo sakkānaṃ atisakko, brahmānaṃ atibrahmā sabbasattuttamo, tasmā tathāgato. Tenāha –

‘‘Sadevake, bhikkhave, loke…pe… sadevamanussāya tathāgato abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavatti, tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccatī’’ti (a. ni. 4.23).

Tatrāyaṃ padasiddhi – agado viya agado, desanāvilāso ceva puññussayo ca. Tena so mahānubhāvo bhisakko viya dibbāgadena sappe sabbaparappavādino sadevakañca lokaṃ abhibhavati. Iti sabbalokābhibhavane tatho avitatho aviparīto yathāvuttova agado etassāti dakārassa takāraṃ katvā tathāgatoti veditabbo. Evaṃ abhibhavanaṭṭhena tathāgato.

Apica tathāya gatoti tathāgato, tathaṃ gatoti tathāgato. Tattha sakalalokaṃ tīraṇapariññāya tathāya gato avagatoti tathāgato. Lokasamudayaṃ pahānapariññāya tathāya gato atītoti tathāgato. Lokanirodhaṃ sacchikiriyāya tathāya gato adhigatoti tathāgato. Lokanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ tathaṃ gato paṭipannoti tathāgato. Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –

‘‘Loko, bhikkhave, tathāgatena abhisambuddho, lokasmā tathāgato visaṃyutto. Lokasamudayo, bhikkhave, tathāgatena abhisambuddho, lokasamudayo tathāgatassa pahīno, lokanirodho, bhikkhave, tathāgatena abhisambuddho, lokanirodho tathāgatassa sacchikato. Lokanirodhagāminī paṭipadā , bhikkhave, tathāgatena abhisambuddhā , lokanirodhagāminī paṭipadā tathāgatassa bhāvitā. Yaṃ, bhikkhave , sadevakassa lokassa…pe… sabbaṃ taṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ. Tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccatī’’ti (a. ni. 4.23).

Aparehipi aṭṭhahi kāraṇehi bhagavā tathāgato – tathāya āgatoti tathāgato, tathāya gatoti tathāgato, tathāni āgatoti tathāgato, tathā gatoti tathāgato, tathāvidhoti tathāgato, tathā pavattitoti tathāgato, tathehi agatoti tathāgato, tathā gatabhāvena tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathāya āgatoti tathāgato? Yā sā bhagavatā sumedhabhūtena dīpaṅkaradasabalassa pādamūle –

‘‘Manussattaṃ liṅgasampatti, hetu satthāradassanaṃ,

Pabbajjā guṇasampatti, adhikāro ca chandatā;

Aṭṭhadhammasamodhānā, abhinīhāro samijjhatī’’ti. (bu. vaṃ. 2.59) –

Evaṃ vuttaṃ aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ abhinīhāraṃ sampādentena ‘‘ahaṃ sadevakaṃ lokaṃ tiṇṇo tāressāmi, mutto mocessāmi, danto damessāmi, santo samessāmi, assattho assāsessāmi, parinibbuto parinibbāpessāmi, buddho bodhessāmī’’ti mahāpaṭiññā pavattitā. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Kiṃ me ekena tiṇṇena, purisena thāmadassinā;

Sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇitvā, santāressaṃ sadevakaṃ.

‘‘Iminā me adhikārena, katena purisuttame;

Sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇitvā, tāremi janataṃ bahuṃ.

‘‘Saṃsārasotaṃ chinditvā, viddhaṃsetvā tayo bhave;

Dhammanāvaṃ samāruyha, santāressaṃ sadevakaṃ.

‘‘Kiṃ me aññātavesena, dhammaṃ sacchikatenidha;

Sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇitvā, buddho hessaṃ sadevake’’ti. (bu. vaṃ. 2.55-58);

Taṃ panetaṃ mahāpaṭiññaṃ sakalassāpi buddhakaradhammasamudāyassa pavicaya paccavekkhaṇasamādānānaṃ kāraṇabhūtaṃ avisaṃvādetvā lokanāyako yasmā mahākappānaṃ satasahassādhikāni cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni sakkaccaṃ nirantaraṃ niravasesato dānapāramiādayo samatiṃsapāramiyo pūretvā, aṅgapariccāgādayo pañca mahāpariccāge pariccajitvā, saccādhiṭṭhānādīni cattāri adhiṭṭhānāni paribrūhetvā, puññañāṇasambhāre sambharitvā, pubbayogapubbacariyadhammakkhānañātatthacariyādayo ukkaṃsāpetvā, buddhicariyaṃ paramakoṭiṃ pāpetvā, anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhi, tasmā tasseva sā mahāpaṭiññā tathā avitathā anaññathā, na tassa vālaggamattampi vitathaṃ atthi. Tathā hi dīpaṅkaradasabalo koṇḍañño maṅgalo…pe… kassapo bhagavāti ime catuvīsati sammāsambuddhā paṭipāṭiyā uppannā ‘‘buddho bhavissatī’’ti byākariṃsu. Evaṃ catuvīsatiyā buddhānaṃ santike laddhabyākaraṇo ye te katābhinīhārehi bodhisattehi laddhabbā ānisaṃsā, te labhitvāva āgatoti tāya yathāvuttāya mahāpaṭiññāya tathāya abhisambuddhabhāvaṃ āgato adhigatoti tathāgato. Evaṃ tathāya āgatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathāya gatoti tathāgato? Yāya mahākaruṇāya lokanātho mahādukkhasambādhappaṭipannaṃ sattanikāyaṃ disvā ‘‘tassa natthañño koci paṭissaraṇaṃ, ahameva namito saṃsāradukkhato mutto mocessāmī’’ti samussāhitamānaso mahābhinīhāramakāsi. Katvā ca yathāpaṇidhānaṃ sakalalokahitasampādanāya ussukkamāpanno attano kāyajīvitanirapekkho paresaṃ sotapathāgamanamattenapi cittutrāsasamuppādikā atidukkarā dukkaracariyā samācaranto yathā mahābodhiyā paṭipatti hānabhāgiyā saṃkilesabhāgiyā ṭhitibhāgiyā vā na hoti, atha kho uttaruttari visesabhāgiyāva hoti, tathā paṭipajjamāno anupubbena niravasese bodhisambhāre sampādetvā abhisambodhiṃ pāpuṇi. Tato parañca tāyeva mahākaruṇāya sañcoditamānaso pavivekaratiṃ paramañca santaṃ vimokkhasukhaṃ pahāya bālajanabahule loke tehi samuppāditaṃ sammānāvamānavippakāraṃ agaṇetvā vineyyajanassa vinayanena niravasesaṃ buddhakiccaṃ niṭṭhapesi. Tattha yo bhagavato sattesu mahākaruṇāya samokkamanākāro, so parato āvibhavissati. Yathā ca buddhabhūtassa lokanāthassa sattesu mahākaruṇā, evaṃ bodhisattabhūtassapi mahābhinīhārakālādīsūti sabbattha sabbadā ca ekasadisatāya tathā avitathā anaññathā, tasmā tīsupi avatthāsu sabbasattesu samānarasāya tathāya mahākaruṇāya sakalalokahitāya gato paṭipannoti tathāgato. Evaṃ tathāya gatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathāni āgatoti tathāgato? Tathāni nāma cattāri ariyamaggañāṇāni. Tāni hi idaṃ dukkhaṃ, ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo, ayaṃ dukkhanirodho, ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti evaṃ sabbañeyyadhammasaṅgāhakānaṃ pavattinivattitadubhayahetubhūtānaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ dukkhassa pīḷanaṭṭho saṅkhataṭṭho santāpaṭṭho vipariṇāmaṭṭho, samudayassa āyūhanaṭṭho nidānaṭṭho saṃyogaṭṭho palibodhaṭṭho, nirodhassa nissaraṇaṭṭho vivekaṭṭho asaṅkhataṭṭho amataṭṭho, maggassa niyyānaṭṭho hetvaṭṭho dassanaṭṭho ādhipateyyaṭṭhotiādīnaṃ tabbibhāgānañca yathābhūtasabhāvāvabodhavibandhakassa saṃkilesapakkhassa samucchindanena paṭiladdhāya tattha asammohābhisamayasaṅkhātāya aviparītākārappavattiyā dhammānaṃ sabhāvasarasalakkhaṇassa avisaṃvādanato tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni, tāni bhagavā anaññaneyyo sayameva āgato adhigato, tasmā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Yathā ca maggañāṇāni, evaṃ bhagavato tīsu kālesu appaṭihatañāṇāni catupaṭisambhidāñāṇāni catuvesārajjañāṇāni pañcagatiparicchedañāṇāni chaasādhāraṇañāṇāni sattabojjhaṅgavibhāvanañāṇāni aṭṭhamaggaṅgavibhāvanañāṇāni navānupubbavihārasamāpattiñāṇāni dasabalañāṇāni ca tathabhāve veditabbāni.

Tatrāyaṃ vibhāvanā – yañhi kiñci aparimāṇāsu lokadhātūsu aparimāṇānaṃ sattānaṃ hīnādibhedabhinnāsu atītāsu khandhāyatanadhātūsu sabhāvakiccādi avatthāvisesādi khandhappaṭibaddhanāmagottādi ca jānitabbaṃ. Anindriyabaddhesu ca atisukhumatirohitavidūradesesupi rūpadhammesu yo taṃtaṃpaccayavisesehi saddhiṃ paccayuppannānaṃ vaṇṇasaṇṭhānagandharasaphassādiviseso, tattha sabbattheva hatthatale ṭhapitaāmalake viya paccakkhato appaṭihataṃ bhagavato ñāṇaṃ pavattati, tathā anāgatāsu paccuppannāsu cāti imāni tīsu kālesu appaṭihatañāṇāni nāma. Yathāha –

‘‘Atītaṃse buddhassa bhagavato appaṭihataṃ ñāṇaṃ, anāgataṃse buddhassa bhagavato appaṭihataṃ ñāṇaṃ, paccuppannaṃse buddhassa bhagavato appaṭihataṃ ñāṇa’’nti (paṭi. ma. 3.5).

Tāni panetāni tattha tattha dhammānaṃ sabhāvasarasalakkhaṇassa avisaṃvādanato tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni, tāni bhagavā sayambhūñāṇena adhigañchīti. Evampi tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā atthappaṭisambhidā dhammappaṭisambhidā niruttippaṭisambhidā paṭibhānappaṭisambhidāti catasso paṭisambhidā. Tattha atthappabhedassa sallakkhaṇavibhāvanavavatthānakaraṇasamatthaṃ atthappabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā. Dhammappabhedassa sallakkhaṇavibhāvanavavatthānakaraṇasamatthaṃ dhammappabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Niruttippabhedassa sallakkhaṇavibhāvanavavatthānakaraṇasamatthaṃ niruttābhilāpe pabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ niruttippaṭisambhidā. Paṭibhānappabhedassa sallakkhaṇavibhāvanavavatthānakaraṇasamatthaṃ paṭibhānappabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ paṭibhānappaṭisambhidā. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Atthe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, dhamme ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā, tatra dhammaniruttābhilāpe ñāṇaṃ niruttippaṭisambhidā, ñāṇesu ñāṇaṃ paṭibhānappaṭisambhidā’’ti (vibha. 718-721).

Ettha ca hetuanusārena araṇīyato adhigantabbato ca saṅkhepato hetuphalaṃ attho nāma. Pabhedato pana yaṃ kiñci paccayuppannaṃ, nibbānaṃ , bhāsitattho, vipāko, kiriyāti ime pañca dhammā attho. Taṃ atthaṃ paccavekkhantassa tasmiṃ atthe pabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā. Dhammoti saṅkhepato paccayo. So hi yasmā taṃ taṃ atthaṃ vidahati pavatteti ceva pāpeti ca, tasmā dhammoti vuccati, pabhedato pana yo koci phalanibbattanako hetu ariyamaggo bhāsitaṃ kusalaṃ akusalanti ime pañca dhammā dhammo, taṃ dhammaṃ paccavekkhantassa tasmiṃ dhamme pabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Vuttampi cetaṃ –

‘‘Dukkhe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā’’ti (vibha. 719).

Atha vā hetumhi ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā, hetuphale ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā. Ye dhammā jātā bhūtā sañjātā nibbattā abhinibbattā pātubhūtā, imesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā. Yamhā dhammā te dhammā jātā bhūtā sañjātā nibbattā abhinibbattā pātubhūtā, tesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Jarāmaraṇe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, jarāmaraṇasamudaye ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Jarāmaraṇanirodhe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Jātiyā, bhave, upādāne, taṇhāya, vedanāya, phasse, saḷāyatane, nāmarūpe, viññāṇe, saṅkhāresu ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, saṅkhārasamudaye ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā. Saṅkhāranirodhe ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā, saṅkhāranirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā.

‘‘Idha bhikkhu dhammaṃ jānāti suttaṃ geyyaṃ…pe… vedallaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati dhammappaṭisambhidā. So tassa tasseva bhāsitassa atthaṃ jānāti ‘ayaṃ imassa bhāsitassa attho, ayaṃ imassa bhāsitassa attho’ti, ayaṃ vuccati atthappaṭisambhidā.

‘‘Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye kāmāvacaraṃ kusalaṃ cittaṃ uppannaṃ hoti somanassasahagataṃ ñāṇasampayuttaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ vā…pe… dhammārammaṇaṃ vā yaṃ yaṃ vā panārabbha, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā. Imesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ dhammappaṭisambhidā, tesaṃ vipāke ñāṇaṃ atthappaṭisambhidā’’tiādi (vibha. 724-725) vitthāro.

Yā panetasmiṃ atthe ca dhamme ca sabhāvanirutti abyabhicāravohāro abhilāpo, tasmiṃ sabhāvaniruttābhilāpe māgadhikāya sabbasattānaṃ mūlabhāsāya ‘‘ayaṃ sabhāvanirutti, ayaṃ asabhāvaniruttī’’ti pabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ niruttippaṭisambhidā. Yathāvuttesu tesu ñāṇesu gocarakiccato vitthārato pavattaṃ sabbampi taṃ ñāṇaṃ ārammaṇaṃ katvā paccavekkhantassa tasmiṃ ñāṇe pabhedagataṃ ñāṇaṃ paṭibhānappaṭisambhidā. Iti imāni cattāri paṭisambhidāñāṇāni sayameva bhagavatā adhigatāni atthadhammādike tasmiṃ tasmiṃ attano visaye avisaṃvādanavasena aviparītākārappavattiyā tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā yaṃkiñci ñeyyaṃ nāma, sabbaṃ taṃ bhagavatā sabbākārena ñātaṃ diṭṭhaṃ adhigataṃ abhisambuddhaṃ. Tathā hissa abhiññeyyā dhammā abhiññeyyato buddhā, pariññeyyā dhammā pariññeyyato, pahātabbā dhammā pahātabbato, sacchikātabbā dhammā sacchikātabbato, bhāvetabbā dhammā bhāvetabbato, yato naṃ koci samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā devo vā māro vā brahmā vā ‘‘ime nāma te dhammā anabhisambuddhā’’ti saha dhammena anuyuñjituṃ samattho natthi.

Yaṃkiñci pahātabbaṃ nāma, sabbaṃ taṃ bhagavato anavasesato bodhimūleyeva pahīnaṃ anuppattidhammaṃ , na tassa pahānāya uttari karaṇīyaṃ atthi. Tathā hissa lobhadosamohaviparītamanasikāraahirikānottappathinamiddhakodhūpanāha- makkhapalāsaissāmacchariyamāyāsāṭheyyathambhasārambhamānātimānamadappamādatividhā- kusalamūladuccaritavisamaviparītasaññā- malavitakkapapañcaesanātaṇhācatubbidhavipariyesaāsavagantha- oghayogāgatitaṇhupādānapañcābhinandananīvaraṇacetokhilacetasovinibandha- chavivādamūlasattānusayaaṭṭhamicchattanavaāghātavatthutaṇhā- mūlakadasaakusalakammapathaekavīsati anesanadvāsaṭṭhidiṭṭhigataaṭṭhasatataṇhāvicaritādippabhedaṃ diyaḍḍhakilesasahassaṃ saha vāsanāya pahīnaṃ samucchinnaṃ samūhataṃ, yato naṃ koci samaṇo vā…pe… brahmā vā ‘‘ime nāma te kilesā appahīnā’’ti saha dhammena anuyuñjituṃ samattho natthi.

Ye cime bhagavatā kammavipākakilesūpavādaāṇāvītikkamappabhedā antarāyikā vuttā, alameva te paṭisevato ekantena antarāyāya. Yato naṃ koci samaṇo vā…pe… brahmā vā ‘‘nālaṃ te paṭisevato antarāyāyā’’ti saha dhammena anuyuñjituṃ samattho natthi.

Yo ca bhagavatā niravasesavaṭṭadukkhanissaraṇāya sīlasamādhipaññāya saṅgaho sattakoṭṭhāsiko sattatiṃsappabhedo ariyamaggapubbaṅgamo anuttaro niyyāniko dhammo desito, so ekanteneva niyyāti, paṭipannassa vaṭṭadukkhato mokkhāya hoti, yato naṃ koci samaṇo vā…pe… brahmā vā ‘‘niyyāniko dhammoti tayā desito na niyyātī’’ti saha dhammena anuyuñjituṃ samattho natthīti. Vuttañhetaṃ – ‘‘sammāsambuddhassa te paṭijānato ime dhammā anabhisambuddhā’’ti (ma. ni. 1.150) vitthāro. Evametāni attano ñāṇappahānadesanāvisesānaṃ avitathabhāvāvabodhanato aviparītākārappavattitāni bhagavato catuvesārajjañāṇāni tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā nirayagati, tiracchānagati, petagati, manussagati, devagatīti pañca gatiyo, tāsu sañjīvādayo aṭṭha mahānirayā, kukkuḷādayo soḷasa ussadanirayā, lokantarikanirayoti sabbepime ekantadukkhatāya nirassādaṭṭhena nirayā, yathākammunā gantabbato gati cāti nirayagati, tibbandhakārasītanarakāpi etesveva antogadhā. Kimikīṭasarīsapapakkhisoṇasiṅgālādayo tiriyaṃ añchitabhāvena tiracchānā, te eva gatīti tiracchānagati. Khuppipāsitattā paradattūpajīvinijjhāmataṇhikādayo dukkhabahulatāya pākaṭasukhato itā vigatāti petā, te eva gatīti petagati, kālakañcikādiasurāpi etesvevantogadhā. Parittadīpavāsīhi saddhiṃ jambudīpādicatumahādīpavāsino manaso ussannatāya manussā, te eva gatīti manussagati. Cātumahārājikato paṭṭhāya yāva nevasaññānāsaññāyatanūpagāti ime chabbīsati devanikāyā dibbanti attano iddhānubhāvena kīḷanti jotanti cāti devā, te eva gatīti devagati.

Tā panetā gatiyo yasmā taṃtaṃkammanibbatto upapattibhavaviseso, tasmā atthato vipākakkhandhā kaṭattā ca rūpaṃ. Tattha ‘‘ayaṃ nāma gati iminā nāma kammunā jāyati, tassa ca kammassa paccayavisesehi evaṃ vibhāgabhinnattā visuṃ ete sattanikāyā evaṃ vibhāgabhinnā’’ti yathāsakaṃ hetuphalavibhāgaparicchindanavasena ṭhānaso hetuso bhagavato ñāṇaṃ pavattati. Tenāha bhagavā –

‘‘Pañca kho imā, sāriputta, gatiyo. Katamā pañca? Nirayo, tiracchānayoni, pettivisayo, manussā, devā. Nirayañcāhaṃ, sāriputta, pajānāmi nirayagāmiñca maggaṃ nirayagāminiñca paṭipadaṃ, yathā paṭipanno ca kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, tañca pajānāmī’’tiādi (ma. ni. 1.153).

Tāni panetāni bhagavato ñāṇāni tasmiṃ tasmiṃ visaye aviparītākārappavattiyā avisaṃvādanato tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā yaṃ sattānaṃ saddhādiyogavikalāvikalabhāvāvabodhanena apparajakkhamahārajakkhatādivisesavibhāvanaṃ paññāsāya ākārehi pavattaṃ bhagavato indriyaparopariyattañāṇaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ – ‘‘saddho puggalo apparajakkho, assaddho puggalo mahārajakkho’’ti (paṭi. ma. 1.111) vitthāro.

Yañca ‘‘ayaṃ puggalo apparajakkho, ayaṃ sassatadiṭṭhiko, ayaṃ ucchedadiṭṭhiko, ayaṃ anulomikāyaṃ khantiyaṃ ṭhito, ayaṃ yathābhūtañāṇe ṭhito, ayaṃ kāmāsayo, na nekkhammādiāsayo, ayaṃ nekkhammāsayo, na kāmādiāsayo’’tiādinā ‘‘imassa kāmarāgo ativiya thāmagato, na paṭighādiko, imassa paṭigho ativiya thāmagato, na kāmarāgādiko’’tiādinā ‘‘imassa puññābhisaṅkhāro adhiko, na apuññābhisaṅkhāro na āneñjābhisaṅkhāro, imassa apuññābhisaṅkhāro adhiko, na puññābhisaṅkhāro na āneñjābhisaṅkhāro, imassa āneñjābhisaṅkhāro adhiko, na puññābhisaṅkhāro na apuññābhisaṅkhāro. Imassa kāyasucaritaṃ adhikaṃ, imassa vacīsucaritaṃ, imassa manosucaritaṃ, ayaṃ hīnādhimuttiko, ayaṃ paṇītādhimuttiko, ayaṃ kammāvaraṇena samannāgato, ayaṃ kilesāvaraṇena samannāgato, ayaṃ vipākāvaraṇena samannāgato, ayaṃ na kammāvaraṇena samannāgato, na kilesāvaraṇena samannāgato, na vipākāvaraṇena samannāgato’’tiādinā ca sattānaṃ āsayādīnaṃ yathābhūtaṃ vibhāvanākārappavattaṃ bhagavato āsayānusayañāṇaṃ. Yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ –

‘‘Idha tathāgato sattānaṃ āsayaṃ jānāti, anusayaṃ jānāti, caritaṃ jānāti, adhimuttiṃ jānāti, bhabbābhabbe satte jānātī’’tiādi (paṭi. ma. 1.113).

Yañca uparimaheṭṭhimapurimapacchimakāyehi dakkhiṇavāmaakkhikaṇṇasotanāsikasotaaṃsakūṭahatthapādehi aṅguliaṅgulantarehi lomakūpehi ca aggikkhandhūdakadhārāpavattanaṃ anaññasādhāraṇaṃ vividhavikubbaniddhinimmāpanakaṃ bhagavato yamakapāṭihāriyañāṇaṃ. Yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ –

‘‘Idha tathāgato yamakapāṭihāriyaṃ karoti asādhāraṇaṃ sāvakehi, uparimakāyato aggikkhandho pavattati, heṭṭhimakāyato udakadhārā pavattati. Heṭṭhimakāyato aggikkhandho pavattati, uparimakāyato udakadhārā pavattatī’’tiādi (paṭi. ma. 1.116).

Yañca rāgādīhi jātiādīhi ca anekehi dukkhadhammehi upaddutaṃ sattanikāyaṃ tato nīharitukāmatāvasena nānānayehi pavattassa bhagavato mahākaruṇokkamanassa paccayabhūtaṃ mahākaruṇāsamāpattiñāṇaṃ. Yathāha (paṭi. ma. 1.117-118) –

‘‘Katamaṃ tathāgatassa mahākaruṇāsamāpattiyā ñāṇaṃ? Bahukehi ākārehi passantānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sattesu mahākaruṇā okkamati, āditto lokasannivāsoti passantānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sattesu mahākaruṇā okkamati. Uyyutto, payāto, kummaggappaṭipanno, upanīyati loko addhuvo, atāṇo loko anabhissaro , assako loko, sabbaṃ pahāya gamanīyaṃ, ūno loko atitto taṇhādāsoti passantānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sattesu mahākaruṇā okkamati.

‘‘Atāyano lokasannivāso, aleṇo, asaraṇo, asaraṇībhūto. Uddhato loko avūpasanto, sasallo lokasannivāso viddho puthusallehi, avijjandhakārāvaraṇo kilesapañjarapakkhitto, avijjāgato lokasannivāso aṇḍabhūto pariyonaddho tantākulakajāto kulaguṇḍikajāto muñjapabbajabhūto apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ saṃsāraṃ nātivattati, avijjāvisadosasaṃlitto, kilesakalalībhūto, rāgadosamohajaṭājaṭito.

‘‘Taṇhāsaṅghāṭapaṭimukko, taṇhājālena otthaṭo, taṇhāsotena vuyhati, taṇhāsaññojanena saṃyutto, taṇhānusayena anusaṭo, taṇhāsantāpena santappati, taṇhāpariḷāhena pariḍayhati.

‘‘Diṭṭhisaṅghāṭapaṭimukko, diṭṭhijālena otthaṭo, diṭṭhisotena vuyhati, diṭṭhisaññojanena saṃyutto, diṭṭhānusayena anusaṭo, diṭṭhisantāpena santappati, diṭṭhipariḷāhena pariḍayhati.

‘‘Jātiyā anugato, jarāya anusaṭo, byādhinā abhibhūto, maraṇena abbhāhato, dukkhe patiṭṭhito.

‘‘Taṇhāya uḍḍito, jarāpākāraparikkhitto, maccupāsena parikkhitto, mahābandhanabaddho, rāgabandhanena dosamohamānadiṭṭhikilesaduccaritabandhanena baddho, mahāsambādhappaṭipanno, mahāpalibodhena palibuddho, mahāpapāte patito, mahākantārappaṭipanno, mahāsaṃsārappaṭipanno, mahāvidugge samparivattati, mahāpalipe palipanno.

‘‘Abbhāhato lokasannivāso, āditto lokasannivāso rāgagginā dosagginā mohagginā jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, unnītako lokasannivāso haññati niccamatāṇo pattadaṇḍo takkaro, vajjabandhanabaddho āghātanapaccupaṭṭhito, anātho lokasannivāso paramakāruññappatto, dukkhābhitunno cirarattaṃ pīḷito, gadhito niccaṃ pipāsito.

‘‘Andho acakkhuko, hatanetto apariṇāyako, vipathapakkhando añjasāparaddho, mahoghapakkhando.

‘‘Dvīhi diṭṭhigatehi pariyuṭṭhito, tīhi duccaritehi vippaṭipanno, catūhi yogehi yojito, catūhi ganthehi ganthito, catūhi upādānehi upādiyati, pañcagatisamāruḷho, pañcahi kāmaguṇehi rajjati, pañcahi nīvaraṇehi otthaṭo, chahi vivādamūlehi vivadati, chahi taṇhākāyehi rajjati, chahi diṭṭhigatehi pariyuṭṭhito, sattahi anusayehi anusaṭo, sattahi saññojanehi saṃyutto, sattahi mānehi unnato, aṭṭhahi lokadhammehi samparivattati, aṭṭhahi micchattehi niyyāto, aṭṭhahi purisadosehi dussati, navahi āghātavatthūhi āghātito, navavidhamānehi unnato, navahi taṇhāmūlakehi dhammehi rajjati, dasahi kilesavatthūhi kilissati, dasahi āghātavatthūhi āghātito, dasahi akusalakammapathehi samannāgato, dasahi saṃyojanehi saṃyutto, dasahi micchattehi niyyāto, dasavatthukāya micchādiṭṭhiyā samannāgato, dasavatthukāya antaggāhikāya diṭṭhiyā samannāgato, aṭṭhasatataṇhāpapañcehi papañcito, dvāsaṭṭhiyā diṭṭhigatehi pariyuṭṭhito, lokasannivāsoti passantānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sattesu mahākaruṇā okkamati.

‘‘Ahañcamhi tiṇṇo, loko ca atiṇṇo. Ahañcamhi mutto, loko ca amutto. Ahañcamhi danto, loko ca adanto. Ahañcamhi santo, loko ca asanto. Ahañcamhi assattho, loko ca anassattho. Ahañcamhi parinibbuto, loko ca aparinibbuto. Pahomi khvāhaṃ tiṇṇo tāretuṃ, mutto mocetuṃ, danto dametuṃ, santo sametuṃ, assattho assāsetuṃ, parinibbuto parinibbāpetunti passantānaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sattesu mahākaruṇā okkamatī’’ti (paṭi. ma. 1.117-118).

Evaṃ ekūnanavutiyā ākārehi vibhajanaṃ kataṃ.

Yaṃ pana yāvatā dhammadhātuyā yattakaṃ ñātabbaṃ saṅkhatāsaṅkhatādikassa sabbassa paropadesanirapekkhaṃ sabbākārena paṭivijjhanasamatthaṃ ākaṅkhamattappaṭibaddhavuttianaññasādhāraṇaṃ bhagavato ñāṇaṃ sabbathā anavasesasaṅkhatāsaṅkhatasammutisaccāvabodhato sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ tatthāvaraṇābhāvato nissaṅgappavattimupādāya anāvaraṇañāṇanti vuccati. Ekameva hi taṃ ñāṇaṃ visayappavattimukhena aññehi asādhāraṇabhāvadassanatthaṃ duvidhena uddiṭṭhaṃ. Aññathā sabbaññutānāvaraṇañāṇānaṃ sādhāraṇatā sabbavisayatā āpajjeyyuṃ, na ca taṃ yuttaṃ kiñcāpi imāya yuttiyā. Ayañhettha pāḷi –

‘‘Sabbaṃ saṅkhatamasaṅkhataṃ anavasesaṃ jānātīti sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ, tattha āvaraṇaṃ natthīti anāvaraṇañāṇaṃ. Atītaṃ sabbaṃ jānātīti sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ, tattha āvaraṇaṃ natthīti anāvaraṇañāṇaṃ. Anāgataṃ sabbaṃ jānātīti sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ, tattha āvaraṇaṃ natthīti anāvaraṇañāṇaṃ. Paccuppannaṃ sabbaṃ jānātīti sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ, tattha āvaraṇaṃ natthīti anāvaraṇañāṇa’’nti (paṭi. ma. 1.119-120) vitthāro.

Evametāni bhagavato chaasādhāraṇañāṇāni aviparītākārappavattiyā yathāsakavisayassa avisaṃvādanato tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā –

‘‘Sattime, bhikkhave, bojjhaṅgā – satisambojjhaṅgo, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo, vīriyasambojjhaṅgo, pītisambojjhaṅgo, passaddhisambojjhaṅgo, samādhisambojjhaṅgo, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’’ti (paṭi. ma. 2.17; saṃ. ni. 5.185) evaṃ sarūpato, ‘‘yāyaṃ lokuttaramaggakkhaṇe uppajjamānā līnuddhaccapatiṭṭhānāyūhanakāmasukhallikattakilamathānuyogaucchedasassatābhinivesādīnaṃ anekesaṃ upaddavānaṃ paṭipakkhabhūtā satiādibhedā dhammasāmaggī, yāya ariyasāvako bujjhati kilesaniddāya uṭṭhahati, cattāri vā ariyasaccāni paṭivijjhati, nibbānameva vā sacchikarotīti, sā dhammasāmaggī bodhīti vuccati. Tassā ‘bodhiyā aṅgāti bojjhaṅgā, ariyasāvako vā yathāvuttāya dhammasāmaggiyā bujjhatīti katvā bodhīti vuccati, tassa bodhissa aṅgātipi bojjhaṅgā’’ti evaṃ sāmaññalakkhaṇato. ‘‘Upaṭṭhānalakkhaṇo satisambojjhaṅgo, pavicayalakkhaṇo dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo, paggahalakkhaṇo vīriyasambojjhaṅgo, pharaṇalakkhaṇo pītisambojjhaṅgo, upasamalakkhaṇo passaddhisambojjhaṅgo, avikkhepalakkhaṇo samādhisambojjhaṅgo, paṭisaṅkhānalakkhaṇo upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’’ti evaṃ visesalakkhaṇato.

‘‘Tattha katamo satisambojjhaṅgo? Idha, bhikkhu , satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato, cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā hoti anussaritā’’tiādinā (vibha. 467) sattannaṃ bojjhaṅgānaṃ aññamaññopakāravasena ekakkhaṇe pavattidassanato, ‘‘tattha katamo satisambojjhaṅgo? Atthi ajjhattaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammesu sati, atthi bahiddhā dhammesu satī’’tiādinā tesaṃ visayavibhāgena pavattidassanato. ‘‘Tattha katamo satisambojjhaṅgo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmi’’ntiādinā (vibha. 471) bhāvanāvidhidassanato. ‘‘Tattha katame satta bojjhaṅgā? Idha bhikkhu yasmiṃ samaye lokuttaraṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti…pe… tasmiṃ samaye satta bojjhaṅgā honti satisambojjhaṅgo…pe… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo. Tattha katamo satisambojjhaṅgo? Yā sati…pe… anussatī’’tiādinā (vibha. 478-479) channavutiyā nayasahassavibhāgehīti evaṃ nānākārato pavattāni bhagavato sambojjhaṅgavibhāvanañāṇāni tassa tassa atthassa avisaṃvādanato tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā –

‘‘Tattha katamaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṃ, sammādiṭṭhi…pe… sammāsamādhī’’ti (vibha. 205) evaṃ sarūpato. Sabbakilesehi ārakattā ariyabhāvakarattā ariyaphalappaṭilābhakarattā ca ariyo, aṭṭhavidhattā nibbānādhigamāya ekantakāraṇattā ca aṭṭhaṅgiko. Kilese mārento gacchati, nibbānatthikehi maggīyati, sayaṃ vā nibbānaṃ maggatīti maggoti evaṃ sāmaññalakkhaṇato. ‘‘Sammā dassanalakkhaṇā sammādiṭṭhi, sammā abhiniropanalakkhaṇo sammāsaṅkappo, sammā pariggahaṇalakkhaṇā sammāvācā, sammā samuṭṭhānalakkhaṇo sammākammanto, sammā vodānalakkhaṇo sammāājīvo, sammā paggahalakkhaṇo sammāvāyāmo, sammā upaṭṭhānalakkhaṇā sammāsati, sammā avikkhepalakkhaṇo sammāsamādhī’’ti evaṃ visesalakkhaṇato. Sammādiṭṭhi aññehipi attano paccanīkakilesehi saddhiṃ micchādiṭṭhiṃ pajahati, nibbānaṃ ārammaṇaṃ karoti, tappaṭicchādakamohavidhamanena asammohato sampayuttadhamme ca passati. Tathā sammāsaṅkappādayopi micchāsaṅkappādīni pajahanti, nibbānañca ārammaṇaṃ karonti, sahajātadhammānaṃ sammāabhiniropanapariggahaṇasamuṭṭhānavodānapaggahaupaṭṭhānasamādahanāni ca karontīti evaṃ kiccavibhāgato. Sammādiṭṭhi pubbabhāge nānakkhaṇā visuṃ visuṃ dukkhādiārammaṇā hutvā maggakāle ekakkhaṇā nibbānameva ārammaṇaṃ katvā kiccato ‘‘dukkhe ñāṇa’’ntiādīni cattāri nāmāni labhati, sammāsaṅkappādayopi pubbabhāge nānakkhaṇā nānārammaṇā maggakāle ekakkhaṇā ekārammaṇā.

Tesu sammāsaṅkappo kiccato nekkhammasaṅkappotiādīni tīṇi nāmāni labhati, sammāvācādayo tayo pubbabhāge musāvādāveramaṇītiādivibhāgā viratiyopi cetanāyopi hutvā maggakkhaṇe viratiyova, sammāvāyāmasatiyo kiccato sammappadhānasatipaṭṭhānavasena cattāri nāmāni labhanti. Sammāsamādhi pana maggakkhaṇepi paṭhamajjhānādivasena nānā evāti evaṃ pubbabhāgaparabhāgesu pavattivibhāgato, ‘‘idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sammādiṭṭhiṃ bhāveti vivekanissita’’ntiādinā (vibha. 489) bhāvanāvidhito, ‘‘tattha katamo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo? Idha, bhikkhu, yasmiṃ samaye lokuttaraṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti…pe… dukkhāpaṭipadaṃ dandhābhiññaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo hoti sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo’’tiādinā (vibha. 499) caturāsītiyā nayasahassavibhāgehīti evaṃ anekākārato pavattāni bhagavato ariyamaggavibhāvanañāṇāni atthassa avisaṃvādanato sabbānipi tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Tathā paṭhamajjhānasamāpatti yā ca nirodhasamāpattīti etāsu anupaṭipāṭiyā viharitabbaṭṭhena samāpajjitabbaṭṭhena ca anupubbavihārasamāpattīsu sampādanapaccavekkhaṇādivasena yathārahaṃ sampayogavasena ca pavattāni bhagavato ñāṇāni tadatthasiddhiyā tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni . Tathā ‘‘idaṃ imassa ṭhānaṃ, idaṃ aṭṭhāna’’nti aviparītaṃ tassa tassa phalassa kāraṇākāraṇajānanaṃ, tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ atītādibhedabhinnassa kammasamādānassa anavasesato yathābhūtaṃ vipākantarajānanaṃ, āyūhanakkhaṇeyeva tassa tassa sattassa ‘‘ayaṃ nirayagāminī paṭipadā…pe… ayaṃ nibbānagāminī paṭipadā’’ti yāthāvato sāsavānāsavakammavibhāgajānanaṃ, 0.khandhāyatanādīnaṃ upādinnānupādinnādianekasabhāvaṃ nānāsabhāvañca tassa lokassa ‘‘imāya nāma dhātuyā ussannattā imasmiṃ dhammappabandhe ayaṃ viseso jāyatī’’tiādinā nayena yathābhūtaṃ dhātunānattajānanaṃ, anavasesato sattānaṃ hīnādiajjhāsayādhimuttijānanaṃ, saddhādiindriyānaṃ tikkhamudutājānanaṃ, saṃkilesādīhi saddhiṃ jhānavimokkhādivisesajānanaṃ , sattānaṃ aparimāṇāsu jātīsu tappaṭibandhena saddhiṃ anavasesato pubbenivutthakkhandhasantatijānanaṃ, hīnādivibhāgehi saddhiṃ cutipaṭisandhijānanaṃ, ‘‘idaṃ dukkha’’ntiādinā heṭṭhā vuttanayeneva catusaccajānananti imāni bhagavato dasabalañāṇāni avirajjhitvā yathāsakaṃ visayāvagāhanato yathādhippetatthasādhanato ca yathābhūtavuttiyā tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Idha tathāgato ṭhānañca ṭhānato aṭṭhānañca aṭṭhānato yathābhūtaṃ pajānātī’’tiādi (vibha. 809; a. ni. 10.21).

Evampi bhagavā tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Yathā cetesaṃ ñāṇānaṃ vasena, evaṃ yathāvuttānaṃ satipaṭṭhānasammappadhānavibhāvanañāṇādīnaṃ anantāparimeyyabhedānaṃ anaññasādhāraṇānaṃ paññāvisesānaṃ vasena bhagavā tathāni ñāṇāni āgato adhigatoti tathāgato. Evampi tathāni āgatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathā gatoti tathāgato? Yā sā bhagavato abhijāti abhisambodhi dhammavinayapaññāpanā anupādisesanibbānadhātu, sā tathā. Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? Yadatthaṃ lokanāthena abhisambodhi patthitā pavattitā ca, tadatthassa ekantasiddhiyā avisaṃvādanato aviparītatthavuttiyā tathā avitathā anaññathā. Tathā hi ayaṃ bhagavā bodhisattabhūto samatiṃsapāramiparipūraṇādikaṃ vuttappabhedaṃ sabbaṃ buddhattahetuṃ sampādetvā tusitapure ṭhitova buddhakolāhalaṃ sutvā dasasahassacakkavāḷadevatāhi ekato sannipatitāhi upasaṅkamitvā –

‘‘Kālo deva mahāvīra, uppajja mātukucchiyaṃ;

Sadevakaṃ tārayanto, bujjhassu amataṃ pada’’nti. (bu. vaṃ. 1.67) –

Āyācito uppannapubbanimitto pañca mahāvilokanāni viloketvā ‘‘idānāhaṃ manussayoniyaṃ uppajjitvā abhisambujjhissāmī’’ti āsāḷhipuṇṇamāya sakyarājakule mahāmāyāya deviyā kucchimhi paṭisandhiṃ gahetvā dasa māse devamanussehi mahatā parihārena parihariyamāno visākhapuṇṇamāya paccūsasamaye abhijātiṃ pāpuṇi.

Abhijātikkhaṇe panassa paṭisandhiggahaṇakkhaṇe viya dvattiṃsapubbanimittāni pāturahesuṃ. Ayañhi dasasahassī lokadhātu kampi saṅkampi sampakampi sampavedhi, dasasu cakkavāḷasahassesu appamāṇo obhāso phari, tassa taṃ siriṃ daṭṭhukāmā viya jaccandhā cakkhūni paṭilabhiṃsu, badhirā saddaṃ suṇiṃsu. Mūgā samālapiṃsu, khujjā ujugattā ahesuṃ, paṅgulā padasā gamanaṃ paṭilabhiṃsu, bandhanagatā sabbasattā andubandhanādīhi mucciṃsu, sabbanirayesu aggi nibbāyi, pettivisaye khuppipāsā vūpasami, tiracchānānaṃ bhayaṃ nāhosi, sabbasattānaṃ rogo vūpasami, sabbasattā piyaṃvadā ahesuṃ, madhurenākārena assā hasiṃsu, vāraṇā gajjiṃsu, sabbatūriyāni sakaṃ sakaṃ ninnādaṃ muñciṃsu, aghaṭṭitāni eva manussānaṃ hatthūpagādīni ābharaṇāni madhurenākārena raviṃsu, sabbadisā vippasannā ahesuṃ, sattānaṃ sukhaṃ uppādayamāno mudusītalavāto vāyi, akālamegho vassi, pathavitopi udakaṃ ubbhijjitvā vissandi, pakkhino ākāsagamanaṃ vijahiṃsu, nadiyo asandamānā aṭṭhaṃsu, mahāsamudde madhuraṃ udakaṃ ahosi, upakkilesavimutte sūriye dissamāne eva ākāsagatā sabbā jotiyo jaliṃsu , ṭhapetvā arūpāvacare deve avasesā sabbe devā sabbepi nerayikā dissamānarūpā ahesuṃ, tarukuṭṭakavāṭaselādayo anāvaraṇabhūtā ahesuṃ, sattānaṃ cutūpapātā nāhesuṃ, sabbaṃ aniṭṭhagandhaṃ abhibhavitvā dibbagandho vāyi, sabbe phalūpagā rukkhā phaladharā sampajjiṃsu, mahāsamuddo sabbatthakameva pañcavaṇṇehi padumehi sañchannatalo ahosi, thalajajalajādīni sabbapupphāni pupphiṃsu, rukkhānaṃ khandhesu khandhapadumāni, sākhāsu sākhapadumāni, latāsu latāpadumāni pupphiṃsu, mahītale silātalāni bhinditvā uparūpari satta satta hutvā daṇḍapadumāni nāma nikkhamiṃsu, ākāse olambakapadumāni nibbattiṃsu, samantato pupphavassaṃ vassi, ākāse dibbatūriyāni vajjiṃsu, sakaladasasahassī lokadhātu vaṭṭetvā vissaṭṭhamālāguḷaṃ viya uppīḷetvā baddhamālākalāpo viya alaṅkatappaṭiyattaṃ mālāsanaṃ viya ca ekamālāmālinī vipphurantavāḷabījanī pupphadhūpagandhaparivāsitā paramasobhaggappattā ahosi, tāni ca pubbanimittāni upari adhigatānaṃ anekesaṃ visesādhigamānaṃ nimittabhūtāni eva ahesuṃ. Evaṃ anekacchariyapātubhāvappaṭimaṇḍitā cāyaṃ abhijāti yadatthaṃ anena abhisambodhi patthitā, tassā abhisambodhiyā ekantasiddhiyā tathāva ahosi avitathā anaññathā.

Tathā ye buddhaveneyyā bodhaneyyabandhavā, te sabbepi anavasesato sayameva bhagavatā vinītā. Ye ca sāvakaveneyyā dhammaveneyyā ca, tepi sāvakādīhi vinītā vinayaṃ gacchanti gamissanti cāti yadatthaṃ bhagavatā abhisambodhi abhipatthitā, tadatthassa ekantasiddhiyā abhisambodhi tathā avitathā anaññathā.

Apica yassa yassa ñeyyadhammassa yo yo sabhāvo bujjhitabbo, so so hatthatale ṭhapitaāmalakaṃ viya āvajjanamattappaṭibaddhena attano ñāṇena aviparītaṃ anavasesato bhagavatā abhisambuddhoti evampi abhisambodhi tathā avitathā anaññathā.

Tathā tesaṃ tesaṃ dhammānaṃ tathā tathā desetabbappakāraṃ tesaṃ tesañca sattānaṃ āsayānusayacaritādhimuttiṃ sammadeva oloketvā dhammataṃ avijahanteneva paññattinayavohāramaggaṃ anatidhāvanteneva ca dhammataṃ vibhāvantena yathāparādhaṃ yathājjhāsayaṃ yathādhammañca anusāsantena bhagavatā veneyyā vinītā ariyabhūmiṃ sampāpitāti dhammavinayapaññāpanāpissa tadatthasiddhiyā yathābhūtavuttiyā ca tathā avitathā anaññathā.

Tathā yā sā bhagavatā anuppattā pathaviyādiphassavedanādirūpārūpasabhāvavinimuttā lujjanabhāvābhāvato lokasabhāvātītā tamasā visaṃsaṭṭhattā kenaci anobhāsanīyā lokasabhāvābhāvato eva gatiādibhāvarahitā appatiṭṭhā anārammaṇā amatamahānibbānadhātu khandhasaṅkhātānaṃ upādīnaṃ lesamattassapi abhāvato anupādisesāti vuccati, yaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ –

‘‘Atthi, bhikkhave, tadāyatanaṃ, yattha neva pathavī na āpo na tejo na vāyo na ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ na viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ na ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ na nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nāyaṃ loko na paro loko na ca ubho candimasūriyā, tatrāpāhaṃ, bhikkhave, neva āgatiṃ vadāmi na gatiṃ na ṭhitiṃ na cutiṃ na upapattiṃ, appatiṭṭhaṃ appavattaṃ anārammaṇamevetaṃ, esevanto dukkhassā’’ti (udā. 71).

Sā sabbesampi upādānakkhandhānaṃ atthaṅgamo, sabbasaṅkhārānaṃ samatho, sabbūpadhīnaṃ paṭinissaggo, sabbadukkhānaṃ vūpasamo, sabbālayānaṃ samugghāto, sabbavaṭṭānaṃ upacchedo, accantasantilakkhaṇoti yathāvuttasabhāvassa kadācipi avisaṃvādanato tathā avitathā anaññathā. Evametā abhijātiādikā tathā gato upagato adhigato paṭipanno pattoti tathāgato. Evaṃ bhagavā tathā gatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathāvidhoti tathāgato? Yathāvidhā purimakā sammāsambuddhā, ayampi bhagavā tathāvidho. Kiṃ vuttaṃ hoti? Yathāvidhā te bhagavanto maggasīlena phalasīlena sabbenapi lokiyalokuttarasīlena, maggasamādhinā phalasamādhinā sabbenapi lokiyalokuttarasamādhinā, maggapaññāya phalapaññāya sabbāyapi lokiyalokuttarapaññāya, devasikaṃ valañjitabbehi catuvīsatikoṭisatasahassasamāpattivihārehi, tadaṅgavimuttiyā, vikkhambhanavimuttiyā, samucchedavimuttiyā, paṭippassaddhivimuttiyā, nissaraṇavimuttiyāti saṅkhepato. Vitthārato pana anantāparimāṇabhedehi acinteyyānubhāvehi sakalasabbaññuguṇehi, ayampi amhākaṃ bhagavā tathāvidho. Sabbesañhi sammāsambuddhānaṃ āyuvemattaṃ, sarīrappamāṇavemattaṃ, kulavemattaṃ, dukkaracariyāvemattaṃ, rasmivemattanti, imehi pañcahi vemattehi siyā vemattaṃ, na pana sīlavisuddhiyādīsu visuddhīsu samathavipassanāpaṭipattiyaṃ attanā paṭiladdhaguṇesu ca kiñci nānākaraṇaṃ atthi. Atha kho majjhe bhinnasuvaṇṇaṃ viya aññamaññaṃ nibbisesā te buddhā bhagavanto. Tasmā yathāvidhā purimakā sammāsambuddhā, ayampi bhagavā tathāvidho. Evaṃ tathāvidhoti tathāgato. Vidhattho cettha gatasaddo, tathā hi lokiyā vidhayuttagatasadde pakāratthe vadanti.

Kathaṃ tathā pavattitoti tathāgato? Anaññasādhāraṇena iddhānubhāvena samannāgatattā atthappaṭisambhidādīnaṃ ukkaṃsapāramippattiyā anāvaraṇañāṇappaṭilābhena ca bhagavato kāyappavattiyādīnaṃ katthaci paṭighātābhāvato yathā ruci tathā gataṃ gati gamanaṃ kāyavacīcittappavatti etassāti tathāgato. Evaṃ tathā pavattitoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathehi agatoti tathāgato? Bodhisambhārasambharaṇe tappaṭipakkhappavattisaṅkhātaṃ natthi etassa gatanti agato. So panassa agatabhāvo maccheradānapāramiādīsu aviparītaṃ ādīnavānisaṃsapaccavekkhaṇādinayappavattehi ñāṇehīti tathehi ñāṇehi agatoti tathāgato.

Atha vā kilesābhisaṅkhārappavattisaṅkhātaṃ khandhappavattisaṅkhātameva vā pañcasupi gatīsu gataṃ gamanaṃ etassa natthīti agato. Saupādisesaanupādisesanibbānappattiyā svāyamassa agatabhāvo tathehi ariyamaggañāṇehīti evampi bhagavā tathehi agatoti tathāgato.

Kathaṃ tathā gatabhāvena tathāgato? Tathā gatabhāvenāti ca tathāgatassa sabbhāvena atthitāyāti attho. Ko panesa tathāgato, yassa atthitāya bhagavā tathāgatoti vuccatīti? Saddhammo. Saddhammo hi ariyamaggo tāva yathā yuganaddhasamathavipassanābalena anavasesato kilesapakkhaṃ samūhanantena samucchedappahānavasena gantabbaṃ , tathā gato. Phaladhammo yathā attano maggānurūpaṃ paṭippassaddhipahānavasena gantabbaṃ, tathā gato pavatto. Nibbānadhammo pana yathā gato paññāya paṭividdho sakalavaṭṭadukkhavūpasamāya sampajjati, buddhādīhi tathā gato sacchikatoti tathāgato. Pariyattidhammopi yathā purimabuddhehi suttageyyādivasena pavattiādippakāsanavasena ca veneyyānaṃ āsayādianurūpaṃ pavattito, amhākampi bhagavatā tathā gato gadito pavattitoti vā tathāgato. Yathā bhagavatā desito, tathā bhagavato sāvakehi gato avagatoti tathāgato. Evaṃ sabbopi saddhammo tathāgato. Tenāha sakko devānamindo – ‘‘tathāgataṃ devamanussapūjitaṃ, dhammaṃ namassāma suvatthi hotū’’ti (khu. pā. 6.17; su. ni. 240). Svāssa atthīti bhagavā tathāgato.

Yathā ca dhammo, evaṃ ariyasaṅghopi yathā attahitāya parahitāya ca paṭipannehi suvisuddhaṃ pubbabhāgasamathavipassanāpaṭipadaṃ purakkhatvā tena tena maggena gantabbaṃ, taṃ taṃ tathā gatoti tathāgato. Yathā vā bhagavatā saccapaṭiccasamuppādādayo desitā, tathāva buddhattā tathā gadanato ca tathāgato. Tenāha sakko devarājā – ‘‘tathāgataṃ devamanussapūjitaṃ, saṅghaṃ namassāma suvatthi hotū’’ti. Svāssa sāvakabhūto atthīti bhagavā tathāgato. Evaṃ tathāgatabhāvena tathāgatoti.

Idampi ca tathāgatassa tathāgatabhāvadīpane mukhamattakameva, sabbākārena pana tathāgatova tathāgatassa tathāgatabhāvaṃ vaṇṇeyya. Idañhi tathāgatapadaṃ mahatthaṃ mahāgatikaṃ mahāvisayaṃ, tassa appamādapadassa viya tepiṭakampi buddhavacanaṃ yuttito atthabhāvena āharanto ‘‘atitthena dhammakathiko pakkhando’’ti na vattabboti.

Tatthetaṃ vuccati –

‘‘Yatheva loke purimā mahesino,

Sabbaññubhāvaṃ munayo idhāgatā;

Tathā ayaṃ sakyamunīpi āgato,

Tathāgato vuccati tena cakkhumā.

‘‘Pahāya kāmādimale asesato,

Samādhiñāṇehi yathā gatā jinā;

Purātanā sakyamunī jutindharo,

Tathā gato tena tathāgato mato.

‘‘Tathañca dhātāyatanādilakkhaṇaṃ,

Sabhāvasāmaññavibhāgabhedato;

Sayambhuñāṇena jinoyamāgato,

Tathāgato vuccati sakyapuṅgavo.

‘‘Tathāni saccāni samantacakkhunā,

Tathā idappaccayatā ca sabbaso;

Anaññaneyyā nayato vibhāvitā,

Tathā gato tena jino tathāgato.

‘‘Anekabhedāsupi lokadhātusu,

Jinassa rūpāyatanādigocare;

Vicittabhede tathameva dassanaṃ,

Tathāgato tena samantalocano.

‘‘Yato ca dhammaṃ tathameva bhāsati,

Karoti vācāya nurūpamattano;

Guṇehi lokaṃ abhibhuyyirīyati,

Tathāgato tenapi lokanāyako.

‘‘Tathā pariññāya tathāya sabbaso,

Avedi lokaṃ pabhavaṃ atikkami;

Gato ca paccakkhakiriyāya nibbutiṃ,

Arīyamaggañca gato tathāgato.

‘‘Tathā paṭiññāya tathāya sabbaso,

Hitāya lokassa yatoyamāgato;

Tathāya nātho karuṇāya sabbadā,

Gato ca tenāpi jino tathāgato.

‘‘Tathāni ñāṇāni yatoyamāgato,

Yathāsabhāvaṃ visayāvabodhato;

Tathābhijātippabhutī tathāgato,

Tadatthasampādanato tathāgato.

‘‘Yathāvidhā te purimā mahesino,

Tathāvidhoyampi tathā yathāruci;

Pavattavācā tanucittabhāvato,

Tathāgato vuccati aggapuggalo.

‘‘Sambodhisambhāravipakkhato pure,

Gataṃ na saṃsāragatampi tassa vā;

Na catthi nāthassa bhavantadassino,

Tathehi tasmā agato tathāgato.

‘‘Tathāgato dhammavaro mahesinā,

Yathā pahātabbamalaṃ pahīyati;

Tathāgato ariyagaṇopi satthuno,

Tathāgato tena samaṅgibhāvato’’ti.

Mahiddhikatāti paramena cittavasībhāvena ca iddhividhayogena dhammānubhāvaññathattanipphādanasamatthatāsaṅkhātāya mahatiyā iddhiyā samannāgamo mahiddhikatā. Cirakālasambhūtena suvidūrappaṭipakkhena icchitatthanipphattihetubhūtena mahājutikena puññatejena samannāgamo mahānubhāvatā. Yatrāti acchariyapasaṃsākotuhalahāsapasādiko paccattatthe nipāto. Tena yuttattā vijāyissatīti anāgatakālavacanaṃ, attho pana atītakāloyeva. Ayañhettha attho – yā hi nāma ayaṃ suppavāsā tathā dukkhanimuggā kicchāpannā bhagavato vacanasamakālameva sukhinī arogā arogaṃ puttaṃ vijāyīti. Attamanoti sakamano, bhagavati pasādena kilesarahitacittoti attho. Kilesapariyuṭṭhitañhi cittaṃ vase avattanato attamanoti na sakkā vattunti. Attamanoti vā pītisomanassehi gahitamano. Pamuditoti pāmojjena yutto. Pītisomanassajātoti jātabalavapītisomanasso. Athāti pacchā, tato katipāhassa accayena. Sattabhattānīti sattasu divasesu dātabbabhattāni. Svātanāyāti svātanapuññatthaṃ, yaṃ sve buddhappamukhassa saṅghassa dānavasena payirupāsanavasena ca bhavissati puññaṃ tadatthaṃ.

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ mahāmoggallānaṃ āmantesīti kasmā āmantesi? Suppavāsāya sāmikassa pasādarakkhaṇatthaṃ. Suppavāsā pana acalappasādāva, upāsakassa pana pasādarakkhaṇaṃ mahāmoggallānattherassa bhāro. Tenāha ‘‘tuyheso upaṭṭhāko’’ti. Tattha tuyhesoti tuyhaṃ eso. Tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ pāṭibhogoti mama bhogādīnaṃ tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ ahāniyā avināsāya ayyo mahāmoggallāno yadi pāṭibhogo yadi patibhū, ito satta divase atikkamitvā mama sakkā dānaṃ dātunti yadi ayyena ñātanti dīpeti. Theropi tassa tesu divasesu bhogānaṃ jīvitassa ca anupaddavaṃ passitvā āha – ‘‘dvinnaṃ kho nesaṃ, āvuso, dhammānaṃ pāṭibhogo bhogānañca jīvitassa cā’’ti. Saddhā panassa cittappaṭibaddhāti tasseva bhāraṃ karonto ‘‘saddhāya pana tvaññeva pāṭibhogo’’ti āha. Api ca so upāsako diṭṭhasacco, tassa saddhāya aññathābhāvo natthīti tathā vuttaṃ. Teneva ca kāraṇena bhagavatā ‘‘pacchāpi tvaṃ karissasīti saññāpehī’’ti vuttaṃ. Upāsakopi satthari there ca gāravena subbacatāya tassā ca puññena vaḍḍhiṃ icchanto ‘‘karotu suppavāsā koliyadhītā satta bhattāni, pacchāhaṃ karissāmī’’ti anujāni.

Tañca dārakanti vijātadivasato paṭṭhāya ekādasamaṃ divasaṃ atikkamitvā tato paraṃ sattāhaṃ buddhappamukhaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ bhojetvā sattame divase taṃ sattavassikaṃ dārakaṃ bhagavantaṃ bhikkhusaṅghañca vandāpesi. Satta me vassānīti satta me saṃvaccharāni, accantasaṃyogavasena cetaṃ upayogavacanaṃ. Lohitakumbhiyaṃ vutthānīti mātukucchiyaṃ attano gabbhavāsadukkhaṃ sandhāya vadati. Aññānipi evarūpāni satta puttānīti ‘‘aññepi evarūpe satta putte’’ti vattabbe liṅgavipallāsavasena vuttaṃ ‘‘evarūpānī’’ti. Evaṃ satta vassāni gabbhadhāraṇavasena sattāhaṃ mūḷhagabbhatāya ca mahantaṃ dukkhaṃ pāpetvā uppajjanakaputteti attho. Etena mātugāmānaṃ puttalolatāya puttalābhena titti natthīti dasseti.

Etamatthaṃ viditvāti etaṃ sattadivasādhikāni satta saṃvaccharāni gabbhadhāraṇādivasena pavattaṃ mahantaṃ dukkhaṃ ekapade visaritvā puttalolatāvasena tāya vuttamatthaṃ viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti imaṃ cittasukhappamatto viya pamattapuggale iṭṭhākārena vañcetvā taṇhāsinehassa mahānatthakarabhāvadīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha asātanti amadhuraṃ asundaraṃ aniṭṭhaṃ. Sātarūpenāti iṭṭhasabhāvena. Piyarūpenāti piyāyitabbabhāvena. Sukhassa rūpenāti sukhasabhāvena. Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yasmā asātaṃ appiyaṃ dukkhameva samānaṃ sakalampi vaṭṭagataṃ saṅkhārajātaṃ appahīnavipallāsattā ayonisomanasikārena iṭṭhaṃ viya piyaṃ viya sukhaṃ viya ca hutvā upaṭṭhahamānaṃ sativippavāsena pamattapuggalaṃ ativattati abhibhavati ajjhottharati, tasmā imampi suppavāsaṃ punapi sattakkhattuṃ evarūpaṃ asātaṃ appiyaṃ dukkhaṃ sātādipatirūpakena dukkhena puttasaṅkhātapemavatthusukhena ajjhottharatīti.

Aṭṭhamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

9. Visākhāsuttavaṇṇanā

19. Navame pubbārāmeti sāvatthiyā pācīnadisābhāge anurādhapurassa uttamadevīvihārasadise ṭhāne kārite ārāme. Migāramātupāsādeti migāramātuyā pāsāde.

Tatrāyaṃ anupubbikathā – atīte satasahassakappamatthake padumuttaradasabalaṃ ekā upāsikā aññataraṃ upāsikaṃ attano aggupaṭṭhāyikaṭṭhāne ṭhapentaṃ disvā bhagavantaṃ nimantetvā buddhappamukhassa bhikkhusatasahassassa dānaṃ datvā bhagavato nipaccakāraṃ katvā ‘‘anāgate tumhādisassa buddhassa aggupaṭṭhāyikā bhaveyya’’nti patthanaṃ akāsi. Sā kappasatasahassaṃ devesu ca manussesu ca saṃsaritvā amhākaṃ bhagavato kāle bhaddiyanagare meṇḍakaseṭṭhiputtassa dhanañjayaseṭṭhino gehe sumanadeviyā kucchismiṃ paṭisandhiṃ gaṇhi. Jātakāle cassā visākhāti nāmaṃ akaṃsu. Sā yadā bhagavā bhaddiyanagaraṃ agamāsi, tadā pañcahi dārikāsatehi saddhiṃ bhagavato paccuggamanaṃ katvā paṭhamadassaneneva sotāpannā ahosi.

Aparabhāge sāvatthiyaṃ migāraseṭṭhiputtassa puṇṇavaḍḍhanakumārassa gehaṃ gatā, tattha naṃ sasuro migāraseṭṭhi upakāravasena mātuṭṭhāne ṭhapesi. Tasmā migāramātāti vuccati. Sā attano mahallatāpasādhanaṃ vissajjetvā navakoṭīhi bhagavato bhikkhusaṅghassa ca vasanatthāya karīsamatte bhūmibhāge uparibhūmiyaṃ pañcagabbhasatāni heṭṭhābhūmiyaṃ pañcagabbhasatānīti gabbhasahassehi paṭimaṇḍitaṃ pāsādaṃ kāresi. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘migāramātupāsāde’’ti.

Kocideva atthoti kiñcideva payojanaṃ. Raññeti rājini. Paṭibaddhoti āyatto. Visākhāya ñātikulato maṇimuttādiracitaṃ tādisaṃ bhaṇḍajātaṃ tassā paṇṇākāratthāya pesitaṃ, taṃ nagaradvārappattaṃ suṅkikā tattha suṅkaṃ gaṇhantā tadanurūpaṃ aggahetvā atirekaṃ gaṇhiṃsu. Taṃ sutvā visākhā rañño tamatthaṃ nivedetukāmā patirūpaparivārena rājanivesanaṃ agamāsi, tasmiṃ khaṇe rājā mallikāya deviyā saddhiṃ antepuraṃ gato hoti. Visākhā okāsaṃ alabhamānā ‘‘idāni labhissāmi, idāni labhissāmī’’ti bhojanavelaṃ atikkamitvā chinnabhattā hutvā pakkāmi. Evaṃ dvīhatīhaṃ gantvāpi okāsaṃ na labhiyeva. Iti rājā aniveditopi tassa atthavinicchayassa okāsākaraṇena ‘‘yathādhippāyaṃ na tīretī’’ti vutto. Tattha yathādhippāyanti adhippāyānurūpaṃ. Na tīretīti na niṭṭhāpeti. Mahāupāsikāya hi rājāyattasuṅkameva rañño datvā itaraṃ vissajjāpetuṃ adhippāyo, so raññā na diṭṭhattā eva na tīrito. Handāti vossaggatthe nipāto. Divā divassāti divasassa divā, majjhanhike kāleti attho. Kenacideva karaṇīyena dvīhatīhaṃ rājanivesanadvāraṃ gacchantī tassa atthassa aniṭṭhitattā niratthakameva upasaṅkamiṃ , bhagavati upasaṅkamanameva pana dassanānuttariyādippaṭilābhakāraṇattā sātthakanti evāhaṃ, bhante, imāya velāya idhāgatāti imamatthaṃ dassentī mahāupāsikā ‘‘idha me, bhante’’tiādimāha.

Etamatthanti etaṃ parāyattatāya adhippāyāsamijjhanasaṅkhātaṃ atthaṃ viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti imaṃ parādhīnāparādhīnavuttīsu ādīnavānisaṃsaparidīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha sabbaṃ paravasaṃ dukkhanti yaṃ kiñci atthajātaṃ payojanaṃ paravasaṃ parāyattaṃ attano icchāya nipphādetuṃ asakkuṇeyyatāya dukkhaṃ dukkhāvahaṃ hotīti attho. Sabbaṃ issariyaṃ sukhanti duvidhaṃ issariyaṃ lokiyaṃ lokuttarañca. Tattha lokiyaṃ rājissariyādi ceva lokiyajjhānābhiññānibbattaṃ cittissariyañca, lokuttaraṃ maggaphalādhigamanimittaṃ nirodhissariyaṃ. Tesu yaṃ cakkavattibhāvapariyosānaṃ manussesu issariyaṃ, yañca sakkādīnaṃ tasmiṃ tasmiṃ devanikāye ādhipaccabhūtaṃ issariyaṃ, tadubhayaṃ yadipi kammānubhāvena yathicchitanipphattiyā sukhanimittatāya sukhaṃ, vipariṇāmadukkhatāya pana sabbathā dukkhameva. Tathā aniccantikatāya lokiyajjhānanibbattaṃ cittissariyaṃ, nirodhissariyameva pana lokadhammehi akampanīyato anivattisabhāvattā ca ekantasukhaṃ nāma. Yaṃ panettha sabbattheva aparādhīnatāya labhati cittasukhaṃ, taṃ sandhāya satthā ‘‘sabbaṃ issariyaṃ sukha’’nti āha.

Sādhāraṇe vihaññantīti idaṃ ‘‘sabbaṃ paravasaṃ dukkha’’nti imassa padassa atthavivaraṇaṃ. Ayañhettha attho – sādhāraṇe payojane sādhetabbe sati tassa parādhīnatāya yathādhippāyaṃ anipphādanato ime sattā vihaññanti vighātaṃ āpajjanti kilamanti. Kasmā? Yogā hi duratikkamāti yasmā kāmayogabhavayogadiṭṭhiyogaavijjāyogā anādikālabhāvitā anupacitakusalasambhārehi pajahituṃ asakkuṇeyyatāya duratikkamā. Etesu diṭṭhiyogo paṭhamamaggena atikkamitabbo, kāmayogo tatiyamaggena. Itare aggamaggena. Iti ariyamaggānaṃ duradhigamanīyattā ime yogā duratikkamā. Tasmā kāmayogādivasena icchitālābhahetu sattā vihaññanti, asādhāraṇe pana cittissariye nirodhissariye ca sati na kadācipi vighātassa sambhavoti adhippāyo.

Atha vā sabbaṃ paravasanti yaṃ attano aññappaṭibaddhavuttisaṅkhātaṃ, taṃ sabbaṃ aniccasabhāvatāya dukkhaṃ. ‘‘Yadaniccaṃ taṃ dukkha’’nti hi vuttaṃ. Sabbaṃ issariyanti yaṃ sabbasaṅkhatanissaṭaṃ issariyaṭṭhānatāya issariyanti laddhanāmaṃ nibbānaṃ, taṃ upādisesādivibhāgaṃ sabbaṃ sukhaṃ. ‘‘Nibbānaṃ paramaṃ sukha’’nti (dha. pa. 203-204) hi vuttaṃ. Sādhāraṇeti evaṃ dukkhasukhe vavatthite ime sattā bahusādhāraṇe dukkhakāraṇe nimuggā hutvā vihaññanti. Kasmā? Yogā hi duratikkamāti yasmā te sabbattha nimujjanassa hetubhūtā kāmayogādayo duratikkamā, tasmā tvampi visākhe parāyattamatthaṃ patthetvā alabhamānā vihaññasīti adhippāyo.

Navamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

10. Bhaddiyasuttavaṇṇanā

20. Dasame anupiyāyanti evaṃ nāmake nagare. Ambavaneti tassa nagarassa avidūre mallarājūnaṃ ekaṃ ambavanaṃ ahosi, tattha mallarājūhi bhagavato vihāro kārito, so ‘‘ambavana’’ntveva vuccati. Anupiyaṃ gocaragāmaṃ katvā tattha bhagavā viharati, tena vuttaṃ ‘‘anupiyāyaṃ viharati ambavane’’ti. Bhaddiyoti tassa therassa nāmaṃ. Kāḷīgodhāya puttoti kāḷīgodhā nāma sākiyānī sakyarājadevī ariyasāvikā āgataphalā viññātasāsanā, tassā ayaṃ putto. Tassa pabbajjāvidhi khandhake (cūḷava. 330-331) āgatova. So pabbajitvā vipassanaṃ paṭṭhapetvā na cirasseva chaḷabhiñño ahosi, terasapi dhutaṅgāni samādāya vattati. Bhagavatā ca ‘‘etadaggaṃ, bhikkhave, mama sāvakānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ uccakulikānaṃ, yadidaṃ bhaddiyo kāḷīgodhāya putto’’ti (a. ni. 1.193) uccakulikabhāve etadagge ṭhapito asītiyā sāvakānaṃ abbhantaro.

Suññāgāragatoti ‘‘ṭhapetvā gāmañca gāmūpacārañca avasesaṃ arañña’’nti vuttaṃ araññaṃ rukkhamūlañca ṭhapetvā aññaṃ pabbatakandarādi pabbajitasāruppaṃ nivāsaṭṭhānaṃ janasambādhābhāvato idha suññāgāranti adhippetaṃ. Atha vā jhānakaṇṭakānaṃ saddānaṃ abhāvato vivittaṃ yaṃ kiñci agārampi suññāgāranti veditabbaṃ. Taṃ suññāgāraṃ upagato. Abhikkhaṇanti bahulaṃ. Udānaṃ udānesīti so hi āyasmā araññe divāvihāraṃ upagatopi rattivāsūpagatopi yebhuyyena phalasamāpattisukhena nirodhasukhena ca vītināmeti, tasmā taṃ sukhaṃ sandhāya pubbe attanā anubhūtaṃ sabhayaṃ sapariḷāhaṃ rajjasukhaṃ jigucchitvā ‘‘aho sukhaṃ aho sukha’’nti somanassasahitaṃ ñāṇasamuṭṭhānaṃ pītisamuṭṭhānaṃ samuggirati.

Sutvāna nesaṃ etadahosīti nesaṃ sambahulānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ tassa āyasmato ‘‘aho sukhaṃ, aho sukha’’nti udānentassa udānaṃ sutvā ‘‘nissaṃsayaṃ esa anabhirato brahmacariyaṃ caratī’’ti evaṃ parivitakkitaṃ ahosi. Te bhikkhū puthujjanā tassa āyasmato vivekasukhaṃ sandhāya udānaṃ ajānantā evaṃ amaññiṃsu, tena vuttaṃ ‘‘nissaṃsaya’’ntiādi. Tattha nissaṃsayanti asandehena ekantenāti attho. ‘‘Yaṃ so pubbe agāriyabhūto samāno’’ti pāḷiṃ vatvā ‘‘anubhavī’’ti vacanasesena keci atthaṃ vaṇṇenti, apare ‘‘yaṃ sā’’ti paṭhanti, ‘‘yaṃsa pubbe agāriyabhūtassā’’ti pana pāḷi. Tattha yaṃsāti yaṃ assa, sandhivasena hi akārasakāralopo ‘‘evaṃsa te (ma. ni. 1.23; a. ni. 6.58), pupphaṃsā uppajjī’’tiādīsu (pārā. 36) viya. Tassattho – assa āyasmato bhaddiyassa pabbajitato pubbe agāriyabhūtassa gahaṭṭhassa sato yaṃ rajjasukhaṃ anubhūtaṃ. Sā tamanussaramānoti so taṃ sukhaṃ etarahi ukkaṇṭhanavasena anussaranto.

Te bhikkhū bhagavantaṃ etadavocunti te sambahulā bhikkhū ullapanasabhāvasaṇṭhitā tassa anuggahaṇādhippāyena bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ, na ujjhānavasena. Aññataranti nāmagottena apākaṭaṃ ekaṃ bhikkhuṃ. Āmantesīti āṇāpesi te bhikkhū saññāpetukāmo. Evanti vacanasampaṭiggahe, sādhūti attho. Puna evanti paṭiññāya. Abhikkhaṇaṃ ‘‘aho sukhaṃ, aho sukha’’nti imaṃ udānaṃ udānesīti yathā te bhikkhū vadanti, taṃ evaṃ tathevāti attano udānaṃ paṭijānāti. Kiṃ pana tvaṃ bhaddiyāti kasmā bhagavā pucchati, kiṃ tassa cittaṃ na jānātīti ? No na jānāti, teneva pana tamatthaṃ vadāpetvā te bhikkhū saññāpetuṃ pucchati. Vuttañhetaṃ – ‘‘jānantāpi tathāgatā pucchanti, jānantāpi na pucchantī’’tiādi. Atthavasanti kāraṇaṃ.

Antepureti itthāgārassa sañcaraṇaṭṭhānabhūte rājagehassa abbhantare, yattha rājā nhānabhojanasayanādiṃ kappeti. Rakkhā susaṃvihitāti ārakkhādikatapurisehi gutti suṭṭhu samantato vihitā. Bahipi antepureti aḍḍakaraṇaṭṭhānādike antepurato bahibhūte rājagehe. Evaṃ rakkhito gopito santoti evaṃ rājageharājadhānirajjadesesu anto ca bahi ca anekesu ṭhānesu anekasatehi susaṃvihitarakkhāvaraṇaguttiyā mameva nibbhayatthaṃ phāsuvihāratthaṃ rakkhito gopito samāno. Bhītotiādīni padāni aññamaññavevacanāni. Atha vā bhītoti pararājūhi bhāyamāno. Ubbiggoti sakarajjepi pakatito uppajjanakabhayubbegena ubbiggo calito. Ussaṅkīti ‘‘raññā nāma sabbakālaṃ avissatthena bhavitabba’’nti vacanena sabbattha avissāsavasena tesaṃ tesaṃ kiccakaraṇīyānaṃ paccayaparisaṅkāya ca uddhamukhaṃ saṅkamāno. Utrāsīti ‘‘santikāvacarehipi ajānantasseva me kadāci anattho bhaveyyā’’ti uppannena sarīrakampaṃ uppādanasamatthena tāsena utrāsī. ‘‘Utrasto’’tipi paṭhanti. Vihāsinti evaṃbhūto hutvā vihariṃ.

Etarahīti idāni pabbajitakālato paṭṭhāya. Ekoti asahāyo, tena vūpakaṭṭhakāyataṃ dasseti. Abhītotiādīnaṃ padānaṃ vuttavipariyāyena attho veditabbo. Bhayādinimittassa pariggahassa taṃ nimittassa ca kilesassa abhāvenevassa abhītāditāti. Etena cittavivekaṃ dasseti . Appossukkoti sarīraguttiyaṃ nirussukko. Pannalomoti lomahaṃsuppādakassa chambhitattassa abhāvena anuggatalomo. Padadvayenapi serivihāraṃ dasseti. Paradattavuttoti parehi dinnena cīvarādinā vattamāno, etena sabbaso saṅgābhāvadīpanamukhena anavasesabhayahetuvirahaṃ dasseti. Migabhūtena cetasāti vissatthavihāritāya migassa viya jātena cittena. Migo hi amanussapathe araññe vasamāno vissattho tiṭṭhati, nisīdati, nipajjati, yenakāmañca pakkamati appaṭihatacāro, evaṃ ahampi viharāmīti dasseti. Vuttañhetaṃ paccekabuddhena –

‘‘Migo araññamhi yathā abaddho,

Yenicchakaṃ gacchati gocarāya;

Viññū naro seritaṃ pekkhamāno,

Eko care khaggavisāṇakappo’’ti. (su. ni. 39; apa. thera 1.1.95);

Imaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, atthavasanti, bhante, bhagavā yadidaṃ mama etarahi paramaṃ vivekasukhaṃ phalasamāpattisukhaṃ, idameva kāraṇaṃ sampassamāno ‘‘aho sukhaṃ, aho sukha’’nti udānaṃ udānesinti.

Etamatthanti etaṃ bhaddiyattherassa puthujjanavisayātītaṃ vivekasukhasaṅkhātamatthaṃ sabbākārato viditvā. Imaṃ udānanti idaṃ sahetukabhayasokavigamānubhāvadīpakaṃ udānaṃ udānesi.

Tattha yassantarato na santi kopāti yassa ariyapuggalassa antarato abbhantare attano citte cittakālussiyakaraṇato cittappakopā rāgādayo āghātavatthuādikāraṇabhedato anekabhedā dosakopā eva kopā na santi maggena pahīnattā na vijjanti. Ayañhi antarasaddo kiñcāpi ‘‘mañca tvañca kimantara’’ntiādīsu (saṃ. ni. 1.228) kāraṇe dissati, ‘‘antaraṭṭhake himapātasamaye’’tiādīsu (mahāva. 346) vemajjhe, ‘‘antarā ca jetavanaṃ antarā ca sāvatthi’’ntiādīsu (udā. 13, 44) vivare, ‘‘bhayamantarato jāta’’ntiādīsu (itivu. 88; mahāni. 5) citte, idhāpi citte eva daṭṭhabbo. Tena vuttaṃ ‘‘antarato attano citte’’ti.

Itibhavābhavatañca vītivattoti yasmā bhavoti sampatti, abhavoti vipatti. Tathā bhavoti vuddhi, abhavoti hāni. Bhavoti vā sassataṃ, abhavoti ucchedo. Bhavoti vā puññaṃ, abhavoti pāpaṃ. Bhavoti vā sugati, abhavoti duggati. Bhavoti vā khuddako, abhavoti mahanto. Tasmā yā sā sampattivipattivuḍḍhihānisassatucchedapuññapāpasugatiduggati- khuddakamahantaupapattibhavānaṃ vasena iti anekappakārā bhavābhavatā vuccati. Catūhipi ariyamaggehi yathāsambhavaṃ tena tena nayena taṃ itibhavābhavatañca vītivatto atikkanto hoti. Atthavasena vibhatti vipariṇāmetabbā. Taṃ vigatabhayanti taṃ evarūpaṃ yathāvuttaguṇasamannāgataṃ khīṇāsavaṃ cittakopābhāvato itibhavābhavasamatikkamato ca bhayahetuvigamena vigatabhayaṃ, vivekasukhena aggaphalasukhena ca sukhiṃ, vigatabhayattā eva asokaṃ. Devā nānubhavanti dassanāyāti adhigatamagge ṭhapetvā sabbepi upapattidevā vāyamantāpi cittacāradassanavasena dassanāya daṭṭhuṃ nānubhavanti na abhisambhuṇanti na sakkonti, pageva manussā. Sekkhāpi hi puthujjanā viya arahato cittappavattiṃ na jānanti.

Dasamasuttavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Niṭṭhitā ca mucalindavaggavaṇṇanā.

 

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