4. Samathakkhandhakaṃ

Sammukhāvinayakathāvaṇṇanā

187. Samathakkhandhake saññāpetīti ettha saṃ-saddūpapado ñā-saddo tosanavisiṭṭhe avabodhane vattatīti āha ‘‘paritosetvā jānāpetī’’ti.

Sativinayādikathāvaṇṇanā

195-200.Desanāmattamevetanti ‘‘pañcimānī’’ti etaṃ desanāmattaṃ. Sativepullappattassa khīṇāsavassa dātabbo vinayo sativinayo. Amūḷhassa dātabbo vinayo amūḷhavinayo. Paṭiññātena karaṇaṃ paṭiññātakaraṇaṃ.

212.Tiṇavatthārakasadisattāti taṃsadisatāya tabbohāroti dasseti yathā ‘‘esa brahmadatto’’ti.

Adhikaraṇakathāvaṇṇanā

216.Vivādādhikaraṇassa kiṃ mūlantiādīsu vivādamūlānīti vivādassa mūlāni. Kodhanoti kujjhanalakkhaṇena kodhena samannāgato. Upanāhīti veraappaṭinissaggalakkhaṇena upanāhena samannāgato. Agāravoti (dī. ni. aṭṭha. 3.323; ma. ni. aṭṭha. 3.44) gāravavirahito. Appatissoti appatissayo anīcavutti. Ettha pana yo bhikkhu satthari dharamāne tīsu kālesu upaṭṭhānaṃ na yāti, satthari anupāhane caṅkamante saupāhano caṅkamati, nīce caṅkame caṅkamante ucce caṅkamati, heṭṭhā vasante upari vasati, satthu dassanaṭṭhāne ubho aṃse pārupati, chattaṃ dhāreti, upāhanaṃ dhāreti, nahāyati, uccāraṃ vā passāvaṃ vā karoti, parinibbute vā pana cetiyaṃ vandituṃ na gacchati, cetiyassa paññāyanaṭṭhāne satthudassanaṭṭhāne vuttaṃ sabbaṃ karoti, aññehi ca bhikkhūhi ‘‘kasmā evaṃ karosi, na idaṃ vaṭṭati, sammāsambuddhassa nāma lajjituṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti vutte ‘‘tuṇhī hohi, buddho buddhoti vadasi, kiṃ buddho nāmā’’ti bhaṇati, ayaṃ satthari agāravo nāma.

Yo pana dhammasavane saṅghuṭṭhe sakkaccaṃ na gacchati, sakkaccaṃ dhammaṃ na suṇāti, niddāyati vā sallapanto vā nisīdati, sakkaccaṃ na gaṇhāti na vāceti, ‘‘kiṃ dhamme agāravaṃ karosī’’ti vutte ‘‘tuṇhī hohi, dhammo dhammoti vadasi, kiṃ dhammo nāmā’’ti vadati, ayaṃ dhamme agāravo nāma. Yo pana therena bhikkhunā anajjhiṭṭho dhammaṃ deseti uddisati pañhaṃ katheti, vuḍḍhe bhikkhū ghaṭṭento gacchati tiṭṭhati nisīdati, dussapallatthikaṃ vā hatthapallatthikaṃ vā karoti, saṅghamajjhe ubho aṃse pārupati, chattupāhanaṃ dhāreti, ‘‘bhikkhusaṅghassa lajjituṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti vuttepi ‘‘tuṇhī hohi, saṅgho saṅghoti vadasi, kiṃ saṅgho, migasaṅgho ajasaṅgho’’tiādīni vadati, ayaṃ saṅghe agāravo nāma. Ekabhikkhusmimpi hi agārave kate saṅghe katoyeva hoti. Tisso sikkhā pana apūrayamāno sikkhāya na paripūrakārī nāma.

Ahitāya dukkhāya devamanussānanti (dī. ni. aṭṭha. 3.325; ma. ni. aṭṭha. 3.42; a. ni. aṭṭha. 3.6.36) ekasmiṃ vihāre dvinnaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ uppannavivādo kathaṃ devamanussānaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattati? Kosambakakkhandhake viya hi dvīsu bhikkhūsu vivādaṃ āpannesu tasmiṃ vihāre tesaṃ antevāsikā vivadanti, tesaṃ ovādaṃ gaṇhanto bhikkhunisaṅgho vivadati, tato tesaṃ upaṭṭhākā vivadanti, atha manussānaṃ ārakkhadevatā dve koṭṭhāsā honti. Tattha dhammavādīnaṃ ārakkhadevatā dhammavādiniyo honti, adhammavādīnaṃ adhammavādiniyo. Tato ārakkhadevatānaṃ mittā bhummadevatā bhijjanti. Evaṃ paramparāya yāva brahmalokā ṭhapetvā ariyasāvake sabbe devamanussā dve koṭṭhāsā honti. Dhammavādīhi pana adhammavādinova bahutarā honti. Tato ‘‘yaṃ bahukehi gahitaṃ, taṃ taccha’’nti dhammaṃ vissajjetvā bahutarā adhammaṃ gaṇhanti. Te adhammaṃ purakkhatvā viharantā apāyesu nibbattanti. Evaṃ ekasmiṃ vihāre dvinnaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ uppanno vivādo bahūnaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya hoti. Ajjhattaṃ vāti attani vā attano parisāya vā. Bahiddhā vāti parasmiṃ vā parassa parisāya vā. Āyatiṃ anavassavāyāti āyatiṃ anuppādāya.

Makkhīti paresaṃ guṇamakkhanalakkhaṇena makkhena samannāgato. Paḷāsīti yugaggāhalakkhaṇena paḷāsena samannāgato. Issukīti parasakkārādīnaṃ issāyanalakkhaṇāya issāya samannāgato. Maccharīti āvāsamacchariyādīhi samannāgato. Saṭhoti kerāṭiko. Māyāvīti katapāpapaṭicchādako. Pāpicchoti asantasambhāvanicchako dussīlo. Micchādiṭṭhīti natthikavādī ahetukavādī akiriyavādī. Sandiṭṭhiparāmāsīti sayaṃ diṭṭhameva parāmasati gaṇhāti. Ādhānaggāhīti daḷhaggāhī. Duppaṭinissaggīti na sakkā hoti gahitaṃ nissajjāpetuṃ. Ettha ca kodhano hoti upanāhītiādinā puggalādhiṭṭhānanayena kodhūpanāhādayo akusaladhammā vivādamūlānīti dassitāni, tathā duṭṭhacittā vivadantītiādinā lobhadosamohā. Aduṭṭhacittā vivadantītiādinā ca alobhādayo vivādamūlānīti dassitāni.

217.Dubbaṇṇoti paṃsupisācako viya jhāmakhāṇuvaṇṇo. Duddassikoti vijātamātuyāpi amanāpadassano. Okoṭimakoti lakuṇḍako. Kāṇoti ekakkhikāṇo vā ubhayakkhikāṇo vā. Kuṇīti ekahatthakuṇī vā ubhayahatthakuṇī vā. Khañjoti ekapādakhañjo vā ubhayapādakhañjo vā. Pakkhahatoti hatapakkho pīṭhasappī.

220.Vivādādhikaraṇaṃ kusalaṃ akusalaṃ abyākatanti vivādādhikaraṇaṃ kiṃ kusalaṃ akusalaṃ udāhu abyākatanti pucchati. Vivādādhikaraṇaṃ siyā kusalantiādi vissajjanaṃ. Esa nayo sesesupi. Vivadanti etenāti vivādoti āha ‘‘yena vivadanti, so cittuppādo vivādo’’ti. Kathaṃ pana so cittuppādo adhikaraṇaṃ nāmāti āha ‘‘samathehi ca adhikaraṇīyatāya adhikaraṇa’’nti, samathehi sametabbatāya adhikaraṇanti attho. Vivādahetubhūtassa hi cittuppādassa vūpasamena tappabhavassa saddassapi vūpasamo hotīti cittuppādassa samathehi adhikaraṇīyatā pariyāyo sambhavati.

222.Āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākatanti ayaṃ vikappo paññattivajjaṃyeva sandhāya vutto, na lokavajjanti dassetuṃ ‘‘sandhāyabhāsitavasenā’’tiādimāha. Kasmā panettha sandhāyabhāsitavasena attho veditabboti āha ‘‘yasmiṃ hī’’tiādi. Pathavīkhaṇanādiketi ettha ādi-saddena bhūtagāmapātabyatādipaññattivajjaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ saṅgaṇhāti. Yo vinaye apakataññutāya vattasīsena sammuñjaniādinā pathavīkhaṇanādīni karoti, tadā tassuppannacittaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ ‘‘kusalacittaṃ aṅgaṃ hotī’’ti. Aṅgaṃ hotīti ca vattasīsena karontassapi ‘‘imaṃ pathaviṃ khaṇāmī’’tiādinā vītikkamajānanavasena pavattattā taṃ kusalacittaṃ āpattādhikaraṇaṃ, kusalacittaṃ āpattiyā kāraṇaṃ hotīti attho. Na hi vītikkamaṃ ajānantassa pathavīkhaṇanādīsu āpatti sambhavati. Tasmiṃ satīti tasmiṃ kusalacitte āpattibhāvena gahite satīti adhippāyo. Tasmāti yasmā kusalacitte āpattibhāvena gahite sati ‘‘natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’’nti na sakkā vattuṃ, tasmā. Nayidaṃ aṅgappahonakacittaṃ sandhāya vuttanti ‘‘āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyā akusalaṃ siyā abyākataṃ, natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’’nti idaṃ āpattisamuṭṭhāpakabhāvena aṅgappahonakaṃ āpattiyā kāraṇabhūtaṃ cittaṃ sandhāya na vuttaṃ. Kiṃ pana sandhāya vuttanti āha ‘‘idaṃ panā’’tiādi. Bhikkhumhi kammaṭṭhānagatacittena nipanne niddāyante vā mātugāmo ce seyyaṃ kappeti, tasmiṃ khaṇe seyyākārena vattamānarūpameva āpatti, na kusalādivasappavattaṃ cittanti āha ‘‘asañcicca…pe… sahaseyyādivasena āpajjato (pari. 323 atthato samānaṃ) abyākataṃ hotī’’ti. Tasmiñhi khaṇe uṭṭhātabbe jāte anuṭṭhānato tadākārapavatto rūpakkhandhova āpatti.

‘‘Āpattiṃ āpajjanto kusalacitto vā āpajjati akusalābyākatacitto vā’’ti vacanato kusalampi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ siyāti ce? Na. Yo hi āpattiṃ āpajjatīti vuccati, so tīsu cittesu aññataracittasamaṅgī hutvā āpajjati, na aññathāti dassanatthaṃ ‘‘kusalacitto vā’’tiādi vuttaṃ. Ayañhettha attho – pathavīkhaṇanādīsu kusalacittakkhaṇe vītikkamādivasena pavattarūpasambhavato kusalacitto vā tathāpavattarūpasaṅkhātaṃ abyākatāpattiṃ āpajjati, tathā abyākatacitto vā abyākatarūpasaṅkhātaṃ abyākatāpattiṃ āpajjati. Pāṇātipātādiṃ akusalacitto vā akusalāpattiṃ āpajjati, rūpaṃ panettha abbohārikaṃ. Supinante ca pāṇātipātādiṃ karonto sahaseyyādivasena āpajjitabbāpattiṃ āpajjanto akusalacitto abyākatāpattiṃ āpajjatīti.

Kusalacittaṃāpajjeyyāti eḷakalomaṃ gahetvā kammaṭṭhānamanasikārena tiyojanaṃ atikkamantassa paññattiṃ ajānitvā padaso dhammaṃ vācentassa ca āpajjitabbāpattiyā kusalacittaṃ āpajjeyya. Na ca tattha vijjamānampi kusalacittaṃ āpattiyā aṅganti tasmiṃ vijjamānampi kusalacittaṃ āpattiyā aṅgaṃ na hoti, sayaṃ āpatti na hotīti attho. Calitappavattānanti calitānaṃ pavattānañca. Calito kāyo, pavattā vācā. Aññatarameva aṅganti kāyavācānaṃ aññatarameva āpattīti attho. Tañca rūpakkhandhapariyāpannattā abyākatanti iminā abyākatamāpattādhikaraṇaṃ, nāññanti dasseti.

Yadi evaṃ ‘‘sāpattikassa, bhikkhave, nirayaṃ vā vadāmi tiracchānayoniṃ vā’’ti vacanato abyākatassapi vipākadhammatā āpajjeyyāti? Nāpajjeyya. Asañcicca āpannā hi āpattiyo yāva so na jānāti, tāva anantarāyakarā, jānitvā chādento pana chādanappaccayā aññaṃ dukkaṭasaṅkhātaṃ akusalamāpattādhikaraṇamāpajjati, tañca akusalasabhāvattā saggamokkhānaṃ antarāyakaraṇanti sāpattikassa apāyagāmitā vuttā. Abyākataṃ pana āpattādhikaraṇaṃ avipākadhammamevāti niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ. Teneva porāṇagaṇṭhipadesupi ‘‘puthujjano kalyāṇaputhujjano sekkho arahāti cattāro puggale dassetvā tesu arahato āpattādhikaraṇaṃ abyākatameva, tathā sekkhānaṃ, tathā kalyāṇaputhujjanassa asañcicca vītikkamakāle abyākatameva. Itarassa akusalampi hoti abyākatampi. Yasmā cassa sañcicca vītikkamakāle akusalameva hoti, tasmā vuttaṃ ‘natthi āpattādhikaraṇaṃ kusala’nti. Sabbattha evaṃ abyākatanti vipākābhāvamattaṃ sandhāya vutta’’nti likhitaṃ. Yañca āpattādhikaraṇaṃ akusalaṃ, tampi desitaṃ vuṭṭhitaṃ vā anantarāyakaraṃ. Yathā hi ariyūpavādakammaṃ akusalampi samānaṃ accayaṃ desetvā khamāpanena payogasampattipaṭibāhitattā avipākadhammataṃ āpannaṃ ahosikammaṃ hoti, evamidampi desitaṃ vuṭṭhitaṃ vā payogasampattipaṭibāhitattā avipākadhammatāya ahosikammabhāvena anantarāyakaraṃ jātaṃ. Teneva ‘‘sāpattikassa, bhikkhave, nirayaṃ vā vadāmi tiracchānayoniṃ vā’’ti sāpattikasseva apāyagāmitā vuttā.

Adhikaraṇavūpasamanasamathakathāvaṇṇanā

228. Vivādasaṅkhāte atthe paccatthikā atthapaccatthikā.

229.Sammukhāvinayasminti sammukhāvinayabhāve.

230.Antarenāti kāraṇena.

231. Ubbāhikāya khīyanake pācitti na vuttā tattha chandadānassa natthitāya.

236.Tassa kho tanti ettha kho tanti nipātamattaṃ.

238. ‘‘Kā ca tattha tassapāpiyasikāyā’’ti potthakesu likhanti. ‘‘Kā ca tassapāpiyasikā’’ti evaṃ panettha pāṭho veditabbo.

242.Kiccādhikaraṇaṃ ekena samathena sammatīti ettha ‘‘kiccameva kiccādhikaraṇa’’nti (pārā. aṭṭha. 2.385-86) vacanato apalokanakammādīnametaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Taṃ vivādādhikaraṇādīni viya samathehi sametabbaṃ na hoti, kintu sammukhāvinayena sampajjati, tasmā sammatīti ettha sampajjatīti attho gahetabbo. Sesamettha suviññeyyameva.

Samathakkhandhakavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā) >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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