4. Kumārapañhavaṇṇanā

Aṭṭhuppatti

Idāni ekaṃ nāma kinti evamādīnaṃ kumārapañhānaṃ atthavaṇṇanākkamo anuppatto. Tesaṃ aṭṭhuppattiṃ idha nikkhepappayojanañca vatvā vaṇṇanaṃ karissāma –

Aṭṭhuppatti tāva nesaṃ sopāko nāma bhagavato mahāsāvako ahosi. Tenāyasmatā jātiyā sattavasseneva aññā ārādhitā, tassa bhagavā pañhabyākaraṇena upasampadaṃ anuññātukāmo attanā adhippetatthānaṃ pañhānaṃ byākaraṇasamatthataṃ passanto ‘‘ekaṃ nāma ki’’nti evamādinā pañhe pucchi. So byākāsi. Tena ca byākaraṇena bhagavato cittaṃ ārādhesi. Sāva tassāyasmato upasampadā ahosi.

Ayaṃ tesaṃ aṭṭhuppatti.

Nikkhepappayojanaṃ

Yasmā pana saraṇagamanehi buddhadhammasaṅghānussativasena cittabhāvanā, sikkhāpadehi sīlabhāvanā, dvattiṃsākārena ca kāyabhāvanā pakāsitā, tasmā idāni nānappakārato paññābhāvanāmukhadassanatthaṃ ime pañhabyākaraṇā idha nikkhittā. Yasmā vā sīlapadaṭṭhāno samādhi, samādhipadaṭṭhānā ca paññā; yathāha – ‘‘sīle patiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvaya’’nti (saṃ. ni. 1.23, 192), tasmā sikkhāpadehi sīlaṃ dvattiṃsākārena taṃgocaraṃ samādhiñca dassetvā samāhitacittassa nānādhammaparikkhārāya paññāya pabhedadassanatthaṃ idha nikkhittātipi viññātabbā.

Idaṃ tesaṃ idha nikkhepappayojanaṃ.

Pañhavaṇṇanā

Ekaṃ nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Idāni tesaṃ atthavaṇṇanā hoti – ekaṃ nāma kinti bhagavā yasmiṃ ekadhammasmiṃ bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, yasmiṃ cāyamāyasmā nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantamakāsi, taṃ dhammaṃ sandhāya pañhaṃ pucchati. ‘‘Sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā’’ti thero puggalādhiṭṭhānāya desanāya vissajjeti. ‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharatī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.8) evamādīni cettha suttāni evaṃ vissajjanayuttisambhave sādhakāni. Ettha yenāhārena sabbe sattā ‘‘āhāraṭṭhitikā’’ti vuccanti, so āhāro taṃ vā nesaṃ āhāraṭṭhitikattaṃ ‘‘ekaṃ nāma ki’’nti puṭṭhena therena niddiṭṭhanti veditabbaṃ. Tañhi bhagavatā idha ekanti adhippetaṃ, na tu sāsane loke vā aññaṃ ekaṃ nāma natthīti ñāpetuṃ vuttaṃ. Vuttañhetaṃ bhagavatā –

‘‘Ekadhamme, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno sammā virajjamāno sammā vimuccamāno sammā pariyantadassāvī sammattaṃ abhisamecca diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamasmiṃ ekadhamme? Sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā. Imasmiṃ kho, bhikkhave, ekadhamme bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Eko pañho eko uddeso ekaṃ veyyākaraṇa’nti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Āhāraṭṭhitikāti cettha yathā ‘‘atthi, bhikkhave, subhanimittaṃ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro, ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāyā’’ti evamādīsu (saṃ. ni. 5.232) paccayo āhāroti vuccati, evaṃ paccayaṃ āhārasaddena gahetvā paccayaṭṭhitikā ‘‘āhāraṭṭhitikā’’ti vuttā. Cattāro pana āhāre sandhāya – ‘‘āhāraṭṭhitikā’’ti vuccamāne ‘‘asaññasattā devā ahetukā anāhārā aphassakā avedanakā’’ti vacanato (vibha. 1017) ‘‘sabbe’’ti vacanamayuttaṃ bhaveyya.

Tattha siyā – evampi vuccamāne ‘‘katame dhammā sapaccayā? Pañcakkhandhā – rūpakkhandho…pe… viññāṇakkhandho’’ti (dha. sa. 1089) vacanato khandhānaṃyeva paccayaṭṭhitikattaṃ yuttaṃ, sattānantu ayuttamevetaṃ vacanaṃ bhaveyyāti. Na kho panetaṃ evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Kasmā ? Sattesu khandhopacārasiddhito. Sattesu hi khandhopacāro siddho. Kasmā? Khandhe upādāya paññāpetabbato. Kathaṃ? Gehe gāmopacāro viya. Seyyathāpi hi gehāni upādāya paññāpetabbattā gāmassa ekasmimpi dvīsu tīsupi vā gehesu daḍḍhesu ‘‘gāmo daḍḍho’’ti evaṃ gehe gāmopacāro siddho, evameva khandhesu paccayaṭṭhena āhāraṭṭhitikesu ‘‘sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā’’ti ayaṃ upacāro siddhoti veditabbo. Paramatthato ca khandhesu jāyamānesu jīyamānesu mīyamānesu ca ‘‘khaṇe khaṇe tvaṃ bhikkhu jāyase ca jīyase ca mīyase cā’’ti vadatā bhagavatā tesu sattesu khandhopacāro siddhoti dassito evāti veditabbo. Yato yena paccayākhyena āhārena sabbe sattā tiṭṭhanti, so āhāro taṃ vā nesaṃ āhāraṭṭhitikattaṃ ekanti veditabbaṃ. Āhāro hi āhāraṭṭhitikattaṃ vā aniccatākāraṇato nibbidāṭṭhānaṃ hoti. Atha tesu sabbasattasaññitesu saṅkhāresu aniccatādassanena nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhiṃ pāpuṇāti. Yathāha –

‘‘Sabbe saṅkhārā aniccāti, yadā paññāya passati;

Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā’’ti. (dha. pa. 277);

Ettha ca ‘‘ekaṃ nāma ki’’nti ca ‘‘kihā’’ti ca duvidho pāṭho, tattha sīhaḷānaṃ kihāti pāṭho. Te hi ‘‘ki’’nti vattabbe ‘‘kihā’’ti vadanti. Keci bhaṇanti ‘‘ha-iti nipāto, theriyānampi ayameva pāṭho’’ti ubhayathāpi pana ekova attho. Yathā ruccati, tathā paṭhitabbaṃ. Yathā pana ‘‘sukhena phuṭṭho atha vā dukhena (dha. pa. 83), dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedetī’’ti evamādīsu katthaci dukhanti ca katthaci dukkhanti ca vuccati, evaṃ katthaci ekanti, katthaci ekkanti vuccati. Idha pana ekaṃ nāmāti ayameva pāṭho.

Dve nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Evaṃ iminā pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā purimanayeneva uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati dve nāma kinti? Thero dveti paccanubhāsitvā ‘‘nāmañca rūpañcā’’ti dhammādhiṭṭhānāya desanāya vissajjeti. Tattha ārammaṇābhimukhaṃ namanato, cittassa ca natihetuto sabbampi arūpaṃ ‘‘nāma’’nti vuccati. Idha pana nibbidāhetuttā sāsavadhammameva adhippetaṃ ruppanaṭṭhena cattāro ca mahābhūtā, sabbañca tadupādāya pavattamānaṃ rūpaṃ ‘‘rūpa’’nti vuccati, taṃ sabbampi idhādhippetaṃ. Adhippāyavaseneva cettha ‘‘dve nāma nāmañca rūpañcā’’ti vuttaṃ, na aññesaṃ dvinnamabhāvato. Yathāha –

‘‘Dvīsu , bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu dvīsu? Nāme ca rūpe ca. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, dvīsu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Dve pañhā, dve uddesā, dve veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Ettha ca nāmarūpamattadassanena attadiṭṭhiṃ pahāya anattānupassanāmukheneva nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhiṃ pāpuṇātīti veditabbo. Yathāha –

‘‘Sabbe dhammā anattāti, yadā paññāya passati;

Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā’’ti. (dha. pa. 279);

Tīṇi nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Idāni imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā purimanayeneva uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati tīṇi nāma kinti? Thero tīṇīti paccanubhāsitvā puna byākaritabbassa atthassa liṅgānurūpaṃ saṅkhyaṃ dassento ‘‘tisso vedanā’’ti vissajjeti. Atha vā ‘‘yā bhagavatā ‘tisso vedanā’ti vuttā, imāsamatthamahaṃ tīṇīti paccemī’’ti dassento āhāti evampettha attho veditabbo. Anekamukhā hi desanā paṭisambhidāpabhedena desanāvilāsappattānaṃ. Keci panāhu ‘‘tīṇīti adhikapadamida’’nti. Purimanayeneva cettha ‘‘tisso vedanā’’ti vuttaṃ, na aññesaṃ tiṇṇamabhāvato. Yathāha –

‘‘Tīsu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu tīsu? Tīsu vedanāsu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, tīsu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Tayo pañhā, tayo uddesā, tīṇi veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ , idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Ettha ca ‘‘yaṃkiñci vedayitaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ dukkhasminti vadāmī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 4.259) vuttasuttānusārena vā. –

‘‘Yo sukhaṃ dukkhato adda, dukkhamaddakkhi sallato;

Adukkhamasukhaṃ santaṃ, addakkhi naṃ aniccato’’ti. (itivu. 53) –

Evaṃ dukkhadukkhatāvipariṇāmadukkhatāsaṅkhāradukkhatānusārena vā tissannaṃ vedanānaṃ dukkhabhāvadassanena sukhasaññaṃ pahāya dukkhānupassanāmukhena nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, paramatthavisuddhiṃ pāpuṇātīti veditabbo. Yathāha –

‘‘Sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhāti, yadā paññāya passati;

Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā’’ti. (dha. pa. 278);

Cattāri nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Evaṃ imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā purimanayeneva uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati cattāri nāma kinti? Tattha imassa pañhassa byākaraṇapakkhe katthaci purimanayeneva cattāro āhārā adhippetā. Yathāha –

‘‘Catūsu , bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu catūsu? Catūsu āhāresu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, catūsu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Cattāro pañhā cattāro uddesā cattāri veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Katthaci yesu subhāvitacitto anupubbena dukkhassantakaro hoti, tāni cattāri satipaṭṭhānāni. Yathāha kajaṅgalā bhikkhunī –

‘‘Catūsu, āvuso, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā subhāvitacitto sammā pariyantadassāvī sammattaṃ abhisamecca diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu catūsu? Catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu. Imesu kho, āvuso, catūsu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā subhāvitacitto…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Cattāro pañhā cattāro uddesā cattāri veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ bhagavatā, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.28).

Idha pana yesaṃ catunnaṃ anubodhappaṭivedhato bhavataṇhāchedo hoti, yasmā tāni cattāri ariyasaccāni adhippetāni. Yasmā vā iminā pariyāyena byākataṃ subyākatameva hoti, tasmā thero cattārīti paccanubhāsitvā ‘‘ariyasaccānī’’ti vissajjeti. Tattha cattārīti gaṇanaparicchedo. Ariyasaccānīti ariyāni saccāni, avitathāni avisaṃvādakānīti attho. Yathāha –

‘‘Imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri ariyasaccāni tathāni avitathāni anaññathāni, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1097).

Yasmā vā sadevakena lokena araṇīyato abhigamanīyatoti vuttaṃ hoti, vāyamitabbaṭṭhānasaññite aye vā iriyanato, anaye vā na iriyanato, sattatiṃsabodhipakkhiyaariyadhammasamāyogato vā ariyasammatā buddhapaccekabuddhabuddhasāvakā etāni paṭivijjhanti, tasmāpi ‘‘ariyasaccānī’’ti vuccanti. Yathāha –

‘‘Cattārimāni , bhikkhave, ariyasaccāni…pe… imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri ariyasaccāni, ariyā imāni paṭivijjhanti, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti.

Apica ariyassa bhagavato saccānītipi ariyasaccāni. Yathāha –

‘‘Sadevake, bhikkhave…pe… sadevamanussāya tathāgato ariyo, tasmā ariyasaccānīti vuccantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1098).

Atha vā etesaṃ abhisambuddhattā ariyabhāvasiddhitopi ariyasaccāni. Yathāha –

‘‘Imesaṃ kho, bhikkhave, catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ abhisambuddhattā tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddhoti vuccatī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1093).

Ayametesaṃ padattho. Etesaṃ pana ariyasaccānaṃ anubodhappaṭivedhato bhavataṇhāchedo hoti. Yathāha –

‘‘Tayidaṃ , bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ…pe… dukkhanirodhagāminipaṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.1091).

Pañca nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā purimanayeneva uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati pañca nāma kinti? Thero pañcāti paccanubhāsitvā ‘‘upādānakkhandhā’’ti vissajjeti. Tattha pañcāti gaṇanaparicchedo. Upādānajanitā upādānajanakā vā khandhā upādānakkhandhā. Yaṃkiñci rūpaṃ, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhārā, viññāṇañca sāsavā upādāniyā, etesametaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Pubbanayeneva cettha ‘‘pañcupādānakkhandhā’’ti vuttaṃ, na aññesaṃ pañcannamabhāvato. Yathāha –

‘‘Pañcasu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu pañcasu? Pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, pañcasu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Pañca pañhā, pañca uddesā , pañca veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Ettha ca pañcakkhandhe udayabbayavasena sammasanto vipassanāmataṃ laddhā anupubbena nibbānāmataṃ sacchikaroti. Yathāha –

‘‘Yato yato sammasati, khandhānaṃ udayabbayaṃ;

Labhatī pītipāmojjaṃ, amataṃ taṃ vijānata’’nti. (dha. pa. 374);

Cha nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Evaṃ imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā purimanayeneva uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati ‘‘cha nāma ki’’nti? Thero chaiti paccanubhāsitvā ‘ajjhattikāni āyatanānī’ti vissajjeti. Tattha chaiti gaṇanaparicchedo, ajjhatte niyuttāni, attānaṃ vā adhikatvā pavattāni ajjhattikāni. Āyatanato, āyassa vā tananato, āyatassa vā saṃsāradukkhassa nayanato āyatanāni, cakkhusotaghānajivhākāyamanānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Pubbanayena cettha ‘‘cha ajjhattikāni āyatanānī’’ti vuttaṃ, na aññesaṃ channamabhāvato. Yathāha –

‘‘Chasu , bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu chasu? Chasu ajjhattikesu āyatanesu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, chasu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Cha pañhā cha uddesā cha veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Ettha ca cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni, ‘‘suñño gāmoti kho, bhikkhave, channetaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ adhivacana’’nti (saṃ. ni. 4.238) vacanato suññato pubbuḷakamarīcikādīni viya aciraṭṭhitikato tucchato vañcanato ca samanupassaṃ nibbindamāno anupubbena dukkhassantaṃ katvā maccurājassa adassanaṃ upeti. Yathāha –

‘‘Yathā pubbuḷakaṃ passe, yathā passe marīcikaṃ;

Evaṃ lokaṃ avekkhantaṃ, maccurājā na passatī’’ti. (dha. pa. 170);

Satta nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati satta nāma kinti? Thero kiñcāpi mahāpañhabyākaraṇe satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo vuttā, apica kho pana yesu dhammesu subhāvitacitto bhikkhu dukkhassantakaro hoti, te dassento ‘‘satta bojjhaṅgā’’ti vissajjeti. Ayampi cattho bhagavatā anumato eva. Yathāha –

‘‘Paṇḍitā gahapatayo kajaṅgalikā bhikkhunī, mahāpaññā gahapatayo kajaṅgalikā bhikkhunī, mañcepi tumhe gahapatayo upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṃ paṭipuccheyyātha, ahampi cetaṃ evameva byākareyyaṃ, yathā taṃ kajaṅgalikāya bhikkhuniyā byākata’’nti (a. ni. 10.28).

Tāya ca evaṃ byākataṃ –

‘‘Sattasu, āvuso, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā subhāvitacitto…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu sattasu? Sattasu bojjhaṅgesu. Imesu kho, āvuso, sattasu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā subhāvitacitto…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Satta pañhā satta uddesā satta veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ bhagavatā, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.28).

Evamayamattho bhagavatā anumato evāti veditabbo.

Tattha sattāti ūnādhikanivāraṇagaṇanaparicchedo. Bojjhaṅgāti satiādīnaṃ dhammānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Tatrāyaṃ padattho – etāya lokiyalokuttaramaggakkhaṇe uppajjamānāya līnuddhaccapatiṭṭhānāyūhanakāmasukhattakilamathānuyogaucchedasassatābhinivesādi- anekupaddavappaṭipakkhabhūtāya satidhammavicayavīriyapītippassaddhisamādhupekkhāsaṅkhātāya dhammasāmaggiyā ariyasāvako bujjhatīti katvā bodhi, kilesasantānaniddāya uṭṭhahati, cattāri vā ariyasaccāni paṭivijjhati, nibbānameva vā sacchikarotīti vuttaṃ hoti. Yathāha – ‘‘satta bojjhaṅge bhāvetvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’’ti. Yathāvuttappakārāya vā etāya dhammasāmaggiyā bujjhatīti katvā ariyasāvakopi bodhi. Iti tassā dhammasāmaggisaṅkhātāya bodhiyā aṅgabhūtattā bojjhaṅgā jhānaṅgamaggaṅgāni viya, tassa vā bodhīti laddhavohārassa ariyasāvakassa aṅgabhūtattāpi bojjhaṅgā senaṅgarathaṅgādayo viya.

Apica ‘‘bojjhaṅgāti kenaṭṭhena bojjhaṅgā? Bodhāya saṃvattantīti bojjhaṅgā, bujjhantīti bojjhaṅgā, anubujjhantīti bojjhaṅgā, paṭibujjhantīti bojjhaṅgā, sambujjhantīti bojjhaṅgā’’ti (paṭi. ma. 2.17) imināpi paṭisambhidāyaṃ vuttena vidhinā bojjhaṅgānaṃ bojjhaṅgaṭṭho veditabbo. Evamime satta bojjhaṅge bhāvento bahulīkaronto na cirasseva ekantanibbidādiguṇapaṭilābhī hoti, tena diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hotīti vuccati . Vuttañcetaṃ bhagavatā –

‘‘Sattime, bhikkhave, bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattantī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 5.201).

Aṭṭha nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Evaṃ imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati aṭṭha nāma kinti? Thero kiñcāpi mahāpañhabyākaraṇe aṭṭha lokadhammā vuttā, apica kho pana yesu dhammesu subhāvitacitto bhikkhu dukkhassantakaro hoti, te dassento ‘‘ariyāni aṭṭha maggaṅgānī’’ti avatvā yasmā aṭṭhaṅgavinimutto maggo nāma natthi, aṭṭhaṅgamattameva tu maggo, tasmā tamatthaṃ sādhento desanāvilāsena ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggoti vissajjeti. Bhagavatāpi cāyamattho desanānayo ca anumato eva. Yathāha –

‘‘Paṇḍitā gahapatayo kajaṅgalikā bhikkhunī…pe… ahampi evameva byākareyyaṃ, yathā taṃ kajaṅgalikāya bhikkhuniyā byākata’’nti (a. ni. 10.28).

Tāya ca evaṃ byākataṃ –

‘‘Aṭṭhasu, āvuso, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā subhāvitacitto…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Aṭṭha pañhā, aṭṭha uddesā, aṭṭha veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ bhagavatā, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.28).

Evamayaṃ attho ca desanānayo ca bhagavatā anumato evāti veditabbo.

Tattha ariyoti nibbānatthikehi abhigantabbo, apica ārakā kilesehi vattanato, ariyabhāvakaraṇato, ariyaphalapaṭilābhato cāpi ariyoti veditabbo. Aṭṭha aṅgāni assāti aṭṭhaṅgiko. Svāyaṃ caturaṅgikā viya senā, pañcaṅgikaṃ viya ca tūriyaṃ aṅgavinibbhogena anupalabbhasabhāvato aṅgamattamevāti veditabbo. Maggati iminā nibbānaṃ, sayaṃ vā maggati, kilese mārento vā gacchatīti maggo.

Evamaṭṭhappabhedañcimaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvento bhikkhu avijjaṃ bhindati, vijjaṃ uppādeti, nibbānaṃ sacchikaroti, tena diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hotīti vuccati. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, sālisūkaṃ vā yavasūkaṃ vā sammā paṇihitaṃ hatthena vā pādena vā akkantaṃ hatthaṃ vā pādaṃ vā bhecchati, lohitaṃ vā uppādessatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Sammā paṇihitattā, bhikkhave, sūkassa, evameva kho, bhikkhave , so vata bhikkhu sammā paṇihitāya diṭṭhiyā sammā paṇihitāya maggabhāvanāya avijjaṃ bhecchati, vijjaṃ uppādessati, nibbānaṃ sacchikarissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjatī’’ti (a. ni. 1.42).

Nava nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati nava nāma kinti? Thero navaiti paccanubhāsitvā ‘‘sattāvāsā’’ti vissajjeti. Tattha navāti gaṇanaparicchedo. Sattāti jīvitindriyappaṭibaddhe khandhe upādāya paññattā pāṇino paṇṇatti vā. Āvāsāti āvasanti etesūti āvāsā, sattānaṃ āvāsā sattāvāsā. Esa desanāmaggo, atthato pana navavidhānaṃ sattānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Yathāha –

‘‘Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā nānattasaññino, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā, ayaṃ paṭhamo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā ekattasaññino, seyyathāpi, devā brahmakāyikā, paṭhamābhinibbattā, ayaṃ dutiyo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā nānattasaññino, seyyathāpi, devā ābhassarā, ayaṃ tatiyo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā ekattasaññino, seyyathāpi, devā subhakiṇhā, ayaṃ catuttho sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā asaññino appaṭisaṃvedino, seyyathāpi, devā asaññasattā, ayaṃ pañcamo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ…pe… ākāsānañcāyatanūpagā , ayaṃ chaṭṭho sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā…pe… viññāṇañcāyatanūpagā, ayaṃ sattamo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā…pe… ākiñcaññāyatanūpagā, ayaṃ aṭṭhamo sattāvāso. Santāvuso, sattā…pe… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanūpagā, ayaṃ navamo sattāvāso’’ti (dī. ni. 3.341).

Purimanayeneva cettha ‘‘nava sattāvāsā’’ti vuttaṃ, na aññesaṃ navannamabhāvato. Yathāha –

‘‘Navasu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu navasu? Navasu sattāvāsesu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, navasu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Nava pañhā , nava uddesā, nava veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Ettha ca ‘‘nava dhammā pariññeyyā. Katame nava? Nava sattāvāsā’’ti (dī. ni. 3.359) vacanato navasu sattāvāsesu ñātapariññāya dhuvasubhasukhattabhāvadassanaṃ pahāya suddhasaṅkhārapuñjamattadassanena nibbindamāno tīraṇapariññāya aniccānupassanena virajjamāno dukkhānupassanena vimuccamāno anattānupassanena sammā pariyantadassāvī pahānapariññāya sammattamabhisamecca diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Tenetaṃ vuttaṃ –

‘‘Navasu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu navasu? Navasu sattāvāsesū’’ti (a. ni. 10.27).

Dasa nāma kintipañhavaṇṇanā

Evaṃ imināpi pañhabyākaraṇena āraddhacitto satthā uttariṃ pañhaṃ pucchati dasa nāma kinti? Tattha kiñcāpi imassa pañhassa ito aññatra veyyākaraṇesu dasa akusalakammapathā vuttā. Yathāha –

‘‘Dasasu, bhikkhave, dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe… dukkhassantakaro hoti. Katamesu dasasu? Dasasu akusalakammapathesu. Imesu kho, bhikkhave, dasasu dhammesu bhikkhu sammā nibbindamāno…pe. … dukkhassantakaro hoti. ‘Dasa pañhā dasa uddesā dasa veyyākaraṇānī’ti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti (a. ni. 10.27).

Idha pana yasmā ayamāyasmā attānaṃ anupanetvā aññaṃ byākātukāmo, yasmā vā iminā pariyāyena byākataṃ subyākatameva hoti, tasmā yehi dasahi aṅgehi samannāgato arahāti pavuccati, tesaṃ adhigamaṃ dīpento dasahaṅgehi samannāgato arahāti pavuccatīti puggalādhiṭṭhānāya desanāya vissajjeti. Yato ettha yehi dasahi aṅgehi samannāgato arahāti pavuccati, tāni dasaṅgāni ‘‘dasa nāma ki’’nti puṭṭhena therena niddiṭṭhānīti veditabbāni. Tāni ca dasa –

‘‘Asekho asekhoti, bhante, vuccati, kittāvatā nu kho, bhante, bhikkhu asekho hotīti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu asekhāya sammādiṭṭhiyā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāsaṅkappena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāvācāya samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammākammantena samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāājīvena samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāvāyāmena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāsatiyā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāsamādhinā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāñāṇena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāvimuttiyā samannāgato hoti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu asekho hotī’’ti (a. ni. 10.111). –

Evamādīsu suttesu vuttanayeneva veditabbānīti.

Paramatthajotikāya khuddakapāṭha-aṭṭhakathāya

Kumārapañhavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

 

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