4. Suttavicayacatutthabhūmi

40. Tattha katamo suttavicayo?

Tattha kusalehi dhammehi akusalehi dhammehi pubbāparaso sādhukaṃ upaparikkhiyati. Kiṃnu kho idaṃ suttaṃ ārabhi…pe… tehi suttehi saha adhisannaṭṭhehi yujjati udāhu na yujjatīti?

Yathā bhagavā kilese ādimhi tattha deseti. Kiṃ desitaṃ? Tesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ udāhu no desitanti upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Yadi na desitaṃ bhagavati tesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānaṃ kusalā dhammā pariyesitabbā yattha te akusalā pahānaṃ gacchanti. Sace samannehamāno na labhati. Tattha akusalā dhammā apakaḍḍhitabbā vīmaṃsitabbā, saṃkilesabhāgiyasuttaṃ, yadi kilesā apakaḍḍhiyantā. Ye vā na denti tattha upaparikkhitabbā ariyamaggadhammā tāsu bhūmīsu kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti, udāhu na gacchantīti. Yattakā pana kilesā desitā. Na tattakā ariyadhammā desitā. Yattha kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti, tattha ye kilesā ariyadhammānaṃ paṭipakkhena na yujjanti, te apakaḍḍhitabbā, sace apakaḍḍhiyantā yojanaṃ deti. Tattha evaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ. Dve tīṇi vā taduttari vā kilesā ekena ariyamaggena pahānaṃ gacchantīti. Sace evaṃ vīmaṃsiyantā yojanaṃ deti, tattha upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Paramparāya vā piṭakasampadānena vā suttassa attho ca nattho ca. Yaṃ vā na sakkā suttaṃ niddisituṃ neva suttaṃ vicikicchitabbaṃ. Evaṃ yathā ādimhi kusalā dhammā honti. Ye kilesā te pahīneyyāti. Te upaparikkhitabbā. Puro vā kusalo paṭipakkhena vā puro desanā, anūnā anadhikā uggahetabbā. Yathā paṭhamo uttilo yesamidāni kilesānaṃ ye ariyadhammā desitā ime kilesā imehi ariyadhammehi pahīyanti, udāhu nappahīyantīti vicinitabbā. Yadi upaparikkhiyamānā yujjanti, gahetabbā. Atha na yujjanti, ye kilesā apaṭipakkhā honti, te kilesā aparipakkhitabbā. Ye ca ariyadhammā paṭipakkhā honti, te ariyadhammā apakaḍḍhitabbā . Na hi ariyadhammā anāgāmikilesappahānaṃ gacchanti, nāpi ariyadhammā sabbakilesānaṃ pahānāya saṃvattanti. Yathā kusalā mettā akusalo rāgo na tu kusalā mettāti kāretvā akusalassa rāgassa pahānāya sambhavati byāpādo mettāya pahānaṃ gacchati. Tasmā ubho kilesā upaparikkhitabbā. Yo yo ca dhammo upadisiyati kusalo vā akusalo vā so apakaḍḍhitabbo. Sace te yujjanti apakaḍḍhiyamāno natthi upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Dve vā kilesā ekena ariyadhammena pahīneyyāti dvīhi vā ariyadhammehi eko vā kileso pahīyatīti.

Atha vā evampi upaparikkhiyamānaṃ yujjati, tattha vīmaṃsitabbaṃ vā yathā yujjati tattha vīmaṃsitabbaṃ vā, yathā nanu sakkā suttaṃ niddisituṃ, na hi sutte vicikicchitabbaṃ. Kileso maṃ ariyadhammesu desitesu ubhayato upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Kira ye vā ime kilesā desitā ye ca ariyadhammā desitā gāthāya vā byākaraṇena vā, kiṃ nu kho ime kilesā imehi ariyadhammehi pahīyanti, udāhu nappahīyanti? Ime vā ariyadhammā imesaṃ kilesānaṃ pahānāya saṃvattantīti. Kiñcāpi kusalehi dhammehi akusalā dhammā pahānaṃ gacchanti. Na tu sabbehi ariyadhammehi sabbākusalā pahānaṃ gacchanti. Yathā mettā kusalo akusalo ca rāgo na tu kusalā mettā akusalo rāgoti kāretvā mettāya rāgo pahānaṃ, byāpādo mettāya pahānaṃ gacchanti. Evaṃ kilesoti kāretvā suttena pahānaṃ gacchati. Na sutto dhammoti kāretvā sabbaṃ kilesassa pahānāya saṃvattati. Yaṃ tu suttassa ariyadhammo saṃkilesapaṭipakkho, so tena pahānaṃ gacchatīti.

41. Tattha kusale desite sutte byākaraṇe vā saṃkilesā na yujjanti ariyadhammā vā, te mahāpadese niddisitabbāvayavena apakaḍḍhitabbā . Tattha kilesehi ca desitehi ariyadhammesu ca yadipi tena ariyadhammena te kilesā pahānaṃ gacchanti. Tatthapi uttari upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Kena kāraṇena ete kilesā pajahitabbā, kena kāraṇena ariyadhammā desitāti? Yena yena vā ākārena ariyadhammā desitā, tena tena pakārena ayaṃ kileso ṭhito. Atthi hi eko kileso, tena vā ariyadhammā na aññathā aññathā pahātabbo, yathā diṭṭhi rāgo avijjā ca dassanena pahātabbā. Sā ce evañca avijjā bhāvanāya bhūmi vā dhammā bhāvanāya pahātabbā. Sāyeva uddhaṃbhāgiyaṃ asaṅkhatadassanāya vimuttiyā animittena cetosamādhinā amanasikārena pahīyati. Evaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ upaparikkhitabbaṃ. Ye dassanena pahātabbā kilesā dassanākārena ariyadhammo desito, bhāvanāya pahātabbā bhāvanākārena ariyadhammo desito, patisevanā pahātabbā patisevanākārena ariyadhammo desito, evaṃ vinodanapahātabbā yāva satta āsavā kātabbā, yāvaññathā. Aññathā hesa dhammo pahātabbo aññenākārena ariyadhammo desito, so ariyadhammo aññathā pariyesitabbo. Yadi ayaṃ dhammo pariyesato yo ca deseti yena yenākārena, so ariyadhammo pariyesitabbo, tenākārena kileso pahīyati. So tattha upaparikkhitabbo. Atha na yujjati yadi hi tena suttena vihitaṃ suttaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ. Yathā yujjati, tathā gahetabbaṃ. Yathā na yujjati, tathā na gahetabbaṃ, addhā etaṃ bhagavatā na bhāsitaṃ, āyasmatā vā duggahitaṃ, yathā mahāpadese niddisitabbaṃ, bhagavatā yathābhūtaṃ desitaṃ, yo ca dhammo desito kusalo ca akusalo ca tassa dhammassa paccayo pariyesitabbo. Na hi paccayā vinā dhammo appaccayo uppajjati. Tattha ko ākāro pariyesanāya?

Tattha tathārūpaṃ sahetu sappaccayaṃ soyaṃ dhammo vuttoti idaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ. So ca paccayo tividho – mudu majjho adhimatto. Tattha mudumhi paccaye mududhammo gahetabbo, evaṃ satyesa paccayo duvidho paraṃparāpaccayo ca samanantarapaccayo ca. So paccayo mudutena byādhimattaṃ pariyesitabbaṃ. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Aññataropi paccayo aññehi paccayehi pariyattiṃ vā pāripūriṃ vā gacchati . Tattha yo dhammo desito, tassa dhammassa etena vā kāraṇena vā hetu pariyesitabbo. Yathā paccayo hetunā paccayena ca, so tassa dhammassa nissando pariyesitabbo. Yathā niddiṭṭho adhiṭṭhāne padhānaṃ pariyesati, so paccayo pariyesitabbo. Na hi mudussa dhammassa adhimatto nissando adhimattassa vā nissandassa mududhammo, atha mudussa mudu majjhāya majjho adhimattassa adhimatto yujjati, taṃ gahetabbaṃ, atha na yujjati na gahetabbaṃ. Yañca bhagavā ārabhati dhammaṃ desetuṃ, taṃyeva dhammaṃ majjhantapariyosānaṃ deseti, yathā suttādhiṭṭhāne dhammā ādimhi niddisati, taṃyeva bahu tassa suttassa pariyosānaṃ. Tassa hi dhammassa vasena taṃ suttaṃ hoti gāthā vā byākaraṇaṃ khuddakaṃ mahantaṃ vā, yathā pana duvidhā anurūpanti vā thapanā ca desanāthapanā. Rūpantipi dhammassa pariyesitabbā. Yathā ca bhagavatā pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ saṃvaraṇaṃ desitaṃ taṇhāya niggahaṇatthaṃ icchāva hoti. Deseti yathā gopālakopame sutte aññehipi suttehi bhagavā bhāsati icchāva hoti majjhimanikāye vitakko ayaṃ bhagavato desanānurūpanti iti so dhammo aññesupi veyyākaraṇesu pariyesitabbo. Na hi ekaṃ hi sutte daṭṭhabbo. Yujjanaṃ taṃ gahetabbaṃ.

42. Tattha katamaṃ anuññātaṃ? Yaṃ kiñci suttaṃ bhagavatā na bhāsitaṃ tañca suttesuyeva ndissati, evametaṃ dhāretabbaṃ. Yathā asukena bhāsitanti, taṃ suttaṃ vīmaṃsitabbaṃ. Kiṃ nu kho imaṃ suttaṃ anuññātaṃ khamaṃ bhagavato udāhu nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ, kiñci rūpañca suttaṃ bhagavato anuññātaṃ khamaṃ kiñci rūpañca nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ? Yaṃ sabbaso anotāretvā dasabalo gocaraṃ deseti, taṃ sabbaṃ suttaṃ bhagavato nānuññātaṃ khamaṃ. Atthipi so sāvako dasabalānaṃ gocaraṃ jānāti odhiso anodhiso, taṃ pana balaṃ sabbaso na jānāti aññathā nāma savanena, yathā āyasmatā sāriputtena yena brāhmaṇo ovadito, tassa āyasmato natthi indriyabalavemattañāṇaṃ, tena puggalaparo [puggalo paroparañca (pī.)] parañca taṃ ajānanto sati uttarikaraṇīye uppādito, so bhagavatā apasādito. Yathāva āyasmā mahākassapo bhāgineyyaṃ ovadati anantariyasamannāgato iddhipāṭihīrena aṅguliyo adīpetvā yaṃ sabbesaṃ dhammānaṃ kammasamādānānaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇaṃ, tassa āyasmato saṃvijjate, tena naṃ ovadati, taṃ bhagavā karoti.

‘‘Sacepi dasa pajjote, dhārayissasi kassapa;

Neva dakkhati rūpāni, cakkhu tassa na vijjatī’’ti.

Api ca kho yathā dūto rājavacanena sattamanusāsati, evaṃ sesānugo aññātakaṃ ghosaṃ paresaṃ deseti. Anuññātakhamasuttaṃ gahetabbaṃ. Ananuññātakhamaṃ na gahetabbaṃ.

Tattha katamo suttasaṅkaro? Pañcavidhaṃ suttaṃ, saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ dassanabhāgiyaṃ bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ. Aññaṃ ārādheyya aññaṃ deseti aññassa ca suttassa atthaṃ aññamhi sutte niddisati. Suttassa vā hi anekākāraṃ atthaṃ niddisati. Ariyadhammasādhane atthaṃ vivarati. Vāsanābhāgiyassa atthaṃ dassanabhāgiyesu niddisati. Orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ atthaṃ uddhaṃbhāgiyesu niddisati. Mudumajjhānaṃ indriyānaṃ adhimattesu suttesu niddisati. Iti ayaṃ suttaṃ sambhedaṃ hetunā ca nissandena ca phalena ca niddesena ca mudumajjhādhimattatāyapi ca atthena ca byañjanena ca yo sambhedo, ayaṃ vuccati suttasaṅkaro. Yo asambhedo, ayaṃ vuccati suttavicayo.

Tatthāyaṃ uddānagāthā

Purimānaṃ akkhaṇḍaṃ, yathābhūtassa paccayo;

Nissando vāsanāsaddhi, anuññā suttasaṅkaro.

Therassa mahākaccāyanassa

Suttavicayo nāma catutthabhūmi.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Khuddakanikāya >> Suttapiṭaka >> Tipiṭaka (Mūla), nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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