4. Paṭiniddesavāro

1. Desanāhāravibhaṅgo

5. Tattha katamo desanāhāro? ‘‘Assādādīnavatā’’ti gāthā ayaṃ desanāhāro. Kiṃ desayati? Assādaṃ ādīnavaṃ nissaraṇaṃ phalaṃ upāyaṃ āṇattiṃ. Dhammaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsessāmīti.

Tattha katamo assādo?

‘‘Kāmaṃ [kāmamādikā imā cha gāthā su. ni. 772 passitabbā] kāmayamānassa, tassa cetaṃ samijjhati;

Addhā pītimano hoti, laddhā macco yadicchatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ assādo.

Tattha katamo ādīnavo?

‘‘Tassa ce kāmayānassa, chandajātassa jantuno;

Te kāmā parihāyanti, sallaviddhova ruppatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ ādīnavo.

Tattha katamaṃ nissaraṇaṃ?

‘‘Yo kāme parivajjeti, sappasseva padā siro;

Somaṃ visattikaṃ loke, sato samativattatī’’ti.

Idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.

Tattha katamo assādo?

‘‘Khettaṃ vatthuṃ hiraññaṃ vā, gavāssaṃ dāsaporisaṃ;

Thiyo bandhū puthū kāme, yo naro anugijjhatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ assādo.

Tattha katamo ādīnavo?

‘‘Abalā naṃ balīyanti, maddante naṃ parissayā;

Tato naṃ dukkhamanveti, nāvaṃ bhinnamivodaka’’nti.

Ayaṃ ādīnavo.

Tattha katamaṃ nissaraṇaṃ?

‘‘Tasmā jantu sadā sato, kāmāni parivajjaye;

Te pahāya tare oghaṃ, nāvaṃ sitvāva pāragū’’ti.

Idaṃ nissaraṇaṃ.

Tattha katamaṃ phalaṃ?

‘‘Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṃ, chattaṃ mahantaṃ yatha vassakāle;

Esānisaṃso dhamme suciṇṇe, na duggatiṃ gacchati dhammacārī’’ti.

Idaṃ phalaṃ.

Tattha katamo upāyo?

‘‘Sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā’’ti…pe…

‘‘Sabbe saṅkhārā [passa dha. pa. 277] dukkhā’’ti…pe…

‘‘Sabbe dhammā anattā’’ti, yadā paññāya passati;

Atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā’’ti.

Ayaṃ upāyo.

Tattha katamā āṇatti?

‘‘Cakkhumā [passa udā. 43] visamānīva, vijjamāne parakkame;

Paṇḍito jīvalokasmiṃ, pāpāni parivajjaye’’ti.

Ayaṃ āṇatti.

‘‘‘Suññato lokaṃ avekkhassu,

Mogharājā’ti āṇatti, ‘sadā sato’ti upāyo;

‘Attānudiṭṭhiṃ ūhacca [uhacca (ka.) passa su. ni. 1125], evaṃ maccutaro siyā’’’.

Idaṃ phalaṃ.

6. Tattha bhagavā ugghaṭitaññussa puggalassa nissaraṇaṃ desayati, vipañcitaññussa puggalassa ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca desayati, neyyassa puggalassa assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca desayati.

Tattha catasso paṭipadā, cattāro puggalā. Taṇhācarito mando satindriyena dukkhāya paṭipadāya dandhābhiññāya niyyāti satipaṭṭhānehi nissayehi. Taṇhācarito udatto [udattho (sī.) u + ā + dā + ta] samādhindriyena dukkhāya paṭipadāya khippābhiññāya niyyāti jhānehi nissayehi. Diṭṭhicarito mando vīriyindriyena sukhāya paṭipadāya dandhābhiññāya niyyāti sammappadhānehi nissayehi. Diṭṭhicarito udatto paññindriyena sukhāya paṭipadāya khippābhiññāya niyyāti saccehi nissayehi.

Ubho taṇhācaritā samathapubbaṅgamāya vipassanā niyyanti rāgavirāgāya cetovimuttiyā. Ubho diṭṭhicaritā vipassanāpubbaṅgame samathena niyyanti avijjāvirāgāya paññāvimuttiyā.

Tattha ye samathapubbaṅgamāhi paṭipadāhi niyyanti, te nandiyāvaṭṭena nayena hātabbā, ye vipassanāpubbaṅgamāhi paṭipadāhi niyyanti, te sīhavikkīḷitena nayena hātabbā.

7. Svāyaṃ hāro kattha sambhavati, yassa satthā vā dhammaṃ desayati aññataro vā garuṭṭhānīyo sabrahmacārī, so taṃ dhammaṃ sutvā saddhaṃ paṭilabhati. Tattha yā vīmaṃsā ussāhanā tulanā upaparikkhā, ayaṃ sutamayī paññā. Tathā sutena nissayena yā vīmaṃsā tulanā upaparikkhā manasānupekkhaṇā, ayaṃ cintāmayī paññā. Imāhi dvīhi paññāhi manasikārasampayuttassa yaṃ ñāṇaṃ uppajjati dassanabhūmiyaṃ vā bhāvanābhūmiyaṃ vā, ayaṃ bhāvanāmayī paññā.

8. Paratoghosā sutamayī paññā. Paccattasamuṭṭhitā yoniso manasikārā cintāmayī paññā. Yaṃ parato ca ghosena paccattasamuṭṭhitena ca yonisomanasikārena ñāṇaṃ uppajjati, ayaṃ bhāvanāmayī paññā. Yassa imā dve paññā atthi sutamayī cintāmayī ca, ayaṃ ugghaṭitaññū. Yassa sutamayī paññā atthi, cintāmayī natthi, ayaṃ vipañcitaññū [vipaccitaññū (sī.)]. Yassa neva sutamayī paññā atthi na cintāmayī, ayaṃ neyyo.

9. Sāyaṃ dhammadesanā kiṃ desayati? Cattāri saccāni dukkhaṃ samudayaṃ nirodhaṃ maggaṃ. Ādīnavo ca phalañca dukkhaṃ, assādo samudayo, nissaraṇaṃ nirodho, upāyo āṇatti ca maggo. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Idaṃ dhammacakkaṃ.

Yathāha bhagavā – ‘‘idaṃ dukkha’’nti me, bhikkhave, bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, sabbaṃ dhammacakkaṃ.

Tattha aparimāṇā padā, aparimāṇā akkharā, aparimāṇā byañjanā, aparimāṇā ākārā neruttā niddesā. Etasseva atthassa saṅkāsanā pakāsanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ [uttānikammaṃ (ka.)] paññatti, itipidaṃ dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

‘‘Ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’’ti me, bhikkhave, bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ…pe… ‘‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ‘‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’’ti me, bhikkhave, bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ.

Tattha aparimāṇā padā, aparimāṇā akkharā, aparimāṇā byañjanā, aparimāṇā ākārā neruttā niddesā. Etasseva atthassa saṅkāsanā pakāsanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ paññatti itipidaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ.

Tattha bhagavā akkharehi saṅkāseti, padehi pakāseti, byañjanehi vivarati, ākārehi vibhajati, niruttīhi uttānīkaroti [uttāniṃ karoti (ka.)], niddesehi paññapeti. Tattha bhagavā akkharehi ca padehi ca ugghaṭeti [ugghāṭeti (sī.)], byañjanehi ca ākārehi ca vipañcayati, niruttīhi ca niddesehi ca vitthāreti. Tattha ugghaṭanā [ugghāṭanā (sī.)] ādi, vipañcanā majjhe, vitthāraṇā pariyosānaṃ. Soyaṃ dhammavinayo ugghaṭīyanto ugghaṭitaññūpuggalaṃ vineti, tena naṃ āhu ‘‘ādikalyāṇo’’ti. Vipañcīyanto vipañcitaññūpuggalaṃ vineti, tena naṃ āhu ‘‘majjhekalyāṇo’’ti. Vitthārīyanto neyyaṃ puggalaṃ vineti, tena naṃ āhu ‘‘pariyosānakalyāṇo’’ti.

10. Tattha chappadāni attho saṅkāsanā pakāsanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ paññatti, imāni chappadāni attho. Chappadāni byañjanaṃ akkharaṃ padaṃ byañjanaṃ ākāro nirutti niddeso, imāni chappadāni byañjanaṃ. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘dhammaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjana’’nti.

Kevalanti lokuttaraṃ, na missaṃ lokiyehi dhammehi. Paripuṇṇanti paripūraṃ anūnaṃ anatirekaṃ. Parisuddhanti nimmalaṃ sabbamalāpagataṃ pariyodātaṃ upaṭṭhitaṃ sabbavisesānaṃ, idaṃ vuccati tathāgatapadaṃitipi tathāgatanisevitaṃitipi tathāgatārañjitaṃitipi, atocetaṃ brahmacariyaṃ paññāyati. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsessāmī’’ti.

Kesaṃ ayaṃ dhammadesanā, yogīnaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano –

‘‘Assādādīnavatā, nissaraṇampi ca phalaṃ upāyo ca;

Āṇattī ca bhagavato, yogīnaṃ desanāhāro’’ti.

Niyutto desanāhāro.

2. Vicayahāravibhaṅgo

11. Tattha katamo vicayo hāro? ‘‘Yaṃ pucchitañca vissajjitañcā’’ti gāthā, ayaṃ vicayo hāro.

Kiṃ vicinati? Padaṃ vicinati, pañhaṃ vicinati, visajjanaṃ [vissajjanaṃ (sī. ka.)] vicinati, pubbāparaṃ vicinati, assādaṃ vicinati, ādīnavaṃ vicinati, nissaraṇaṃ vicinati, phalaṃ vicinati, upāyaṃ vicinati, āṇattiṃ vicinati, anugītiṃ vicinati, sabbe nava suttante vicinati. Yathā kiṃ bhave, yathā āyasmā ajito pārāyane bhagavantaṃ pañhaṃ pucchati –

‘‘Kenassu [passa su. ni. 1038] nivuto loko, [iccāyasmā ajito,]

Kenassu nappakāsati;

Kissābhilepanaṃ brūsi, kiṃ su tassa mahabbhaya’’nti.

Imāni cattāri padāni pucchitāni, so eko pañho. Kasmā? Ekavatthu pariggahā, evañhi āha ‘‘kenassu nivuto loko’’ti lokādhiṭṭhānaṃ pucchati, ‘‘kenassu nappakāsatī’’ti lokassa appakāsanaṃ pucchati, ‘‘kissābhilepanaṃ brūsī’’ti lokassa abhilepanaṃ pucchati, ‘‘kiṃsu tassa mahabbhaya’’nti tasseva lokassa mahābhayaṃ pucchati. Loko tividho kilesaloko bhavaloko indriyaloko.

Tattha visajjanā –

‘‘Avijjāya nivuto loko, [ajitāti bhagavā,]

Vivicchā [vevicchā (su. ni. 1039)] pamādā nappakāsati;

Jappābhilepanaṃ brūmi, dukkhamassa mahabbhaya’’nti.

Imāni cattāri padāni imehi catūhi padehi visajjitāni paṭhamaṃ paṭhamena, dutiyaṃ dutiyena, tatiyaṃ tatiyena, catutthaṃ catutthena.

‘‘Kenassu nivuto loko’’ti pañhe ‘‘avijjāya nivuto loko’’ti visajjanā. Nīvaraṇehi nivuto loko, avijjānīvaraṇā hi sabbe sattā. Yathāha bhagavā ‘‘sabbasattānaṃ, bhikkhave, sabbapāṇānaṃ sabbabhūtānaṃ pariyāyato ekameva nīvaraṇaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ avijjā, avijjānīvaraṇā hi sabbe sattā. Sabbasova, bhikkhave, avijjāya nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā natthi sattānaṃ nīvaraṇanti vadāmī’’ti. Tena ca paṭhamassa padassa visajjanā yuttā.

‘‘Kenassu nappakāsatī’’ti pañhe ‘‘vivicchā pamādā nappakāsatī’’ti visajjanā. Yo puggalo nīvaraṇehi nivuto, so vivicchati. Vivicchā nāma vuccati vicikicchā. So vicikicchanto nābhisaddahati, na abhisaddahanto vīriyaṃ nārabhati akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ sacchikiriyāya. So idhappamādamanuyutto viharati pamatto, sukke dhamme na uppādiyati, tassa te anuppādiyamānā nappakāsanti, yathāha bhagavā –

‘‘Dūre santo pakāsanti [pakāsenti dha. pa. 304], himavantova pabbato;

Asantettha na dissanti, rattiṃ khittā [ratti khittā (sī.), passa dha. pa. 304] yathā sarā;

Te guṇehi pakāsanti, kittiyā ca yasena cā’’ti.

Tena ca dutiyassa padassa visajjanā yuttā.

‘‘Kissābhilepanaṃ brūsī’’ti pañhe ‘‘jappābhilepanaṃ brūmī’’ti visajjanā. Jappā nāma vuccati taṇhā. Sā kathaṃ abhilimpati? Yathāha bhagavā –

‘‘Ratto atthaṃ na jānāti, ratto dhammaṃ na passati;

Andhantamaṃ [andhatamaṃ (ka.)] tadā hoti, yaṃ rāgo sahate nara’’nti.

Sāyaṃ taṇhā āsattibahulassa puggalassa ‘‘evaṃ abhijappā’’ti karitvā tattha loko abhilitto nāma bhavati, tena ca tatiyassa padassa visajjanā yuttā.

‘‘Kiṃ su tassa mahabbhaya’’nti pañhe ‘‘dukkhamassa mahabbhaya’’nti visajjanā. Duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ – kāyikañca cetasikañca. Yaṃ kāyikaṃ idaṃ dukkhaṃ, yaṃ cetasikaṃ idaṃ domanassaṃ. Sabbe sattā hi dukkhassa ubbijjanti, natthi bhayaṃ dukkhena samasamaṃ, kuto vā pana tassa uttaritaraṃ? Tisso dukkhatā – dukkhadukkhatā saṅkhāradukkhatā vipariṇāmadukkhatā. Tattha loko odhaso kadāci karahaci dukkhadukkhatāya muccati. Tathā vipariṇāmadukkhatāya. Taṃ kissa hetu? Honti loke appābādhāpi dīghāyukāpi. Saṅkhāradukkhatāya pana loko anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā muccati, tasmā saṅkhāradukkhatā dukkhaṃ lokassāti katvā dukkhamassa mahabbhayanti. Tena ca catutthassa padassa visajjanā yuttā. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘avijjāya nivuto loko’’ti.

Savanti sabbadhi sotā, [iccāyasmā ajito,]

Sotānaṃ kiṃ nivāraṇaṃ;

Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūhi, kena sotā pidhīyare [pithīyare (sī.), pidhiyyare (ka.), passa su. ni. 1040].

Imāni cattāri padāni pucchitāni. Te dve pañhā. Kasmā? Imehi batvādhivacanena pucchitā. Evaṃ samāpannassa lokassa evaṃ saṃkiliṭṭhassa kiṃ lokassa vodānaṃ vuṭṭhānamiti, evañhi āha.

Savantisabbadhi sotāti. Asamāhitassa savanti abhijjhābyāpādappamādabahulassa. Tattha yā abhijjhā ayaṃ lobho akusalamūlaṃ, yo byāpādo ayaṃ doso akusalamūlaṃ, yo pamādo ayaṃ moho akusalamūlaṃ. Tassevaṃ asamāhitassa chasu āyatanesu taṇhā savanti rūpataṇhā saddataṇhā gandhataṇhā rasataṇhā phoṭṭhabbataṇhā dhammataṇhā, yathāha bhagavā –

‘‘Savatī’’ti ca kho, bhikkhave, channetaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Cakkhu savati manāpikesu rūpesu, amanāpikesu [amanāpiyesu (ka.)]paṭihaññatīti. Sotaṃ…pe… ghānaṃ… jivhā… kāyo… mano savati manāpikesu dhammesu amanāpikesu paṭihaññatīti. Iti sabbā ca savati, sabbathā ca savati. Tenāha ‘‘savanti sabbadhi sotā’’ti.

‘‘Sotānaṃ kiṃ nivāraṇa’’nti pariyuṭṭhānavighātaṃ pucchati, idaṃ vodānaṃ. ‘‘Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūhi, kena sotā pidhīyare’’ti anusayasamugghātaṃ pucchati, idaṃ vuṭṭhānaṃ.

Tattha visajjanā –

‘‘Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, [ajitāti bhagavā,]

Sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;

Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhīyare’’ti.

Kāyagatāya satiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya cakkhu nāviñchati manāpikesu rūpesu, amanāpikesu na paṭihaññati, sotaṃ…pe… ghānaṃ… jivhā… kāyo… mano nāviñchati manāpikesu dhammesu, amanāpikesu na paṭihaññati. Kena kāraṇena? Saṃvutanivāritattā indriyānaṃ . Kena te saṃvutanivāritā? Satiārakkhena. Tenāha bhagavā – ‘‘sati tesaṃ nivāraṇa’’nti.

Paññāya anusayā pahīyanti, anusayesu pahīnesu pariyuṭṭhānā pahīyanti. Kissa [tassa (sī.)], anusayassa pahīnattā? Taṃ yathā khandhavantassa rukkhassa anavasesamūluddharaṇe kate pupphaphalapallavaṅkurasantati samucchinnā bhavati. Evaṃ anusayesu pahīnesu pariyuṭṭhānasantati samucchinnā bhavati pidahitā paṭicchannā. Kena? Paññāya. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘paññāyete pidhīyare’’ti.

‘‘Paññā ceva sati ca, [iccāyasmā ajito,]

Nāmarūpañca mārisa;

Etaṃ me puṭṭho pabrūhi, katthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

‘‘Yametaṃ pañhaṃ apucchi [maṃ pucchi (ka.), passa su. ni. 1043], ajita taṃ vadāmi te;

Yattha nāmañca rūpañca, asesaṃ uparujjhati;

Viññāṇassa nirodhena, etthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ pañhe [pañho (sī. ka.) nettivibhāvanī passitabbā] anusandhiṃ pucchati. Anusandhiṃ pucchanto kiṃ pucchati? Anupādisesaṃ nibbānadhātuṃ. Tīṇi ca saccāni saṅkhatāni nirodhadhammāni dukkhaṃ samudayo maggo, nirodho asaṅkhato. Tattha samudayo dvīsu bhūmīsu pahīyati dassanabhūmiyā ca bhāvanābhūmiyā ca. Dassanena tīṇi saṃyojanāni pahīyanti sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchā sīlabbataparāmāso, bhāvanāya satta saṃyojanāni pahīyanti kāmacchando byāpādo rūparāgo arūparāgo māno uddhaccaṃ avijjāvasesā [avijjā ca niravasesā (sī. ka.)]. Tedhātuke imāni dasa saṃyojanāni pañcorambhāgiyāni pañcuddhambhāgiyāni.

12. Tattha tīṇi saṃyojanāni sakkāyadiṭṭhi vicikicchā sīlabbataparāmāso anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ adhiṭṭhāya nirujjhanti. Satta saṃyojanāni kāmacchando byāpādo rūparāgo arūparāgo māno uddhaccaṃ avijjāvasesā aññindriyaṃ adhiṭṭhāya nirujjhanti. Yaṃ pana evaṃ jānāti ‘‘khīṇā me jātī’’ti, idaṃ khaye ñāṇaṃ. ‘‘Nāparaṃ itthattāyā’’ti pajānāti, idaṃ anuppāde ñāṇaṃ. Imāni dve ñāṇāni aññātāvindriyaṃ. Tattha yañca anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ yañca aññindriyaṃ, imāni aggaphalaṃ arahattaṃ pāpuṇantassa nirujjhanti, tattha yañca khaye ñāṇaṃ yañca anuppāde ñāṇaṃ, imāni dve ñāṇāni ekapaññā.

Api ca ārammaṇasaṅketena dve nāmāni labbhanti, ‘‘khīṇā me jātī’’ti pajānantassa khaye ñāṇanti nāmaṃ labhati, ‘‘nāparaṃ itthattāyā’’ti pajānantassa anuppāde ñāṇanti nāmaṃ labhati. Sā pajānanaṭṭhena paññā, yathādiṭṭhaṃ apilāpanaṭṭhena sati.

13. Tattha ye pañcupādānakkhandhā, idaṃ nāmarūpaṃ. Tattha ye phassapañcamakā dhammā, idaṃ nāmaṃ. Yāni pañcindriyāni rūpāni, idaṃ rūpaṃ. Tadubhayaṃ nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇasampayuttaṃ tassa nirodhaṃ bhagavantaṃ pucchanto āyasmā ajito pārāyane evamāha –

‘‘Paññā ceva sati ca, nāmarūpañca mārisa;

Etaṃ me puṭṭho pabrūhi, katthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

Tattha sati ca paññā ca cattāri indriyāni, sati dve indriyāni satindriyañca samādhindriyañca, paññā dve indriyāni paññindriyañca vīriyindriyañca. Yā imesu catūsu indriyesu saddahanā okappanā, idaṃ saddhindriyaṃ. Tattha yā saddhādhipateyyā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ chandasamādhi. Samāhite citte kilesānaṃ vikkhambhanatāya paṭisaṅkhānabalena vā bhāvanābalena vā, idaṃ pahānaṃ. Tattha ye assāsapassāsā vitakkavicārā saññāvedayitā sarasaṅkappā, ime saṅkhārā. Iti purimako ca chandasamādhi, kilesavikkhambhanatāya ca pahānaṃ ime ca saṅkhārā, tadubhayaṃ chandasamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ. Tattha yā vīriyādhipateyyā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ vīriyasamādhi…pe… tattha yā cittādhipateyyā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ cittasamādhi…pe… tattha yā vīmaṃsādhipateyyā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ vīmaṃsāsamādhi. Samāhite citte kilesānaṃ vikkhambhanatāya paṭisaṅkhānabalena vā bhāvanābalena vā, idaṃ pahānaṃ. Tattha ye assāsapassāsā vitakkavicārā saññāvedayitā sarasaṅkappā, ime saṅkhārā. Iti purimako ca vīmaṃsāsamādhi, kilesavikkhambhanatāya ca pahānaṃ ime ca saṅkhārā, tadubhayaṃ vīmaṃsāsamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ.

14. Sabbo samādhi ñāṇamūlako ñāṇapubbaṅgamo ñāṇānuparivatti.

Yathā pure tathā pacchā, yathā pacchā tathā pure;

Yathā divā tathā rattiṃ [ratti (ka.) ayaṃ gāthā theragā. 397 dissati], yathā rattiṃ tathā divā.

Iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena sappabhāsaṃ cittaṃ bhāveti. Pañcindriyāni kusalāni cittasahabhūni citte uppajjamāne uppajjanti, citte nirujjhamāne nirujjhanti. Nāmarūpañca viññāṇahetukaṃ viññāṇapaccayā nibbattaṃ, tassa maggena hetu upacchinno, viññāṇaṃ anāhāraṃ anabhinanditaṃ appaṭisandhikaṃ taṃ nirujjhati. Nāmarūpamapi ahetu appaccayaṃ punabbhavaṃ na nibbattayati [nibbattiyati (ka.)]. Evaṃ viññāṇassa nirodhā paññā ca sati ca nāmarūpañca nirujjhati. Tenāha bhagavā –

‘‘Yametaṃ pañhaṃ apucchi, ajita taṃ vadāmi te;

Yattha nāmañca rūpañca, asesaṃ uparujjhati;

Viññāṇassa nirodhena, etthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

‘‘Ye ca [ayaṃ gāthā su. ni. 1044 aññathā dissati] saṅkhātadhammāse, [iccāyasmā ajito]

Ye ca sekkhā puthū idha;

Tesaṃ me nipako iriyaṃ, puṭṭho pabrūhi mārisā’’ti.

15. Imāni tīṇi padāni pucchitāni, te tayo pañhā. Kissa? Sekhāsekhavipassanāpubbaṅgamappahānayogena, evañhi āha. ‘‘Ye ca saṅkhātadhammāse’’ti arahattaṃ pucchati, ‘‘ye ca sekhā puthū idhā’’ti sekhaṃ pucchati, ‘‘tesaṃ me nipako iriyaṃ, puṭṭho pabrūhi mārisā’’ti vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ pahānaṃ pucchati.

Tattha visajjanā –

‘‘Kāmesu nābhigijjheyya, [ajitāti bhagavā]

Manasānāvilo siyā;

Kusalo sabbadhammānaṃ, sato bhikkhu paribbaje’’ti.

Bhagavato sabbaṃ kāyakammaṃ ñāṇapubbaṅgamaṃ ñāṇānuparivatti, sabbaṃ vacīkammaṃ ñāṇapubbaṅgamaṃ ñāṇānuparivatti, sabbaṃ manokammaṃ ñāṇapubbaṅgamaṃ ñāṇānuparivatti. Atīte aṃse appaṭihatañāṇadassanaṃ, anāgate aṃse appaṭihatañāṇadassanaṃ, paccuppanne aṃse appaṭihatañāṇadassanaṃ.

Ko ca ñāṇadassanassa paṭighāto? Yaṃ anicce dukkhe anattani ca aññāṇaṃ adassanaṃ, ayaṃ ñāṇadassanassa paṭighāto. Yathā idha puriso tārakarūpāni passeyya, no ca gaṇanasaṅketena jāneyya, ayaṃ ñāṇadassanassa paṭighāto.

Bhagavato pana appaṭihatañāṇadassanaṃ, anāvaraṇañāṇadassanā hi buddhā bhagavanto. Tattha sekhena dvīsu dhammesu cittaṃ rakkhitabbaṃ gedhā ca rajanīyesu dhammesu, dosā ca pariyuṭṭhānīyesu. Tattha yā icchā mucchā patthanā piyāyanā kīḷanā, taṃ bhagavā nivārento evamāha ‘‘kāmesu nābhigijjheyyā’’ti.

‘‘Manasānāvilo siyā’’ti pariyuṭṭhānavighātaṃ āha. Tathā hi sekho abhigijjhanto asamuppannañca kilesaṃ uppādeti, uppannañca kilesaṃ phātiṃ karoti. Yo pana anāvilasaṅkappo anabhigijjhanto vāyamati, so anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. So uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. So anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. So uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati.

16. Katame [katame ca (aṭṭha.)] anuppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā? Kāmavitakko byāpādavitakko vihiṃsāvitakko, ime anuppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā. Katame uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā? Anusayā akusalamūlāni, ime uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā. Katame anuppannā kusalā dhammā? Yāni sotāpannassa indriyāni, ime anuppannā kusalā dhammā. Katame uppannā kusalā dhammā? Yāni aṭṭhamakassa indriyāni, ime uppannā kusalā dhammā.

Yena kāmavitakkaṃ vāreti, idaṃ satindriyaṃ. Yena byāpādavitakkaṃ vāreti, idaṃ samādhindriyaṃ. Yena vihiṃsāvitakkaṃ vāreti, idaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ.

Yena uppannuppanne pāpake akusale dhamme pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti nādhivāseti, idaṃ paññindriyaṃ. Yā imesu catūsu indriyesu saddahanā okappanā, idaṃ saddhindriyaṃ.

Tattha saddhindriyaṃ kattha daṭṭhabbaṃ? Catūsu sotāpattiyaṅgesu. Vīriyindriyaṃ kattha daṭṭhabbaṃ? Catūsu sammappadhānesu. Satindriyaṃ kattha daṭṭhabbaṃ? Catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu. Samādhindriyaṃ kattha daṭṭhabbaṃ? Catūsu jhānesu. Paññindriyaṃ kattha daṭṭhabbaṃ? Catūsu ariyasaccesu. Evaṃ sekho sabbehi kusalehi dhammehi appamatto vutto bhagavatā anāvilatāya manasā. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘manasānāvilosiyā’’ti.

17. ‘‘Kusalo sabbadhammāna’’nti loko nāma tividho kilesaloko bhavaloko indriyaloko. Tattha kilesalokena bhavaloko samudāgacchati, so indriyāni nibbatteti, indriyesu bhāviyamānesu neyyassa pariññā bhavati. Sā duvidhena upaparikkhitabbā dassanapariññāya ca bhāvanāpariññāya ca. Yadā hi sekho ñeyyaṃ parijānāti, tadā nibbidāsahagatehi saññāmanasikārehi neyyaṃ pariññātaṃ bhavati. Tassa dve dhammā kosallaṃ gacchanti – dassanakosallañca bhāvanākosallañca.

Taṃ ñāṇaṃ pañcavidhena veditabbaṃः abhiññā pariññā pahānaṃ bhāvanā sacchikiriyā. Tattha katamā abhiññā? Yaṃ dhammānaṃ salakkhaṇe ñāṇaṃ dhammapaṭisambhidā ca atthapaṭisambhidā ca, ayaṃ abhiññā.

Tattha katamā pariññā? Evaṃ abhijānitvā yā parijānanā ‘‘idaṃ kusalaṃ, idaṃ akusalaṃ, idaṃ sāvajjaṃ, idaṃ anavajjaṃ, idaṃ kaṇhaṃ, idaṃ sukkaṃ, idaṃ sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ, ime dhammā evaṃgahitā, idaṃ phalaṃ nibbattenti [nibbattāpenti (ka.)], tesaṃ evaṃgahitānaṃ ayaṃ attho’’ti, ayaṃ pariññā.

Evaṃ parijānitvā tayo dhammā avasiṭṭhā bhavanti pahātabbā bhāvetabbā sacchikātabbā ca. Tattha katame dhammā pahātabbā? Ye akusalā. Tattha katame dhammā bhāvetabbā? Ye kusalā. Tattha katame dhammā sacchikātabbā? Yaṃ asaṅkhataṃ. Yo evaṃ jānāti ayaṃ vuccati atthakusalo dhammakusalo kalyāṇatākusalo phalatākusalo, āyakusalo apāyakusalo upāyakusalo mahatā kosallena samannāgatoti, tenāha bhagavā ‘‘kusalo sabbadhammāna’’nti.

‘‘Sato bhikkhu paribbaje’’ti tena diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāratthaṃ abhikkante paṭikkante ālokite vilokite samiñjite [sammiñjite (sī.)] pasārite saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe asite pīte khāyite sāyite uccārapassāvakamme gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhibhāve satena sampajānena vihātabbaṃ. Imā dve cariyā anuññātā bhagavatā ekā visuddhānaṃ, ekā visujjhantānaṃ. Ke visuddhā? Arahanto. Ke visujjhantā? Sekkhā. Katakiccāni hi arahato indriyāni. Yaṃ bojjhaṃ, taṃ catubbidhaṃ dukkhassa pariññābhisamayena samudayassa pahānābhisamayena maggassa bhāvanābhisamayena nirodhassa sacchikiriyābhisamayena, idaṃ catubbidhaṃ bojjhaṃ yo evaṃ jānāti, ayaṃ vuccati sato abhikkamati sato paṭikkamati khayā rāgassa khayā dosassa khayā mohassa. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘sato bhikkhu paribbaje’’ti, tenāha –

‘‘Kāmesu nābhigijjheyya, [ajitāti bhagavā]

Manasānāvilo siyā;

Kusalo sabbadhammānaṃ, sato bhikkhu paribbaje’’ti.

Evaṃ pucchitabbaṃ, evaṃ visajjitabbaṃ. Suttassa ca anugīti atthato ca byañjanato ca samānetabbā [samānayitabbā (sī. ka.)]. Atthāpagataṃ hi byañjanaṃ samphappalāpaṃ bhavati. Dunnikkhittassa padabyañjanassa atthopi dunnayo bhavati, tasmā atthabyañjanūpetaṃ saṅgāyitabbaṃ. Suttañca pavicinitabbaṃ. Kiṃ idaṃ suttaṃ āhacca vacanaṃ anusandhivacanaṃ nītatthaṃ neyyatthaṃ saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ? Kuhiṃ imassa suttassa sabbāni saccāni passitabbāni, ādimajjhapariyosāneti? Evaṃ suttaṃ pavicetabbaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano – ‘‘yaṃ pucchitañca vissajjitañca, suttassa yā ca anugītī’’ti.

Niyutto vicayo hāro.

3. Yuttihāravibhaṅgo

18. Tattha katamo yuttihāro? ‘‘Sabbesaṃ hārāna’’nti, ayaṃ yuttihāro. Kiṃ yojayati [yojeti (sī.)]? Cattāro mahāpadesā buddhāpadeso saṅghāpadeso sambahulattherāpadeso [sampahula… (ka.)] ekattherāpadeso. Ime cattāro mahāpadesā, tāni padabyañjanāni sutte otārayitabbāni, vinaye sandassayitabbāni, dhammatāyaṃ upanikkhipitabbāni.

Katamasmiṃ sutte otārayitabbāni? Catūsu ariyasaccesu. Katamasmiṃ vinaye sandassayitabbāni? Rāgavinaye dosavinaye mohavinaye. Katamissaṃ [katamiyaṃ (sī.)] dhammatāyaṃ upanikkhipitabbāni? Paṭiccasamuppāde. Yadi catūsu ariyasaccesu avatarati, kilesavinaye sandissati , dhammatañca na vilometi, evaṃ āsave na janeti. Catūhi mahāpadesehi yaṃ yaṃ yujjati, yena yena yujjati, yathā yathā yujjati, taṃ taṃ gahetabbaṃ.

19. Pañhaṃ pucchitena kati padāni pañheti padaso pariyogāhitabbaṃ vicetabbaṃ? Yadi sabbāni padāni ekaṃ atthaṃ abhivadanti, eko pañho. Atha cattāri padāni ekaṃ atthaṃ abhivadanti, eko pañho. Atha tīṇi padāni ekaṃ atthaṃ abhivadanti, eko pañho. Atha dve padāni ekaṃ atthaṃ abhivadanti, eko pañho. Atha ekaṃ padaṃ ekaṃ atthaṃ abhivadati, eko pañho. Taṃ upaparikkhamānena aññātabbaṃ kiṃ ime dhammā nānatthā nānābyañjanā, udāhu imesaṃ dhammānaṃ eko attho byañjanameva nānanti. Yathā kiṃ bhave? Yathā sā devatā bhagavantaṃ pañhaṃ pucchati.

‘‘Kenassubbhāhato [passa sa. ni. 1.66] loko, kenassu parivārito;

Kena sallena otiṇṇo, kissa dhūpāyito sadā’’ti.

Imāni cattāri padāni pucchitāni. Te tayo pañhā kathaṃ ñāyati? Bhagavā hi devatāya visajjeti.

‘‘Maccunābbhāhato [maccunabbhāhato (ka.) theragā. 448; saṃ. ni. 1.66 passitabbaṃ] loko, jarāya parivārito;

Taṇhāsallena otiṇṇo, icchādhūpāyito sadā’’ti.

20. Tattha jarā ca maraṇañca imāni dve saṅkhatassa saṅkhatalakkhaṇāni. Jarāyaṃ ṭhitassa aññathattaṃ, maraṇaṃ vayo. Tattha jarāya ca maraṇassa ca atthato nānattaṃ. Kena kāraṇena, gabbhagatāpi hi mīyanti, na ca te jiṇṇā bhavanti. Atthi ca devānaṃ maraṇaṃ, na ca tesaṃ sarīrāni jīranti. Sakkateva jarāya paṭikammaṃ kātuṃ, na pana sakkate maraṇassa paṭikammaṃ kātuṃ aññatreva iddhimantānaṃ iddhivisayā. Yaṃ panāha taṇhāsallena otiṇṇoti dissanti vītarāgā jīrantāpi mīyantāpi. Yadi ca yathā jarāmaraṇaṃ, evaṃ taṇhāpi siyā. Evaṃ sante sabbe yobbanaṭṭhāpi vigatataṇhā siyuṃ. Yathā ca taṇhā dukkhassa samudayo, evaṃ jarāmaraṇampi siyā dukkhassa samudayo, na ca siyā taṇhā dukkhassa samudayo, na hi jarāmaraṇaṃ dukkhassa samudayo, taṇhā dukkhassa samudayo. Yathā ca taṇhā maggavajjhā, evaṃ jarāmaraṇampi siyā maggavajjhaṃ. Imāya yuttiyā aññamaññehi kāraṇehi gavesitabbaṃ. Yadi ca sandissati yuttisamārūḷhaṃ atthato ca aññattaṃ, byañjanatopi gavesitabbaṃ.

Salloti vā dhūpāyananti vā imesaṃ dhammānaṃ atthato ekattaṃ. Na hi yujjati icchāya ca taṇhāya ca atthato aññattaṃ. Taṇhāya adhippāye aparipūramāne navasu āghātavatthūsu kodho ca upanāho ca uppajjati. Imāya yuttiyā jarāya ca maraṇassa ca taṇhāya ca atthato aññattaṃ.

Yaṃ panidaṃ bhagavatā dvīhi nāmehi abhilapitaṃ icchātipi taṇhātipi, idaṃ bhagavatā bāhirānaṃ vatthūnaṃ ārammaṇavasena dvīhi nāmehi abhilapitaṃ icchātipi taṇhātipi, sabbā hi taṇhā ajjhosānalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇā. Yathā sabbo aggi uṇhattalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇo, api ca upādānavasena aññamaññāni nāmāni labhati, kaṭṭhaggītipi tiṇaggītipi sakalikaggītipi gomayaggītipi thusaggītipi saṅkāraggītipi, sabbo hi aggi uṇhattalakkhaṇova. Evaṃ sabbā taṇhā ajjhosānalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇā , api tu ārammaṇaupādānavasena aññamaññehi nāmehi abhilapitā icchāitipi taṇhāitipi salloitipi dhūpāyanāitipi saritāitipi visattikāitipi sinehoitipi kilamathoitipi latāitipi maññanāitipi bandhoitipi āsāitipi pipāsāitipi abhinandanāitipi, iti sabbā taṇhā ajjhosānalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇā. Yathā ca vevacane vuttā.

‘‘Āsā ca pihā abhinandanā ca, anekadhātūsu sarā patiṭṭhitā;

Aññāṇamūlappabhavā pajappitā, sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlakā’’ti [samūlikā (sī.)].

Taṇhāyetaṃ vevacanaṃ. Yathāha bhagavā – rūpe tissa avigatarāgassa avigatacchandassa avigatapemassa avigatapipāsassa avigatapariḷāhassa. Evaṃ vedanāya saññāya saṅkhāresu viññāṇe avigatarāgassa avigatacchandassa avigatapemassa avigatapipāsassa avigatapariḷāhassa sabbaṃ suttaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ. Taṇhāyetaṃ vevacanaṃ. Evaṃ yujjati.

21. Sabbo dukkhūpacāro kāmataṇhāsaṅkhāramūlako, na pana yujjati sabbo nibbidūpacāro kāmataṇhāparikkhāramūlako. Imāya yuttiyā aññamaññehi kāraṇehi gavesitabbaṃ.

Yathā hi [yathāha (sī.)] bhagavā rāgacaritassa puggalassa asubhaṃ desayati, dosacaritassa bhagavā puggalassa mettaṃ desayati. Mohacaritassa bhagavā puggalassa paṭiccasamuppādaṃ desayati. Yadi hi bhagavā rāgacaritassa puggalassa mettaṃ cetovimuttiṃ deseyya. Sukhaṃ vā paṭipadaṃ dandhābhiññaṃ sukhaṃ vā paṭipadaṃ khippābhiññaṃ vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ vā pahānaṃ deseyya, na yujjati desanā. Evaṃ yaṃ kiñci rāgassa anulomappahānaṃ dosassa anulomappahānaṃ mohassa anulomappahānaṃ. Sabbaṃ taṃ vicayena hārena vicinitvā yuttihārena yojetabbaṃ. Yāvatikā ñāṇassa bhūmi.

Mettāvihārissa sato byāpādo cittaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatīti na yujjati desanā, byāpādo pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā. Karuṇāvihārissa sato vihesā cittaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatīti na yujjati desanā, vihesā pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā. Muditā vihārissa sato arati cittaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatīti na yujjati desanā, arati pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā. Upekkhāvihārissa sato rāgo cittaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatīti na yujjati desanā, rāgo pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā. Animittavihārissa sato nimittānusārī tena teneva viññāṇaṃ pavattatīti na yujjati desanā , nimittaṃ pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā. Asmīti vigataṃ ayamahamasmīti na samanupassāmi. Atha ca pana me kismīti kathasmīti vicikicchā kathaṃkathāsallaṃ cittaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatīti na yujjati desanā, vicikicchā kathaṃkathāsallaṃ pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchatīti yujjati desanā.

Yathā vā pana paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa sato kāmarāgabyāpādā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Vitakkasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa sato vitakkavicārasahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Upekkhāsukhasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa sato pītisukhasahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā, upekkhāsatipārisuddhisahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Catutthaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa sato upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā . Ākāsānañcāyatanasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā.

Ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samāpannassa sato rūpasahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Viññāṇañcāyatanasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samāpannassa sato ākāsānañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā.

Ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samāpannassa sato viññāṇañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samāpannassa sato saññūpacārā visesāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, hānāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Saññāvedayitanirodhasahagatā vā saññāmanasikārā hānāya saṃvattantīti na yujjati desanā, visesāya saṃvattantīti yujjati desanā. Kallatāparicitaṃ cittaṃ na ca abhinīhāraṃ khamatīti na yujjati desanā, kallatāparicitaṃ cittaṃ atha ca abhinīhāraṃ khamatīti yujjati desanā.

Evaṃ sabbe navasuttantā yathādhammaṃ yathāvinayaṃ yathāsatthusāsanaṃ sabbato vicayena hārena vicinitvā yuttihārena yojetabbāti. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘sabbesaṃ hārānaṃ yā bhūmi yo ca gocaro tesa’’nti.

Niyutto yutti hāro.

4. Padaṭṭhānahāravibhaṅgo

22. Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hāro? ‘‘Dhammaṃ deseti jino’’ti, ayaṃ padaṭṭhāno hāro. Kiṃ deseti? Sabbadhammayāthāvaasampaṭivedhalakkhaṇā avijjā, tassā vipallāsā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ajjhosānalakkhaṇā taṇhā, tassā piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Patthanalakkhaṇo lobho, tassa adinnādānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vaṇṇasaṇṭhānabyañjanaggahaṇalakkhaṇā subhasaññā, tassā indriyā saṃvaro padaṭṭhānaṃ. Sāsavaphassaupagamanalakkhaṇā sukhasaññā, tassā assādo padaṭṭhānaṃ. Saṅkhatalakkhaṇānaṃ dhammānaṃ asamanupassanalakkhaṇā niccasaññā, tassā viññāṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Aniccasaññādukkhasaññāasamanupassanalakkhaṇā attasaññā, tassā nāmakāyo padaṭṭhānaṃ. Sabbadhammasampaṭivedhalakkhaṇā vijjā, tassā sabbaṃ neyyaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Cittavikkhepapaṭisaṃharaṇalakkhaṇo samatho, tassa asubhā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Icchāvacarapaṭisaṃharaṇalakkhaṇo alobho, tassa adinnādānā veramaṇī [veramaṇi (ka.)] padaṭṭhānaṃ. Abyāpajjalakkhaṇo adoso, tassa pāṇātipātā veramaṇī padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vatthuavippaṭipattilakkhaṇo [vatthuavippaṭipādānalakkhaṇo (sī. ka.)] amoho, tassa sammāpaṭipatti padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vinīlakavipubbakagahaṇalakkhaṇā asubhasaññā, tassā nibbidā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Sāsavaphassaparijānanalakkhaṇā dukkhasaññā, tassā vedanā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Saṅkhatalakkhaṇānaṃ dhammānaṃ samanupassanalakkhaṇā aniccasaññā , tassā uppādavayā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Sabbadhammaabhinivesalakkhaṇā anattasaññā, tassā dhammasaññā padaṭṭhānaṃ.

Pañca kāmaguṇā kāmarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, pañcindriyāni rūpīni rūparāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, chaṭṭhāyatanaṃ bhavarāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, nibbattabhavānupassitā pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇadassanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Okappanalakkhaṇā saddhā adhimuttipaccupaṭṭhānā ca, anāvilalakkhaṇo pasādo sampasīdanapaccupaṭṭhāno ca. Abhipatthiyanalakkhaṇā saddhā, tassā aveccapasādo padaṭṭhānaṃ. Anāvilalakkhaṇo pasādo, tassa saddhā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ārambhalakkhaṇaṃ vīriyaṃ, tassa sammappadhānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Apilāpanalakkhaṇā sati, tassā satipaṭṭhānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ekaggalakkhaṇo samādhi, tassa jhānāni padaṭṭhānaṃ. Pajānanalakkhaṇā paññā, tassā saccāni padaṭṭhānaṃ.

Aparo nayo, assādamanasikāralakkhaṇo ayonisomanasikāro, tassa avijjā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Saccasammohanalakkhaṇā avijjā, sā saṅkhārānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Punabbhavavirohaṇalakkhaṇā saṅkhārā, te [taṃ (ka.)] viññāṇassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Opapaccayikanibbattilakkhaṇaṃ viññāṇaṃ, taṃ nāmarūpassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Nāmakāyarūpakāyasaṅghātalakkhaṇaṃ nāmarūpaṃ, taṃ chaḷāyatanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Indriyavavatthānalakkhaṇaṃ chaḷāyatanaṃ, taṃ phassassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Cakkhurūpaviññāṇasannipātalakkhaṇo phasso, so vedanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ. Iṭṭhāniṭṭhaanubhavanalakkhaṇā vedanā, sā taṇhāya padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ajjhosānalakkhaṇā taṇhā, sā upādānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Opapaccayikaṃ upādānaṃ, taṃ bhavassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Nāmakāyarūpakāyasambhavanalakkhaṇo bhavo, so jātiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Khandhapātubhavanalakkhaṇā jāti, sā jarāya padaṭṭhānaṃ. Upadhiparipākalakkhaṇā jarā, sā maraṇassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Jīvitindriyupacchedalakkhaṇaṃ maraṇaṃ, taṃ sokassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ussukkakārako soko, so paridevassa padaṭṭhānaṃ . Lālappakārako paridevo, so dukkhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Kāyasaṃpīḷanaṃ dukkhaṃ, taṃ domanassassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Cittasaṃpīḷanaṃ domanassaṃ, taṃ upāyāsassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Odahanakārako upāyāso, so bhavassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Imāni bhavaṅgāni yadā samaggāni nibbattāni bhavanti so bhavo, taṃ saṃsārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Niyyānikalakkhaṇo maggo, so nirodhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ.

Titthaññutā pītaññutāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, pītaññutā pattaññutāya [mattaññutāya (sī. ka.)] padaṭṭhānaṃ, pattaññutā attaññutāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, attaññutā pubbekatapuññatāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, pubbekatapuññatā patirūpadesavāsassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, patirūpadesavāso sappurisūpanissayassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, sappurisūpanissayo attasammāpaṇidhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, attasammāpaṇidhānaṃ sīlānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sīlāni avippaṭisārassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, avippaṭisāro pāmojjassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, pāmojjaṃ pītiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ, pīti passaddhiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ, passaddhi sukhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, sukhaṃ samādhissa padaṭṭhānaṃ, samādhi yathābhūtañāṇadassanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, yathābhūtañāṇadassanaṃ nibbidāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, nibbidā virāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, virāgo vimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vimutti vimuttiñāṇadassanassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Evaṃ yo koci upanissayo yo koci paccayo, sabbo so padaṭṭhānaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘dhammaṃ deseti jino’’ti.

Niyutto padaṭṭhāno hāro.

5. Lakkhaṇahāravibhaṅgo

23. Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hāro? ‘‘Vuttamhi ekadhamme’’ti, ayaṃ lakkhaṇo hāro. Kiṃ lakkhayati? Ye dhammā ekalakkhaṇā, tesaṃ dhammānaṃ ekasmiṃ dhamme vutte avasiṭṭhā dhammā vuttā bhavanti. Yathā kiṃ bhave? Yathāha bhagavā –

‘‘Cakkhuṃ , bhikkhave, anavaṭṭhitaṃ ittaraṃ parittaṃ pabhaṅgu parato dukkhaṃ byasanaṃ calanaṃ [calaṃ (sī.)] kukkuḷaṃ saṅkhāraṃ [sasaṅkhāraṃ (ka.)]vadhakaṃ amittamajjhe. Imasmiṃ cakkhusmiṃ vutte avasiṭṭhāni ajjhattikāni āyatanāni vuttāni bhavanti. Kena kāraṇena? Sabbāni hi cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni vadhakaṭṭhena ekalakkhaṇāni. Yathā cāha bhagavā –

‘‘Atīte , rādha, rūpe anapekkho hohi, anāgataṃ rūpaṃ mā abhinandi [abhinanda (ka.)], paccuppannassa rūpassa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya cāgāya paṭinissaggāya paṭipajja. Imasmiṃ rūpakkhandhe vutte avasiṭṭhā khandhā vuttā bhavanti. Kena kāraṇena? Sabbe hi pañcakkhandhā yamakovādasutte [passa saṃ. ni. 3.84] vadhakaṭṭhena ekalakkhaṇā vuttā. Yathā cāha bhagavā –

‘‘Yesañca [passa dha. pa. 293] susamāraddhā, niccaṃ kāyagatāsati;

Akiccaṃ te na sevanti, kicce sātaccakārino’’.

Iti kāyagatāya satiyā vuttāya vuttā bhavanti vedanāgatā sati cittagatā dhammagatā ca. Tathā yaṃ kiñci diṭṭhaṃ vā sutaṃ vā mutaṃ vāti vutte vuttaṃ bhavati viññātaṃ. Yathā cāha bhagavā –

Tasmātiha tvaṃ bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharāhi ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. ‘‘Ātāpī’’ti vīriyindriyaṃ, ‘‘sampajāno’’ti paññindriyaṃ, ‘‘satimā’’ti satindriyaṃ, ‘‘vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassa’’nti samādhindriyaṃ, evaṃ kāye kāyānupassino viharato cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Kena kāraṇena, ekalakkhaṇattā catunnaṃ indriyānaṃ.

24. Catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu bhāviyamānesu cattāro sammappadhānā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti, catūsu sammappadhānesu bhāviyamānesu cattāro iddhipādā bhāviyamānesu pañcindriyāni bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti, catūsu iddhipādesu bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti, pañcasu indriyesu bhāviyamānesu pañca balāni bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti, pañcasu balesu bhāviyamānesu satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu bhāviyamānesu ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati, sabbeva [sabbe ca (sī. ka.)] bodhaṅgamā dhammā bodhipakkhiyā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti . Kena kāraṇena, sabbe hi bodhaṅgamā bodhipakkhiyā neyyānikalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇā, te ekalakkhaṇattā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti.

Evaṃ akusalāpi dhammā ekalakkhaṇattā pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu bhāviyamānesu vipallāsā pahīyanti, āhārā cassa pariññaṃ gacchanti, upādānehi anupādāno bhavati, yogehi ca visaṃyutto bhavati, ganthehi ca vippayutto bhavati, āsavehi ca anāsavo bhavati, oghehi ca nitthiṇṇo bhavati, sallehi ca visallo bhavati, viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo cassa pariññaṃ gacchanti, agatigamanehi na agatiṃ gacchati, evaṃ akusalāpi dhammā ekalakkhaṇattā pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchanti.

Yattha vā pana rūpindriyaṃ desitaṃ, desitā tattheva rūpadhātu rūpakkhandho rūpañcāyatanaṃ. Yattha vā pana sukhā vedanā desitā, desitaṃ tattha sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyaṃ dukkhasamudayo ca ariyasaccaṃ. Yattha vā pana dukkhā vedanā desitā, desitaṃ tattha dukkhindriyaṃ domanassindriyaṃ dukkhañca ariyasaccaṃ. Yattha vā pana adukkhamasukhā vedanā desitā, desitaṃ tattha upekkhindriyaṃ sabbo ca paṭiccasamuppādo. Kena kāraṇena, adukkhamasukhāya hi vedanāya avijjā anuseti. Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti, evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. So ca sarāgasadosasamohasaṃkilesapakkhena hātabbo, vītarāgavītadosavītamohaariyadhammehi hātabbo.

Evaṃ ye dhammā ekalakkhaṇā kiccato ca lakkhaṇato ca sāmaññato ca cutūpapātato ca, tesaṃ dhammānaṃ ekasmiṃ dhamme vutte avasiṭṭhā dhammā vuttā bhavanti. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘vuttamhi ekadhamme’’ti.

Niyutto lakkhaṇo hāro.

6. Catubyūhahāravibhaṅgo

25. Tattha katamo catubyūho hāro? ‘‘Neruttamadhippāyo’’ti ayaṃ. Byañjanena suttassa neruttañca adhippāyo ca nidānañca pubbāparasandhi ca gavesitabbo . Tattha katamaṃ neruttaṃ, yā niruttipadasaṃhitā, yaṃ dhammānaṃ nāmaso ñāṇaṃ. Yadā hi bhikkhu atthassa ca nāmaṃ jānāti, dhammassa ca nāmaṃ jānāti, tathā tathā naṃ abhiniropeti. Ayañca vuccati atthakusalo dhammakusalo byañjanakusalo niruttikusalo pubbāparakusalo desanākusalo atītādhivacanakusalo anāgatādhivacanakusalo paccuppannādhivacanakusalo itthādhivacanakusalo purisādhivacanakusalo napuṃsakādhivacanakusalo ekādhivacanakusalo anekādhivacanakusalo, evaṃ sabbāni kātabbāni janapadaniruttāni sabbā ca janapadaniruttiyo. Ayaṃ niruttipadasaṃhitā.

26. Tattha katamo adhippāyo?

‘‘Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṃ, chattaṃ mahantaṃ yatha vassakāle [viya vassakāle jā. 1.10.103];

Esānisaṃso dhamme suciṇṇe, na duggatiṃ gacchati dhammacārī’’ti.

Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Ye apāyehi parimuccitukāmā bhavissanti, te dhammacārino bhavissantīti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo.

‘‘Coro yathā sandhimukhe gahīto, sakammunā haññati [haññate (sī.)] bajjhate ca;

Evaṃ ayaṃ pecca pajā parattha, sakammunā haññati [haññate (sī.)] bajjhate cā’’ti.

Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Sañcetanikānaṃ katānaṃ kammānaṃ upacitānaṃ dukkhavedanīyānaṃ aniṭṭhaṃ asātaṃ vipākaṃ paccanubhavissatīti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo.

‘‘Sukhakāmāni [passa dha. pa. 131-132] bhūtāni, yo daṇḍena vihiṃsati;

Attano sukhamesāno, pecca so na labhate sukha’’nti.

Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Ye sukhena atthikā bhavissanti, te pāpakammaṃ [pāpakaṃ kammaṃ (ka.)] na karissantīti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo.

‘‘Middhī [passa dha. pa. 325] yadā hoti mahagghaso ca, niddāyitā samparivattasāyī;

Mahāvarāhova nivāpapuṭṭho, punappunaṃ gabbhamupeti mando’’ti.

Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Ye jarāmaraṇena aṭṭiyitukāmā bhavissanti, te bhavissanti bhojane mattaññuno indriyesu guttadvārā pubbarattāpararattaṃ jāgariyānuyogamanuyuttā vipassakā kusalesu dhammesu sagāravā ca sabrahmacārīsu theresu navesu majjhimesūti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo.

‘‘Appamādo amatapadaṃ [amataṃ padaṃ (ka.) passa dha. pa. 21], pamādo maccuno padaṃ;

Appamattā na mīyanti, ye pamattā yathā matā’’ti.

Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Ye amatapariyesanaṃ pariyesitukāmā bhavissanti, te appamattā viharissantīti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo. Ayaṃ adhippāyo.

27. Tattha katamaṃ nidānaṃ? Yathā so dhaniyo gopālako bhagavantaṃ āha –

‘‘Nandati puttehi puttimā, gomā [gomiko (sī.), gopiko (ka.) su. ni. 33; saṃ. ni. 1.144 passitabbaṃ] gohi tatheva nandati;

Upadhī hi narassa nandanā, na hi so nandati yo nirūpadhī’’ti.

Bhagavā āha –

‘‘Socati puttehi puttimā, gopiko [gomiko (sī.)] gohi tatheva socati;

Upadhī hi narassa socanā, na hi so socati yo nirūpadhī’’ti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā bāhiraṃ pariggahaṃ upadhi āhā’’ti. Yathā ca māro pāpimā gijjhakūṭā pabbatā puthusilaṃ pātesi, bhagavā āha –

‘‘Sacepi kevalaṃ sabbaṃ, gijjhakūṭaṃ calessasi [caleyyāsi (ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 1.147];

Neva sammāvimuttānaṃ, buddhānaṃ atthi iñjitaṃ.

Nabhaṃ phaleyyappathavī caleyya, sabbeva pāṇā uda santaseyyuṃ;

Sallampi ce urasi kampayeyyuṃ [pakampayeyyuṃ (sī.), kappayeyyuṃ (ka.)], upadhīsu tāṇaṃ na karonti buddhā’’ti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā kāyaṃ upadhiṃ āhā’’ti. Yathā cāha –

‘‘Na taṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrā, yadāyasaṃ dārujapabbajañca [dārujaṃ babbajañca (sī.) passa dha. pa. 345];

Sārattarattā maṇikuṇḍalesu, puttesu dāresu ca yā apekkhā’’ti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā bāhiresu vatthūsu taṇhaṃ āhā’’ti. Yathā cāha –

‘‘Etaṃ daḷhaṃ bandhanamāhu dhīrā, ohārinaṃ sithilaṃ duppamuñcaṃ;

Etampi chetvāna paribbajanti, anapekkhino kāmasukhaṃ pahāyā’’ti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā bāhiravatthukāya taṇhāya pahānaṃ āhā’’ti. Yathā cāha –

‘‘Āturaṃ asuciṃ pūtiṃ, duggandhaṃ dehanissitaṃ;

Paggharantaṃ divā rattiṃ, bālānaṃ abhinandita’’nti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā ajjhattikavatthukāya taṇhāya pahānaṃ āhā’’ti. Yathā cāha –

‘‘Ucchinda [passa dha. pa. 285] sinehamattano, kumudaṃ sāradikaṃva pāṇinā;

Santimaggameva brūhaya, nibbānaṃ sugatena desita’’nti.

Iminā vatthunā iminā nidānena evaṃ ñāyati ‘‘idha bhagavā ajjhattikavatthukāya taṇhāya pahānaṃ āhā’’ti. Idaṃ nidānaṃ.

Tattha katamo pubbāparasandhi. Yathāha –

‘‘Kāmandhā jālasañchannā, taṇhāchadanachāditā;

Pamattabandhanā [pamattabandhunā udā. 64] baddhā [bandhā (ka.) passa udā. 64], macchāva kumināmukhe;

Jarāmaraṇamanventi, vaccho khīrapakova mātara’’nti.

Ayaṃ kāmataṇhā vuttā. Sā katamena pubbāparena yujjati? Yathāha –

‘‘Ratto atthaṃ na jānāti, ratto dhammaṃ na passati;

Andhantamaṃ tadā hoti, yaṃ rāgo sahate nara’’nti.

Iti andhatāya ca sañchannatāya ca sāyeva taṇhā abhilapitā. Yañcāha kāmandhā jālasañchannā, taṇhāchadanachāditāti. Yañcāha ratto atthaṃ na jānāti, ratto dhammaṃ na passatīti, imehi padehi pariyuṭṭhānehi sāyeva taṇhā abhilapitā. Yaṃ andhakāraṃ, ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo, yā ca taṇhā ponobhavikā, yañcāha kāmāti ime kilesakāmā. Yañcāha jālasañchannāti tesaṃ yeva kāmānaṃ payogena pariyuṭṭhānaṃ dasseti, tasmā kilesavasena ca pariyuṭṭhānavasena ca taṇhābandhanaṃ vuttaṃ. Ye edisikā, te jarāmaraṇaṃ anventi, ayaṃ bhagavatā yathānikkhittagāthābalena dassitā jarāmaraṇamanventīti.

‘‘Yassa papañcā ṭhitī ca natthi, sandānaṃ palighañca [paḷighañca (sī.) passa udā. 67] vītivatto;

Taṃ nittaṇhaṃ muniṃ carantaṃ, na vijānāti sadevakopi loko’’ti.

Papañcā nāma taṇhādiṭṭhimānā, tadabhisaṅkhatā ca saṅkhārā. Ṭhiti nāma anusayā. Sandānaṃ nāma taṇhāya pariyuṭṭhānaṃ, yāni chattiṃsataṇhāya jāliniyā vicaritāni. Paligho nāma moho. Ye ca papañcā saṅkhārā yā ca ṭhiti yaṃ sandānañca yaṃ palighañca yo etaṃ sabbaṃ samatikkanto, ayaṃ vuccati nittaṇho iti.

28. Tattha pariyuṭṭhānasaṅkhārā diṭṭhadhammavedanīyā vā upapajjavedanīyā vā aparāpariyavedanīyā vā, evaṃ taṇhā tividhaṃ phalaṃ deti diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. Evaṃ bhagavā āha ‘‘yaṃ lobhapakataṃ kammaṃ karoti kāyena vā vācāya vā manasā vā, tassa vipākaṃ anubhoti diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye’’ti. Idaṃ bhagavato pubbāparena yujjati. Tattha pariyuṭṭhānaṃ diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ vā kammaṃ upapajjavedanīyaṃ vā kammaṃ aparāpariyāyavedanīyaṃ [aparāpariyavedanīyaṃ (sī.)] vā kammaṃ, evaṃ kammaṃ tidhā vipaccati diṭṭhe vā dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. Yathāha –

‘‘Yañce bālo idha pāṇātipātī hoti…pe… micchādiṭṭhi hoti, tassa diṭṭhe vā dhamme vipākaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye’’ti. Idaṃ bhagavato pubbāparena yujjati. Tattha pariyuṭṭhānaṃ paṭisaṅkhānabalena pahātabbaṃ, saṅkhārā dassanabalena, chattiṃsa taṇhāvicaritāni bhāvanābalena pahātabbānīti evaṃ taṇhāpi tidhā pahīyati. Yā nittaṇhātā ayaṃ saupādisesā nibbānadhātu. Bhedā kāyassa ayaṃ anupādisesā nibbānadhātu.

Papañco nāma vuccati anubandho. Yañcāha bhagavā ‘‘papañceti atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ cakkhuviññeyyaṃ rūpaṃ ārabbhā’’ti. Yañcāha bhagavā – ‘‘atīte, rādha, rūpe anapekkho hohi, anāgataṃ rūpaṃ mā abhinandi, paccuppannassa rūpassa nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭinissaggāya paṭipajjā’’ti. Idaṃ bhagavato pubbāparena yujjati. Yo cāpi papañco ye ca saṅkhārā yā ca atītānāgatapaccuppannassa abhinandanā, idaṃ ekatthaṃ. Api ca aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi akkharehi aññamaññehi byañjanehi aparimāṇā dhammadesanā vuttā bhagavatā. Evaṃ suttena suttaṃ saṃsandayitvā pubbāparena saddhiṃ yojayitvā suttaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ bhavati.

So cāyaṃ [sa cāyaṃ (sī.)] pubbāparo sandhi catubbidho atthasandhi byañjanasandhi desanāsandhi niddesasandhīti.

Tattha atthasandhi chappadāni saṅkāsanā pakāsanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammatā paññattīti.

Byañjanasandhi chappadāni akkharaṃ padaṃ byañjanaṃ ākāro nirutti niddesoti.

Desanāsandhi na ca pathaviṃ nissāya jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca. Na ca āpaṃ nissāya jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca, na ca tejaṃ nissāya jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca, na ca vāyuṃ nissāya jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca. Na ca ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ nissāya…pe… na ca viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ nissāya…pe… na ca ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ nissāya…pe… na ca nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nissāya…pe… na ca imaṃ lokaṃ nissāya…pe… na ca paralokaṃ nissāya jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca. Yamidaṃ ubhayamantarena diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ vitakkitaṃ vicāritaṃ manasānucintitaṃ, tampi nissāya na jhāyati jhāyī jhāyati ca. Ayaṃ sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anissitena cittena na ñāyati jhāyanto.

Yathā māro pāpimā godhikassa kulaputtassa [passa saṃ. ni. 1.159] viññāṇaṃ samanvesanto na jānāti na passati. So hi papañcātīto taṇhāpahānena diṭṭhinissayopissa natthi. Yathā ca godhikassa, evaṃ vakkalissa sadevakena lokena samārakena sabrahmakena sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anissitacittā na ñāyanti jhāyamānā. Ayaṃ desanāsandhi.

Tattha katamā niddesasandhi? Nissitacittā akusalapakkhena niddisitabbā, anissitacittā kusalapakkhena niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā kilesena niddisitabbā, anissitacittā vodānena niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā saṃsārappavattiyā niddisitabbā, anissitacittā saṃsāranivattiyā niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā taṇhāya ca avijjāya ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā samathena ca vipassanāya ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā ahirikena ca anottappena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā hiriyā ca ottappena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā asatiyā ca asampajaññena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā satiyā ca sampajaññena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā ayoniyā ca ayonisomanasikārena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā yoniyā ca yonisomanasikārena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā kosajjena ca dovacassena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā vīriyārambhena ca sovacassena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā assaddhiyena ca pamādena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā saddhāya ca appamādena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā asaddhammassavanena ca asaṃvaraṇena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā saddhammassavanena ca saṃvarena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā abhijjhāya ca byāpādena ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā anabhijjhāya ca abyāpādena ca niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā nīvaraṇehi ca saṃyojaniyehi ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā rāgavirāgāya ca cetovimuttiyā avijjāvirāgāya ca paññāvimuttiyā niddisitabbā. Nissitacittā ucchedadiṭṭhiyā ca sassatadiṭṭhiyā ca niddisitabbā, anissitacittā saupādisesāya ca anupādisesāya ca nibbānadhātuyā niddisitabbā. Ayaṃ niddesasandhi. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘neruttamadhippāyo’’ti.

Niyutto catubyūho hāro.

7. Āvaṭṭahāravibhaṅgo

29. Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hāro? ‘‘Ekamhi padaṭṭhāne’’ti ayaṃ.

‘‘Ārambhatha [ārabbhatha (sī.) saṃ. ni. 1.185; theragā. 256 passitabbaṃ] nikkamatha, yuñjatha buddhasāsane;

Dhunātha maccuno senaṃ, naḷāgāraṃva kuñjaro’’ti.

‘‘Ārambhatha nikkamathā’’ti vīriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Yuñjatha buddhasāsane’’ti samādhissa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Dhunātha maccuno senaṃ, naḷāgāraṃva kuñjaro’’ti paññāya padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Ārambhatha nikkamathā’’ti vīriyindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Yuñjatha buddhasāsane’’ti samādhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Dhunātha maccuno senaṃ, naḷāgāraṃva kuñjaro’’ti paññindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Imāni padaṭṭhānāni desanā.

Ayuñjantānaṃ vā sattānaṃ yoge, yuñjantānaṃ vā ārambho.

Tattha ye na yuñjanti, te pamādamūlakā na yuñjanti. So pamādo duvidho taṇhāmūlako avijjāmūlako ca. Tattha avijjāmūlako yena aññāṇena nivuto ñeyyaṭṭhānaṃ nappajānāti pañcakkhandhā uppādavayadhammāti, ayaṃ avijjāmūlako. Yo taṇhāmūlako, so tividho anuppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ uppādāya pariyesanto pamādaṃ āpajjati, uppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ ārakkhanimittaṃ paribhoganimittañca pamādaṃ āpajjati ayaṃ loke catubbidho pamādo ekavidho avijjāya tividho taṇhāya. Tattha avijjāya nāmakāyo padaṭṭhānaṃ. Taṇhāya rūpakāyo padaṭṭhānaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu, rūpīsu bhavesu ajjhosānaṃ, arūpīsu sammoho? Tattha rūpakāyo rūpakkhandho nāmakāyo cattāro arūpino khandhā. Ime pañcakkhandhā katamena upādānena saupādānā, taṇhāya ca avijjāya ca? Tattha taṇhā dve upādānāni kāmupādānañca sīlabbatupādānañca. Avijjā dve upādānāni diṭṭhupādānañca attavādupādānañca. Imehi catūhi upādānehi ye saupādānā khandhā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Cattāri upādānāni, ayaṃ samudayo. Pañcakkhandhā dukkhaṃ. Tesaṃ bhagavā pariññāya pahānāya ca dhammaṃ deseti dukkhassa pariññāya samudayassa pahānāya.

30. Tattha yo tividho taṇhāmūlako pamādo anuppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ uppādāya pariyesati, uppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ ārakkhaṇañca karoti paribhoganimittañca, tassa sampaṭivedhena rakkhaṇā paṭisaṃharaṇā, ayaṃ samatho.

So kathaṃ bhavati? Yadā jānāti kāmānaṃ assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato okārañca saṃkilesañca vodānañca nekkhamme ca ānisaṃsaṃ. Tattha yā vīmaṃsā upaparikkhā ayaṃ vipassanā. Ime dve dhammā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti samatho ca vipassanā ca. Imesu dvīsu dhammesu bhāviyamānesu dve dhammā pahīyanti taṇhā ca avijjā ca, imesu dvīsu dhammesu pahīnesu cattāri upādānāni nirujjhanti. Upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti. Iti purimakāni ca dve saccāni dukkhaṃ samudayo ca, samatho ca vipassanā ca maggo. Bhavanirodho nibbānaṃ imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘ārambhatha nikkamathā’’ti.

Yathāpi mūle anupaddave daḷhe, chinnopi rukkho punareva [punadeva (ka.) passa dha. pa. 338] rūhati;

Evampi taṇhānusaye anūhate, nibbattatī dukkhamidaṃ punappunaṃ.

Ayaṃ taṇhānusayo. Katamassā taṇhāya? Bhavataṇhāya. Yo etassa dhammassa paccayo ayaṃ avijjā. Avijjāpaccayā hi bhavataṇhā. Ime dve kilesā taṇhā ca avijjā ca. Tāni cattāri upādānāni tehi catūhi upādānehi ye saupādānā khandhā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Cattāri upādānāni ayaṃ samudayo. Pañcakkhandhā dukkhaṃ. Tesaṃ bhagavā pariññāya ca pahānāya ca dhammaṃ deseti dukkhassa pariññāya samudayassa pahānāya.

Yena taṇhānusayaṃ samūhanati [samūhanti (sī.)], ayaṃ samatho. Yena taṇhānusayassa paccayaṃ avijjaṃ vārayati, ayaṃ vipassanā. Ime dve dhammā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti samatho ca vipassanā ca. Tattha samathassa phalaṃ rāgavirāgā cetovimutti, vipassanāya phalaṃ avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti. Iti purimakāni ca dve saccāni dukkhaṃ samudayo ca, samatho vipassanā ca maggo, dve ca vimuttiyo nirodho. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘yathāpi mūle’’ti.

‘‘Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā;

Sacittapariyodāpanaṃ [pariyodapanaṃ (sī.) dha. pa. 183; dī. ni. 2.90 passitabbaṃ], etaṃ buddhāna sāsana’’nti.

Sabbapāpaṃ nāma tīṇi duccaritāni kāyaduccaritaṃ vacīduccaritaṃ manoduccaritaṃ, te dasa akusalakammapathā pāṇātipāto adinnādānaṃ kāmesumicchācāro musāvādo pisuṇā vācā pharusā vācā samphappalāpo abhijjhā byāpādo micchādiṭṭhi, tāni dve kammāni cetanā cetasikañca. Tattha yo ca pāṇātipāto yā ca pisuṇā vācā yā ca pharusā vācā, idaṃ dosasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Yañca adinnādānaṃ yo ca kāmesumicchācāro yo ca musāvādo, idaṃ lobhasamuṭṭhānaṃ, yo samphappalāpo, idaṃ mohasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Imāni satta kāraṇāni cetanākammaṃ. Yā abhijjhā, ayaṃ lobho akusalamūlaṃ. Yo byāpādo, ayaṃ doso akusalamūlaṃ. Yā micchādiṭṭhi, ayaṃ micchāmaggo. Imāni tīṇi kāraṇāni cetasikakammaṃ. Tenāha ‘‘cetanākammaṃ cetasikakamma’’nti.

Akusalamūlaṃ payogaṃ gacchantaṃ catubbidhaṃ agatiṃ gacchati chandā dosā bhayā mohā. Tattha yaṃ chandā agatiṃ gacchati, idaṃ lobhasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Yaṃ dosā agatiṃ gacchati, idaṃ dosasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Yaṃ bhayā ca mohā ca agatiṃ gacchati, idaṃ mohasamuṭṭhānaṃ. Tattha lobho asubhāya pahīyati. Doso mettāya. Moho paññāya. Tathā lobho upekkhāya pahīyati. Doso mettāya ca karuṇāya ca. Moho muditāya pahānaṃ abbhatthaṃ gacchati. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘sabbapāpassa akaraṇa’’nti.

31. Sabbapāpaṃ nāma aṭṭha micchattāni micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi, idaṃ vuccati sabbapāpaṃ. Imesaṃ aṭṭhannaṃ micchattānaṃ yā akiriyā akaraṇaṃ anajjhācāro, idaṃ vuccati sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ.

Aṭṭhasu micchattesu pahīnesu aṭṭha sammattāni sampajjanti. Aṭṭhannaṃ sammattānaṃ yā kiriyā karaṇaṃ sampādanaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati kusalassa upasampadā. Sacittapariyodāpananti atītassa maggassa bhāvanākiriyaṃ dassayati, citte pariyodāpite [pariyodapite (sī. ka.)] pañcakkhandhā pariyodāpitā bhavanti, evañhi bhagavā āha ‘‘cetovisuddhatthaṃ, bhikkhave, tathāgate brahmacariyaṃ vussatī’’ti. Duvidhā hi pariyodāpanā nīvaraṇappahānañca anusayasamugghāto ca. Dve pariyodāpanabhūmiyo dassanabhūmi ca, bhāvanābhūmi ca, tattha yaṃ paṭivedhena pariyodāpeti, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yato pariyodāpeti, ayaṃ samudayo. Yena pariyodāpeti, ayaṃ maggo. Yaṃ pariyodāpitaṃ, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘sabbapāpassa akaraṇa’’nti.

‘‘Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṃ, chattaṃ mahantaṃ yatha vassakāle;

Esānisaṃso dhamme suciṇṇe, na duggatiṃ gacchati dhammacārī’’ti.

Dhammo nāma duvidho indriyasaṃvaro maggo ca. Duggati nāma duvidhā devamanusse vā upanidhāya apāyā duggati, nibbānaṃ vā upanidhāya sabbā upapattiyo duggati. Tattha yā saṃvarasīle akhaṇḍakāritā, ayaṃ dhammo suciṇṇo apāyehi rakkhati. Evaṃ bhagavā āha – dvemā, bhikkhave, sīlavato gatiyo devā ca manussā ca. Evañca nāḷandāyaṃ nigame asibandhakaputto gāmaṇi bhagavantaṃ etadavoca –

‘‘Brāhmaṇā, bhante, pacchābhūmakā kāmaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā udakorohakā aggiparicārakā, te mataṃ kālaṅkataṃ uyyāpenti nāma, saññāpenti nāma, saggaṃ nāma okkāmenti [uggamenti (sī.) passa saṃ. ni. 4.358]. Bhagavā pana, bhante, arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pahoti tathā kātuṃ, yathā sabbo loko kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjeyyā’’ti.

‘‘Tena hi, gāmaṇi, taññevettha paṭipucchissāmi, yathā te khameyya, tathā naṃ byākareyyāsīti.

‘‘Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, idhassa puriso pāṇātipātī adinnādāyī kāmesumicchācārī musāvādī pisuṇavāco pharusavāco samphappalāpī abhijjhālu byāpannacitto micchādiṭṭhiko, tamenaṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘ayaṃ puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjatū’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, api nu so puriso mahato janakāyassa āyācanahetu vā thomanahetuvā pañjalikaṃ [pañjalikā saṃ. ni. 4.358] anuparisakkanahetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjeyyā’’ti. ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

‘‘Seyyathāpi, gāmaṇi, puriso mahatiṃ puthusilaṃ gambhīre udakarahade [udakadahe (ka.)] pakkhipeyya, tamenaṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘ummujja, bho, puthusile, uplava bho puthusile, thalamuplava, bho puthusile’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññasi gāmaṇi, api nu sā mahatī puthusilā mahato janakāyassa āyācanahetu vā thomanahetu vā pañjalikaṃ anuparisakkanahetu vā ummujjeyya vā uplaveyya vā thalaṃ vā uplaveyyā’’ti. ‘‘No hetaṃ , bhante’’. ‘‘Evameva kho, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso pāṇātipātī…pe… micchādiṭṭhiko, kiñcāpi naṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘ayaṃ puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjatū’ti. Atha kho so puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjeyya.

‘‘Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, idhassa puriso pāṇātipātā paṭivirato adinnādānā paṭivirato kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato musāvādā paṭivirato pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato samphappalāpā paṭivirato anabhijjhālu abyāpannacitto sammādiṭṭhiko, tamenaṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘ayaṃ puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjatū’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, api nu so puriso mahato janakāyassa āyācanahetu vā thomanahetu vā pañjalikaṃ anuparisakkanahetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjeyyā’’ti. ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

‘‘Seyyathāpi, gāmaṇi, puriso sappikumbhaṃ vā telakumbhaṃ vā gambhīre [gambhīraṃ (sī. ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 4.358] udakarahade ogāhetvā bhindeyya. Tatra yāssa sakkharā vā kaṭhalā [kathalā (ka.)], sā adhogāmī assa. Yañca khvassa tatra sappi vā telaṃ vā, taṃ uddhaṃgāmi assa. Tamenaṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘osīda, bho sappitela, saṃsīda, bho sappitela, adho gaccha [avaṃgaccha (sī. ka.)]‘bho sappitelā’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññasi gāmaṇi, api nu taṃ sappitelaṃ mahato janakāyassa āyācanahetu vā thomanahetu vā pañjalikaṃ anuparisakkanahetu vā ‘osīdeyya vā saṃsīdeyya vā adho vā gaccheyyā’ti. ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

‘‘Evameva kho, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso pāṇātipātā paṭivirato…pe… sammādiṭṭhiko, kiñcāpi naṃ mahājanakāyo saṅgamma samāgamma āyāceyya thomeyya pañjaliko anuparisakkeyya ‘ayaṃ puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjatū’’’ti. Atha kho so puriso kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjeyya. Iti dhammo suciṇṇo apāyehi rakkhati. Tattha yā maggassa tikkhatā adhimattatā, ayaṃ dhammo suciṇṇo sabbāhi upapattīhi rakkhati. Evaṃ bhagavā āha –

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa [passa udā. 32], sammāsaṅkappagocaro;

Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro, ñatvāna udayabbayaṃ;

Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhu, sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti.

32. Tattha duggatīnaṃ hetu taṇhā ca avijjā ca, tāni cattāri upādānāni, tehi catūhi upādānehi ye saupādānā khandhā, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Cattāri upādānāni, ayaṃ samudayo. Pañcakkhandhā dukkhaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavā pariññāya ca pahānāya ca dhammaṃ deseti dukkhassa pariññāya samudayassa pahānāya. Tattha taṇhāya pañcindriyāni rūpīni padaṭṭhānaṃ. Avijjāya manindriyaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Pañcindriyāni rūpīni rakkhanto samādhiṃ bhāvayati, taṇhañca niggaṇhāti. Manindriyaṃ rakkhanto vipassanaṃ bhāvayati, avijjañca niggaṇhāti. Taṇhāniggahena dve upādānāni pahīyanti kāmupādānañca sīlabbatupādānañca. Avijjāniggahena dve upādānāni pahīyanti diṭṭhupādānañca attavādupādānañca. Catūsu upādānesu pahīnesu dve dhammā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti samatho ca vipassanā ca. Idaṃ vuccati brahmacariyanti.

Tattha brahmacariyassa phalaṃ cattāri sāmaññaphalāni sotāpattiphalaṃ sakadāgāmiphalaṃ anāgāmiphalaṃ arahattaṃ [arahattaphalaṃ (ka.)] aggaphalaṃ. Imāni cattāri brahmacariyassa phalāni [brahmacariyaphalānīti (sī.)]. Iti purimakāni ca dve saccāni dukkhaṃ samudayo ca. Samatho ca vipassanā ca brahmacariyañca maggo, brahmacariyassa phalāni ca tadārammaṇā ca asaṅkhatādhātu nirodho. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘dhammo have rakkhatī’’ti.

Tattha yaṃ paṭivedhena rakkhati, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. Yato rakkhati, ayaṃ samudayo. Yena rakkhati, ayaṃ maggo. Yaṃ rakkhati, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘ekamhi padaṭṭhāne’’ti.

Niyutto āvaṭṭo hāro.

8. Vibhattihāravibhaṅgo

33. Tattha katamo vibhattihāro? ‘‘Dhammañca padaṭṭhānaṃ bhūmiñcā’’ti.

Dve suttāni vāsanābhāgiyañca nibbedhabhāgiyañca. Dve paṭipadā puññabhāgiyā ca phalabhāgiyā ca. Dve sīlāni saṃvarasīlañca pahānasīlañca, tattha bhagavā vāsanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ puññabhāgiyāya paṭipadāya desayati, so saṃvarasīle ṭhito tena brahmacariyena brahmacārī bhavati, tattha bhagavā nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ phalabhāgiyāya paṭipadāya desayati, so pahānasīle ṭhito tena brahmacariyena brahmacārī bhavati.

Tattha katamaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ? Vāsanābhāgiyaṃ nāma suttaṃ dānakathā sīlakathā saggakathā kāmānaṃ ādīnavo nekkhamme ānisaṃsoti.

Tattha katamaṃ nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ? Nibbedhabhāgiyaṃ nāma suttaṃ yā catusaccappakāsanā, vāsanābhāgiye sutte natthi pajānanā, natthi maggo, natthi phalaṃ. Nibbedhabhāgiye sutte atthi pajānanā, atthi maggo, atthi phalaṃ. Imāni cattāri suttāni. Imesaṃ catunnaṃ suttānaṃ desanāya phalena sīlena brahmacariyena sabbato vicayena hārena vicinitvā yuttihārena yojayitabbā yāvatikā ñāṇassa bhūmi.

34. Tattha katame dhammā sādhāraṇā? Dve dhammā sādhāraṇā nāmasādhāraṇā vatthusādhāraṇā ca. Yaṃ vā pana kiñci aññampi evaṃ jātiyaṃ, micchattaniyatānaṃ sattānaṃ aniyatānañca sattānaṃ dassanappahātabbā kilesā sādhāraṇā, puthujjanassa sotāpannassa ca kāmarāgabyāpādā sādhāraṇā, puthujjanassa anāgāmissa ca uddhaṃbhāgiyā saṃyojanā sādhāraṇā, yaṃ kiñci ariyasāvako lokiyaṃ samāpattiṃ samāpajjati, sabbā sā avītarāgehi [avigatarāgehi (ka.)] sādhāraṇā, sādhāraṇā hi dhammā evaṃ aññamaññaṃ paraṃ paraṃ sakaṃ sakaṃ visayaṃ nātivattanti. Yopi imehi dhammehi samannāgato na so taṃ dhammaṃ upātivattati. Ime dhammā sādhāraṇā.

Tattha katame dhammā asādhāraṇā? Yāva desanaṃ upādāya gavesitabbā sekkhāsekkhā bhabbābhabbāti, aṭṭhamakassa sotāpannassa ca kāmarāgabyāpādā sādhāraṇā dhammatā asādhāraṇā, aṭṭhamakassa anāgāmissa ca uddhambhāgiyā saṃyojanā sādhāraṇā dhammatā asādhāraṇā. Sabbesaṃ sekkhānaṃ nāmaṃ sādhāraṇaṃ dhammatā asādhāraṇā. Sabbesaṃ paṭipannakānaṃ nāmaṃ sādhāraṇaṃ dhammatā asādhāraṇā. Sabbesaṃ sekkhānaṃ sekkhasīlaṃ sādhāraṇaṃ dhammatā asādhāraṇā. Evaṃ visesānupassinā hīnukkaṭṭhamajjhimaṃ upādāya gavesitabbaṃ.

Dassanabhūmi niyāmāvakkantiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ, bhāvanābhūmi uttarikānaṃ phalānaṃ pattiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ, dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā samathassa padaṭṭhānaṃ, sukhā paṭipadā khippābhiññā vipassanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ, dānamayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu parato ghosassa sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sīlamayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu cintāmayiyā paññāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, bhāvanāmayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu bhāvanāmayiyā paññāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Dānamayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu parato ca ghosassa sutamayiyā ca paññāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ sīlamayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu cintāmayiyā ca paññāya yoniso ca manasikārassa sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, bhāvanāmayaṃ puññakiriyavatthu bhāvanāmayiyā ca paññāya sammādiṭṭhiyā ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Patirūpadesavāso vivekassa ca samādhissa ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, sappurisūpanissayo tiṇṇañca aveccappasādānaṃ samathassa ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, attasammāpaṇidhānaṃ hiriyā ca vipassanāya ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, akusalapariccāgo kusalavīmaṃsāya ca samādhindriyassa ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, dhammasvākkhātatā kusalamūlaropanāya ca phalasamāpattiyā ca sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, saṅghasuppaṭipannatā saṅghasuṭṭhutāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, satthusampadā appasannānañca pasādāya pasannānañca bhiyyobhāvāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, appaṭihatapātimokkhatā dummaṅkūnañca puggalānaṃ niggahāya pesalānañca puggalānaṃ phāsuvihārāya sādhāraṇaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘dhammañca padaṭṭhāna’’nti.

Niyutto vibhatti hāro.

9. Parivattanahāravibhaṅgo

35. Tattha katamo parivattano hāro? ‘‘Kusalākusale dhamme’’ti. Sammādiṭṭhissa purisapuggalassa micchādiṭṭhi nijjiṇṇā bhavati. Ye cassa micchādiṭṭhipaccayā uppajjeyyuṃ aneke [anekā (ka.)] pāpakā akusalā dhammā, te cassa nijjiṇṇā honti. Sammādiṭṭhipaccayā cassa aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti, te cassa bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Sammāsaṅkappassa purisapuggalassa micchāsaṅkappo nijjiṇṇo bhavati. Ye cassa micchāsaṅkappapaccayā uppajjeyyuṃ aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā, te cassa nijjiṇṇā honti. Sammāsaṅkappapaccayā cassa aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti. Te cassa bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Evaṃ sammāvācassa sammākammantassa sammāājīvassa sammāvāyāmassa sammāsatissa sammāsamādhissa sammāvimuttassa sammāvimuttiñāṇadassanassa purisapuggalassa micchāvimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavati. Ye cassa micchāvimuttiñāṇadassanapaccayā uppajjeyyuṃ aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā, te cassa nijjiṇṇā honti. Sammāvimuttiñāṇadassanapaccayā cassa aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti, te cassa bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti.

36. Yassa vā pāṇātipātā paṭiviratassa pāṇātipāto pahīno hoti. Adinnādānā paṭiviratassa adinnādānaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti. Brahmacārissa abrahmacariyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti. Saccavādissa musāvādo pahīno hoti. Apisuṇavācassa pisuṇā vācā pahīnā hoti. Saṇhavācassa pharusā vācā pahīnā hoti. Kālavādissa samphappalāpo pahīno hoti. Anabhijjhālussa [anabhijjhāmanassa (ka.)] abhijjhā pahīnā hoti. Abyāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīno hoti. Sammādiṭṭhissa micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā hoti.

Ye ca kho keci ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ garahanti, nesaṃ sandiṭṭhikā sahadhammikā gārayhā vādānuvādā āgacchanti. Sammādiṭṭhiñca te bhavanto dhammaṃ garahanti. Tena hi ye micchādiṭṭhikā, tesaṃ bhavantānaṃ pujjā ca pāsaṃsā ca. Evaṃ sammāsaṅkappaṃ sammāvācaṃ sammākammantaṃ sammāājīvaṃ sammāvāyāmaṃ sammāsatiṃ sammāsamādhiṃ sammāvimuttiṃ sammāvimuttiñāṇadassanañca te bhavanto dhammaṃ garahanti. Tena hi ye micchāvimuttiñāṇadassanā, tesaṃ bhavantānaṃ pujjā ca pāsaṃsā ca.

Ye ca kho keci evamāhaṃsu ‘‘bhuñjitabbā kāmā, paribhuñjitabbā kāmā, āsevitabbā kāmā, nisevitabbā kāmā, bhāvayitabbā kāmā, bahulīkātabbā kāmā’’ti. Kāmehi veramaṇī tesaṃ adhammo.

Ye vā pana keci evamāhaṃsu ‘‘attakilamathānuyogo dhammo’’ti. Niyyāniko tesaṃ dhammo adhammo. Ye ca kho keci evamāhaṃsu ‘‘dukkho dhammo’’ti. Sukho tesaṃ dhammo adhammo. Yathā vā pana bhikkhuno sabbasaṅkhāresu asubhānupassino viharato subhasaññā pahīyanti. Dukkhānupassino viharato sukhasaññā pahīyanti. Aniccānupassino viharato niccasaññā pahīyanti. Anattānupassino viharato attasaññā pahīyanti. Yaṃ yaṃ vā pana dhammaṃ rocayati vā upagacchati vā, tassa tassa dhammassa yo paṭipakkho, svassa aniṭṭhato ajjhāpanno bhavati. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘kusalākusaladhamme’’ti.

Niyutto parivattano hāro.

10. Vevacanahāravibhaṅgo

37. Tattha katamo vevacano hāro? ‘‘Vevacanāni bahūnī’’ti. Yathā ekaṃ bhagavā dhammaṃ aññamaññehi vevacanehi niddisati. Yathāha bhagavā –

‘‘Āsā ca pihā abhinandanā ca, anekadhātūsu sarā patiṭṭhitā;

Aññāṇamūlappabhavā pajappitā, sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikā’’ti.

Āsā nāma vuccati yā bhavissassa atthassa āsīsanā [āsiṃsanā (sī.)] avassaṃ āgamissatīti āsāssa uppajjati. Pihā nāma yā vattamānassa [vattamānakassa (sī.)]atthassa patthanā, seyyataraṃ vā disvā ‘‘ediso bhaveyya’’nti pihāssa uppajjati. Atthanipphattipaṭipālanā abhinandanā nāma, piyaṃ vā ñātiṃ abhinandati, piyaṃ vā dhammaṃ abhinandati, appaṭikūlato vā abhinandati.

Anekadhātūti cakkhudhātu rūpadhātu cakkhuviññāṇadhātu, sotadhātu saddadhātu sotaviññāṇadhātu, ghānadhātu gandhadhātu ghānaviññāṇadhātu, jivhādhātu rasadhātu jivhāviññāṇadhātu , kāyadhātu phoṭṭhabbadhātu kāyaviññāṇadhātu, manodhātu dhammadhātu manoviññāṇadhātu.

Sarāti keci rūpādhimuttā keci saddādhimuttā keci gandhādhimuttā keci rasādhimuttā keci phoṭṭhabbādhimuttā keci dhammādhimuttā. Tattha yāni cha gehasitāni domanassāni yāni ca cha gehasitāni somanassāni yāni ca cha nekkhammasitāni domanassāni yāni ca cha nekkhammasitāni somanassāni, imāni catuvīsapadāni taṇhāpakkho, taṇhāya etaṃ vevacanaṃ. Yā cha upekkhā gehasitā, ayaṃ diṭṭhipakkho.

38. Sāyeva patthanākārena dhammanandī dhammapemaṃ dhammajjhosānanti taṇhāya etaṃ vevacanaṃ. Cittaṃ mano viññāṇanti cittassa etaṃ vevacanaṃ. Manindriyaṃ manodhātu manāyatanaṃ vijānanāti manassetaṃ vevacanaṃ. Paññindriyaṃ paññābalaṃ adhipaññā sikkhā paññā paññākkhandho dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo ñāṇaṃ sammādiṭṭhi tīraṇā vipassanā dhamme ñāṇaṃ atthe ñāṇaṃ anvaye ñāṇaṃ khaye ñāṇaṃ anuppāde ñāṇaṃ anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṃ aññindriyaṃ aññātāvindriyaṃ cakkhu vijjā buddhi bhūri medhā āloko, yaṃ vā pana yaṃ kiñci aññaṃpi evaṃ jātiyaṃ, paññāya etaṃ vevacanaṃ. Pañcindriyāni lokuttarāni, sabbā paññā. Api ca ādhipateyyaṭṭhena saddhā, ārambhaṭṭhena vīriyaṃ, apilāpanaṭṭhena sati, avikkhepaṭṭhena samādhi, pajānanaṭṭhena paññā.

Yathā ca buddhānussatiyaṃ vuttaṃ itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā. Balanipphattigato vesārajjappatto adhigatappaṭisambhido catuyogavippahīno agatigamanavītivatto uddhaṭasallo nirūḷhavaṇo madditakaṇḍako nibbāpitapariyuṭṭhāno [nibbāhita … (ka.)] bandhanātīto ganthaviniveṭhano ajjhāsayavītivatto bhinnandhakāro cakkhumā lokadhammasamatikkanto anurodhavirodhavippayutto iṭṭhāniṭṭhesu dhammesu asaṅkhepagato bandhanātivatto ṭhapitasaṅgāmo abhikkantataro ukkādharo ālokakaro pajjotakaro tamonudo raṇañjaho aparimāṇavaṇṇo appameyyavaṇṇo asaṅkheyyavaṇṇo ābhaṃkaro pabhaṃkaro dhammobhāsapajjotakaroti ca buddhā bhagavantoti ca buddhānussatiyā etaṃ vevacanaṃ.

Yathā ca dhammānussatiyaṃ vuttaṃ svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko [opanayiko (sī.)] paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi. Yadidaṃ madanimmadano pipāsavinayo ālayasamugghāṭo vaṭṭūpacchedo suññato atidullabho taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ.

‘‘Asaṅkhataṃ anataṃ [asaṅkhataṃ nanta … (sī.) passa saṃ. ni. 4.409] anāsavañca, saccañca pāraṃ nipuṇaṃ sududdasaṃ;

Ajajjaraṃ dhuvaṃ apalokitaṃ [apalokiyaṃ (sī. ka.)], anidassanaṃ nippapañca santaṃ.

‘‘Amataṃ paṇītañca sivañca khemaṃ, taṇhākkhayo acchariyañca abbhutaṃ;

Anītikaṃ anītikadhammaṃ [nītikadhammameva vā (sī. ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 4.409], nibbānametaṃ sugatena desitaṃ.

‘‘Ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ anupaddavañca, akataṃ asokañca atho visokaṃ;

Anūpasaggaṃnupasaggadhammaṃ, nibbānametaṃ sugatena desitaṃ.

‘‘Gambhīrañceva duppassaṃ, uttarañca anuttaraṃ;

Asamaṃ appaṭisamaṃ, jeṭṭhaṃ seṭṭhanti vuccati.

‘‘Leṇañca tāṇaṃ araṇaṃ anaṅgaṇaṃ, akāca metaṃ vimalanti vuccati;

Dīpo sukhaṃ appamāṇaṃ patiṭṭhā, akiñcanaṃ appapañcanti vutta’’nti.

Dhammānussatiyā etaṃ vevacanaṃ.

Yathā ca saṅghānussatiyaṃ vuttaṃ suppaṭipanno ujuppaṭipanno ñāyappaṭipanno sāmīcippaṭipanno yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa, sīlasampanno samādhisampanno paññāsampanno vimuttisampanno vimuttiñāṇadassanasampanno sattānaṃ sāro sattānaṃ maṇḍo sattānaṃ uddhāro sattānaṃ esikā [esiko (ka.)] sattānaṃ surabhipasūnaṃ pujjo devānañca manussānañcāti saṅghānussatiyā etaṃ vevacanaṃ.

Yathā ca sīlānussatiyaṃ vuttaṃ yāni tāni sīlāni akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni ariyāni ariyakantāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṃvattanikāni, alaṅkāro ca sīlaṃ uttamaṅgopasobhaṇatāya, nidhānañca sīlaṃ sabbadobhaggasamatikkamanaṭṭhena , sippañca sīlaṃ akkhaṇavedhitāya, velā ca sīlaṃ anatikkamanaṭṭhena, dhaññañca sīlaṃ daliddopacchedanaṭṭhena [daḷiddo… (sī.)], ādāso ca sīlaṃ dhammavolokanatāya, pāsādo ca sīlaṃ volokanaṭṭhena, sabbabhūmānuparivatti ca sīlaṃ amatapariyosānanti sīlānussatiyā etaṃ vevacanaṃ.

Yathā ca cāgānussatiyaṃ vuttaṃ yasmiṃ samaye ariyasāvako agāraṃ ajjhāvasati muttacāgo payatapāṇi vossaggarato yācayogo dānasaṃvibhāgaratoti cāgānussatiyā etaṃ vevacanaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘vevacanāni bahūnī’’ti.

Niyutto vevacano hāro.

11. Paññattihāravibhaṅgo

39. Tattha katamo paññattihāro? ‘‘Ekaṃ bhagavā dhammaṃ paññattīhi vividhāhi desetī’’ti.

pakatikathāya desanā. Ayaṃ nikkhepapaññatti. Kā ca pakatikathāya desanā, cattāri saccāni. Yathā bhagavā āha ‘‘idaṃ dukkha’’nti ayaṃ paññatti pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ channaṃ dhātūnaṃ aṭṭhārasannaṃ dhātūnaṃ dvādasannaṃ āyatanānaṃ dasannaṃ indriyānaṃ nikkhepapaññatti.

Kabaḷīkāre ce, bhikkhave, āhāre atthi rāgo atthi nandī [nandi (sī.) passa saṃ. ni. 2.64)] atthi taṇhā, patiṭṭhitaṃ tattha viññāṇaṃ virūḷhaṃ. Yattha patiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ virūḷhaṃ, atthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti. Yattha atthi nāmarūpassa avakkanti, atthi tattha saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi [buddhi (ka.)]. Yattha atthi saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi, atthi tattha āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti. Yattha atthi āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti, atthi tattha āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ. Yattha atthi āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ, sasokaṃ taṃ, bhikkhave, sadaraṃ saupāyāsanti vadāmi.

Phasse ce…pe… manosañcetanāya ce, bhikkhave, āhāre. Viññāṇe ce, bhikkhave, āhāre atthi rāgo atthi nandī atthi taṇhā, patiṭṭhitaṃ tattha viññāṇaṃ virūḷhaṃ. Yattha patiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ virūḷhaṃ, atthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti. Yattha atthi nāmarūpassa avakkanti , atthi tattha saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi. Yattha atthi saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi, atthi tattha āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti. Yattha atthi āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti, atthi tattha āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ. Yattha atthi āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ, sasokaṃ taṃ, bhikkhave, sadaraṃ saupāyāsanti vadāmi. Ayaṃ pabhavapaññatti dukkhassa ca samudayassa ca.

Kabaḷīkāre ce, bhikkhave [passa saṃ. ni. 2.64], āhāre natthi rāgo natthi nandī natthi taṇhā, appatiṭṭhitaṃ tattha viññāṇaṃ avirūḷhaṃ. Yattha appatiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ avirūḷhaṃ, natthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti. Yattha natthi nāmarūpassa avakkanti, natthi tattha saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi. Yattha natthi saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi, natthi tattha āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti. Yattha natthi āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti, natthi tattha āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ. Yattha natthi āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ, asokaṃ taṃ, bhikkhave, adaraṃ anupāyāsanti vadāmi.

Phasse ce…pe… manosañcetanāya ce, bhikkhave, āhāre. Viññāṇe ce, bhikkhave, āhāre natthi rāgo natthi nandī natthi taṇhā, appatiṭṭhitaṃ tattha viññāṇaṃ avirūḷhaṃ. Yattha appatiṭṭhitaṃ viññāṇaṃ avirūḷhaṃ, natthi tattha nāmarūpassa avakkanti. Yattha natthi nāmarūpassa avakkanti, natthi tattha saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi. Yattha natthi saṅkhārānaṃ vuddhi, natthi tattha āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti. Yattha natthi āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti, natthi tattha āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ. Yattha natthi āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇaṃ, asokaṃ taṃ, bhikkhave, adaraṃ anupāyāsanti vadāmi.

Ayaṃ pariññāpaññatti dukkhassa, pahānapaññatti samudayassa, bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, sacchikiriyāpaññatti nirodhassa.

40. Samādhiṃ, bhikkhave, bhāvetha. Appamatto nipako sato, samāhito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Kiñca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti? ‘‘Cakkhu [cakkhuṃ (ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 4.99] anicca’’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Rūpā aniccā’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti ‘‘cakkhuviññāṇaṃ anicca’’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Cakkhusamphasso anicco’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Yampidaṃ [yamidaṃ (sī. ka.)] cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṃ sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, tampi aniccanti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

Sotaṃ …pe… ghānaṃ…pe… jivhā…pe… kāyo…pe… ‘‘mano anicco’’ti [anicca’’nti (saṃ. ni. 4.100)] yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Dhammā aniccā’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Manoviññāṇaṃ anicca’’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Manosamphasso anicco’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Yampidaṃ manosamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṃ sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, tampi aniccanti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

Ayaṃ bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, pariññāpaññatti dukkhassa, pahānapaññatti samudayassa, sacchikiriyāpaññatti nirodhassa.

Rūpaṃ , rādha, vikiratha vidhamatha viddhaṃsetha vikīḷaniyaṃ [vikīḷanikaṃ (sī. ka.) passa saṃ. ni. 3.169] karotha, paññāya taṇhakkhayāya paṭipajjatha. Taṇhakkhayā dukkhakkhayo, dukkhakkhayā nibbānaṃ. Vedanaṃ…pe…. Saññaṃ…pe… saṅkhāre viññāṇaṃ vikiratha vidhamatha viddhaṃsetha vikīḷaniyaṃ karotha, paññāya taṇhakkhayāya paṭipajjatha. Taṇhakkhayā dukkhakkhayo, dukkhakkhayā nibbānaṃ.

Ayaṃ nirodhapaññatti nirodhassa, nibbidāpaññatti assādassa, pariññāpaññatti dukkhassa, pahānapaññatti samudayassa, bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, sacchikiriyāpaññatti nirodhassa.

‘‘So idaṃ dukkha’’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti ‘‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

Ayaṃ paṭivedhapaññatti saccānaṃ, nikkhepapaññatti dassanabhūmiyā, bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, sacchikiriyāpaññatti sotāpattiphalassa. ‘‘So ime āsavā’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘‘ayaṃ āsavasamudayo’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘‘ayaṃ āsavanirodho’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘‘Ime āsavā asesaṃ nirujjhantī’’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

Ayaṃ uppādapaññatti khaye ñāṇassa, okāsapaññatti anuppāde ñāṇassa, bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, pariññāpaññatti dukkhassa, pahānapaññatti samudayassa, ārambhapaññatti vīriyindriyassa, āsāṭanapaññatti āsāṭikānaṃ, nikkhepapaññatti bhāvanābhūmiyā, abhinighātapaññatti pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ.

41. Idaṃ ‘‘dukkha’’nti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. Ayaṃ ‘‘dukkhasamudayo’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ayaṃ ‘‘dukkhanirodho’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe…. Ayaṃ ‘‘dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.

Ayaṃ desanāpaññatti saccānaṃ, nikkhepapaññatti sutamayiyā paññāya sacchikiriyāpaññatti anaññātaññassāmītindriyassa, pavattanāpaññatti dhammacakkassa.

‘‘Taṃ kho panidaṃ dukkhaṃ pariññeyya’’nti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. ‘‘So kho panāyaṃ dukkhasamudayo pahātabbo’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ‘‘so kho panāyaṃ dukkhanirodho sacchikātabbo’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ‘‘sā kho panāyaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā bhāvetabbā’’ti me, bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.

Ayaṃ bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, nikkhepapaññatti cintāmayiyā paññāya, sacchikiriyāpaññatti aññindriyassa.

‘‘Taṃ kho panidaṃ dukkhaṃ pariññāta’’nti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. ‘‘So kho panāyaṃ dukkhasamudayo pahīno’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ‘‘so kho panāyaṃ dukkhanirodho sacchikato’’ti me, bhikkhave…pe… ‘‘sā kho panāyaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā bhāvitā’’ti me, bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. Ayaṃ bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa, nikkhepapaññatti bhāvanāmayiyā paññāya, sacchikiriyāpaññatti aññātāvino indriyassa, pavattanāpaññatti dhammacakkassa.

‘‘Tulamatulañca sambhavaṃ, bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji muni;

Ajjhattarato samāhito, abhindi [abhidā (sī. ka.) passa dī. ni. 2.169] kavacamivattasambhava’’nti.

‘‘Tula’’nti saṅkhāradhātu. ‘‘Atula’’nti nibbānadhātu, ‘‘tulamatulañca sambhava’’nti abhiññāpaññatti sabbadhammānaṃ. Nikkhepapaññatti dhammapaṭisambhidāya. ‘‘Bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji munī’’ti pariccāgapaññatti samudayassa. Pariññāpaññatti dukkhassa. ‘‘Ajjhattarato samāhito’’ti bhāvanāpaññatti kāyagatāya satiyā. Ṭhitipaññatti cittekaggatāya. ‘‘Abhindi kavacamivattasambhava’’nti abhinibbidāpaññatti cittassa, upādānapaññatti sabbaññutāya, padālanāpaññatti avijjaṇḍakosānaṃ. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘tulamatulañca sambhava’’nti.

Yo dukkhamaddakkhi yatonidānaṃ, kāmesu so jantu kathaṃ nameyya;

Kāmā hi loke saṅgoti ñatvā, tesaṃ satīmā vinayāya sikkheti.

‘‘Yo dukkha’’nti vevacanapaññatti ca dukkhassa pariññāpaññatti ca. ‘‘Yatonidāna’’nti pabhavapaññatti ca samudayassa pahānapaññatti ca. ‘‘Addakkhī’’ti vevacanapaññatti ca ñāṇacakkhussa paṭivedhapaññatti ca. ‘‘Kāmesu so jantukathaṃ nameyyā’’ti vevacanapaññatti ca kāmataṇhāya abhinivesapaññatti ca. ‘‘Kāmā hi loke saṅgoti ñatvā’’ti paccatthikato dassanapaññatti kāmānaṃ. Kāmā hi aṅgārakāsūpamā maṃsapesūpamā pāvakakappā papātauragopamā ca. ‘‘Tesaṃ satīmā’’ti apacayapaññatti pahānāya, nikkhepapaññatti kāyagatāya satiyā, bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa. ‘‘Vinayāya sikkhe’’ti paṭivedhapaññatti rāgavinayassa dosavinayassa mohavinayassa. ‘‘Jantū’’ti vevacanapaññatti yogissa. Yadā hi yogī kāmā saṅgoti pajānāti. So kāmānaṃ anuppādāya kusale dhamme uppādayati, so anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya vāyamati. Ayaṃ vāyāmapaññatti appattassa pattiyā. Nikkhepapaññatti oramattikāya asantuṭṭhiyā. Tattha so uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā vāyamatīti ayaṃ appamādapaññatti bhāvanāya, nikkhepapaññatti vīriyindriyassa, ārakkhapaññatti kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ, ṭhitipaññatti adhicittasikkhāya. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘yo dukkhamaddakkhi yatonidāna’’nti.

‘‘Mohasambandhano loko, bhabbarūpova dissati;

Upadhibandhano [upadhisambandhano (sī.) passa udā. 70] bālo, tamasā parivārito;

Assirī viya [sassatoriva (udā. 70)] khāyati, passato natthi kiñcana’’nti.

‘‘Mohasambandhano loko’’ti desanāpaññatti vipallāsānaṃ. ‘‘Bhabbarūpova dissatī’’ti viparītapaññatti lokassa. ‘‘Upadhibandhano bālo’’ti pabhavapaññatti pāpakānaṃ icchāvacarānaṃ, kiccapaññatti pariyuṭṭhānānaṃ. Balavapaññatti kilesānaṃ. Virūhanāpaññatti saṅkhārānaṃ. ‘‘Tamasā parivārito’’ti desanāpaññatti avijjandhakārassa vevacanapaññatti ca. ‘‘Assirī viya khāyatī’’ti dassanapaññatti dibbacakkhussa, nikkhepapaññatti paññācakkhussa. ‘‘Passato natthi kiñcana’’nti paṭivedhapaññatti sattānaṃ, rāgo kiñcanaṃ doso kiñcanaṃ moho kiñcanaṃ. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘mohasambandhano loko’’ti.

‘‘Atthi, bhikkhave, ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhataṃ, no cetaṃ, bhikkhave, abhavissa ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhataṃ. Nayidha [na idha (sī. ka.) passa udā. 73] jātassa bhūtassa katassa saṅkhatassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyetha. Yasmā ca kho, bhikkhave, atthi ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhataṃ, tasmā jātassa bhūtassa katassa saṅkhatassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyatī’’ti.

‘‘No cetaṃ, bhikkhave, abhavissa ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhata’’nti desanāpaññatti nibbānassa vevacanapaññatti ca. ‘‘Nayidha jātassa bhūtassa katassa saṅkhatassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyethā’’ti vevacanapaññatti saṅkhatassa upanayanapaññatti ca. ‘‘Yasmā ca kho, bhikkhave, atthi ajātaṃ abhūtaṃ akataṃ asaṅkhata’’nti vevacanapaññatti nibbānassa jotanāpaññatti ca. ‘‘Tasmā jātassa bhūtassa katassa saṅkhatassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyatī’’ti ayaṃ vevacanapaññatti nibbānassa, niyyānikapaññatti maggassa, nissaraṇapaññatti saṃsārato. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘no cetaṃ, bhikkhave, abhavissā’’ti. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘ekaṃ bhagavā dhammaṃ, paññattīhi vividhāhi desetī’’ti.

Niyutto paññatti hāro.

12. Otaraṇahāravibhaṅgo

42. Tattha katamo otaraṇo hāro? ‘‘Yo ca paṭiccuppādo’’ti.

‘‘Uddhaṃ adho sabbadhi vippamutto, ayaṃ ahasmīti [ayamahamasmīti (sī.) passa udā. 61] anānupassī;

Evaṃ vimutto udatāri oghaṃ, atiṇṇapubbaṃ apunabbhavāyā’’ti.

‘‘Uddha’’nti rūpadhātu ca arūpadhātu ca. ‘‘Adho’’ti kāmadhātu. ‘‘Sabbadhi vippamutto’’ti tedhātuke ayaṃ asekkhāvimutti. Tāniyeva asekkhāni pañcindriyāni, ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva asekkhāni pañcindriyāni vijjā, vijjuppādā avijjānirodho, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva asekkhāni pañcindriyāni tīhi khandhehi saṅgahitāni – sīlakkhandhena samādhikkhandhena paññākkhandhena, ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva asekkhāni pañcindriyāni saṅkhārapariyāpannāni ye saṅkhārā anāsavā, no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ, no ca bhavaṅgaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

‘‘Ayaṃ ahasmīti anānupassī’’ti ayaṃ sakkāyadiṭṭhiyā samugghāto, sā sekkhāvimutti, tāniyeva sekkhāni pañcindriyāni. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva sekkhāni pañcindriyāni vijjā, vijjuppādā avijjānirodho, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, evaṃ sabbo paṭiccasamuppādo. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vijjā paññākkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vijjā saṅkhārapariyāpannā, ye saṅkhārā anāsavā, no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā, ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ, no ca bhavaṅgaṃ, ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

Sekkhāya ca vimuttiyā asekkhāya ca vimuttiyā vimutto udatāri oghaṃ atiṇṇapubbaṃ apunabbhavāya. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘uddhaṃ adho’’ti.

43. ‘‘Nissitassa [passa udā. 74] calitaṃ, anissitassa calitaṃ natthi, calite asati passaddhi, passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti, natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti, āgatigatiyā asati cutūpapāto na hoti, cutūpapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena esevanto dukkhassā’’ti.

‘‘Nissitassa calita’’nti nissayo nāma duvidho taṇhānissayo ca diṭṭhinissayo ca. Tattha yā rattassa cetanā, ayaṃ taṇhānissayo; yā mūḷhassa cetanā, ayaṃ diṭṭhinissayo. Cetanā pana saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ, evaṃ sabbo paṭiccasamuppādo. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Tattha yā rattassa vedanā, ayaṃ sukhā vedanā. Yā sammūḷhassa vedanā, ayaṃ adukkhamasukhā vedanā, imā dve vedanā vedanākkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Tattha sukhā vedanā dve indriyāni sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyañca, adukkhamasukhā vedanā upekkhindriyaṃ. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva indriyāni saṅkhārapariyāpannāni, ye saṅkhārā sāsavā bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ sāsavaṃ bhavaṅgaṃ, ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

‘‘Anissitassa calitaṃ natthī’’ti samathavasena vā taṇhāya anissito vipassanāvase vā diṭṭhiyā anissito. Yā vipassanā ayaṃ vijjā, vijjuppādā avijjānirodho, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho, evaṃ sabbo paṭiccasamuppādo. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vipassanā paññākkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vipassanā dve indriyāni – vīriyindriyañca paññindriyañca. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vipassanā saṅkhārapariyāpannā, ye saṅkhārā anāsavā, no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ, no ca bhavaṅgaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

‘‘Passaddhiyā satī’’ti duvidhā passaddhi kāyikā ca cetasikā ca. Yaṃ kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ, ayaṃ kāyapassaddhi. Yaṃ cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ, ayaṃ cetasikā passaddhi. Passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vediyati [vedayati (ka.)], sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yathābhūtaṃ pajānanto nibbindati, nibbindanto virajjati, virāgā vimuccati, vimuttasmiṃ ‘‘vimutta’’miti [vimuttamhīti (sī. ka.)] ñāṇaṃ hoti, ‘‘khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’’ti pajānāti. So na namati rūpesu, na saddesu, na gandhesu, na rasesu, na phoṭṭhabbesu, na dhammesu khayā rāgassa khayā dosassa khayā mohassa yena rūpena tathāgataṃ tiṭṭhantaṃ carantaṃ paññāpayamāno paññāpeyya, tassa rūpassa khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā rūpasaṅkhaye vimutto, tathāgato atthītipi na upeti, natthītipi na upeti, atthi natthītipi na upeti, nevatthi no natthītipi na upeti. Atha kho gambhīro appameyyo asaṅkheyyo nibbutotiyeva saṅkhaṃ gacchati khayā rāgassa, khayā dosassa, khayā mohassa.

Yāya vedanāya…pe… yāya saññāya. Yehi saṅkhārehi. Yena viññāṇena tathāgataṃ tiṭṭhantaṃ carantaṃ paññāpayamāno paññāpeyya, tassa viññāṇassa khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā viññāṇasaṅkhaye vimutto, tathāgato atthītipi na upeti, natthītipi na upeti, atthi natthītipi na upeti, nevatthi no natthītipi na upeti. Atha kho gambhīro appameyyo asaṅkheyyo nibbutotiyeva saṅkhaṃ gacchati khayā rāgassa, khayā dosassa, khayā mohassa. ‘‘Āgatī’’ti idhāgati. ‘‘Gatī’’ti peccabhavo. Āgatigatīpi na bhavanti, ‘‘nevidhā’’ti chasu ajjhattikesu āyatanesu. ‘‘Na hura’’nti chasu bāhiresu āyatanesu. ‘‘Na ubhayamantarenā’’ti phassasamuditesu dhammesu attānaṃ na passati. ‘‘Esevanto dukkhassā’’ti paṭiccasamuppādo. So duvidho lokiyo ca lokuttaro ca. Tattha lokiyo avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, yāva jarāmaraṇā. Lokuttaro sīlavato avippaṭisāro jāyati, yāva nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘nissitassa calitaṃ anissitassa calitaṃ natthi…pe… esevanto dukkhassā’’ti.

44.

‘‘Ye keci sokā paridevitā vā, dukkhā [dukkhaṃ (sī. ka.) passa udā. 78] ca lokasmimanekarūpā.

Piyaṃ paṭiccappabhavanti ete, piye asante na bhavanti ete.

Tasmā hi te sukhino vītasokā, yesaṃ piyaṃ natthi kuhiñci loke;

Tasmā asokaṃ virajaṃ patthayāno, piyaṃ na kayirātha kuhiñci loke’’ti.

‘‘Ye keci sokā paridevitā vā, dukkhā ca lokasmimanekarūpā piyaṃ paṭiccappabhavanti ete’’ti – ayaṃ dukkhā vedanā. ‘‘Piye asante na bhavanti ete’’ti – ayaṃ sukhā vedanā. Vedanā vedanākkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ, evaṃ sabbaṃ. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Tattha sukhā vedanā dve indriyāni – sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyañca. Dukkhā vedanā dve indriyāni – dukkhindriyaṃ domanassindriyañca. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva indriyāni saṅkhārapariyāpannāni, ye saṅkhārā sāsavā bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ sāsavaṃ bhavaṅgaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

Tasmā hi te sukhino vītasokā, yesaṃ piyaṃ natthi kuhiñci loke;

Tasmā asokaṃ virajaṃ patthayāno, piyaṃ na kayirātha kuhiñci loketi.

Idaṃ taṇhāpahānaṃ. Taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho, evaṃ sabbaṃ. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Taṃyeva taṇhāpahānaṃ samatho. So samatho dve indriyāni satindriyaṃ samādhindriyañca. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Soyeva samatho samādhikkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Soyeva samatho saṅkhārapariyāpanno, ye saṅkhārā anāsavā, no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ, no ca bhavaṅgaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘ye keci sokā’’ti.

Kāmaṃ kāmayamānassa, tassa ce taṃ samijjhati;

Addhā pītimano hoti, laddhā macco yadicchati.

Tassa ce kāmayānassa, chandajātassa jantuno;

Te kāmā parihāyanti, sallaviddhova ruppati.

Yo kāme parivajjeti, sappasseva [sabbasseva (ka.) passa su. ni. 774] padā siro;

Somaṃ visattikaṃ loke, sato samativattatīti.

Tattha yā pītimanatā, ayaṃ anunayo. Yadāha sallaviddhova ruppatīti, idaṃ paṭighaṃ. Anunayaṃ paṭighañca pana taṇhāpakkho, taṇhāya ca pana dasarūpīni āyatanāni padaṭṭhānaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva dasa rūpīni rūpakāyo nāmasampayutto, tadubhayaṃ nāmarūpaṃ, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso, phassapaccayā vedanā, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, evaṃ sabbaṃ. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Tadeva nāmarūpaṃ pañcakkhandho; Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā;

Tadeva nāmarūpaṃ aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo; Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā;

Tattha yo rūpakāyo imāni pañca rūpīni indriyāni, yo nāmakāyo imāni pañca arūpīni indriyāni, imāni dasa indriyāni. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tattha yadāha –

‘‘Yo kāme parivajjeti, sappasseva padā siro;

Somaṃ visattikaṃ loke, sato samativattatī’’ti.

Ayaṃ saupādisesā nibbānadhātu, ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva saupādisesā nibbānadhātu vijjā, vijjuppādā avijjānirodho, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, evaṃ sabbaṃ. Ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vijjā paññākkhandho. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vijjā dve indriyāni – vīriyindriyaṃ paññindriyañca. Ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Sāyeva vijjā saṅkhārapariyāpannā, ye saṅkhārā anāsavā, no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā. Ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ, no ca bhavaṅgaṃ. Ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘kāmaṃ kāmayamānassā’’ti.

Ettāvatā paṭicca indriyakhandhadhātuāyatanāni samosaraṇotaraṇāni bhavanti. Evaṃ paṭicca indriyakhandhadhātuāyatanāni otāretabbāni. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘yo ca paṭiccuppādo’’ti.

Niyutto otaraṇo hāro.

13. Sodhanahāravibhaṅgo

45. Tattha katamo sodhano hāro? ‘‘Vissajjitamhi pañhe’’tigāthā. Yathā āyasmā ajito pārāyane bhagavantaṃ pañhaṃ pucchati –

‘‘Kenassu nivuto loko, kenassu nappakāsati;

Kissābhilepanaṃ brūsi, kiṃsu tassa mahabbhaya’’nti.

‘‘Avijjāya nivuto loko, [ajitāti bhagavā]

Vivicchā pamādā nappakāsati;

Jappābhilepanaṃ brūmi, dukkhamassa mahabbhaya’’nti.

‘‘Kenassu nivuto loko’’ti pañhe ‘‘avijjāya nivuto loko’’ti bhagavā padaṃ sodheti, no ca ārambhaṃ. ‘‘Kenassu nappakāsatī’’ti pañhe ‘‘vivicchā pamādā nappakāsatī’’ti bhagavā padaṃ sodheti, no ca ārambhaṃ. ‘‘Kissābhilepanaṃ brūsī’’ti pañhe ‘‘jappābhilepanaṃ brūmī’’ti bhagavā padaṃ sodheti, no ca ārambhaṃ. ‘‘Kiṃsu tassa mahabbhaya’’nti pañhe ‘‘dukkhamassa mahabbhaya’’nti suddho ārambho. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘avijjāya nivuto loko’’ti.

‘‘Savanti sabbadhi sotā, [iccāyasmā ajito]

Sotānaṃ kiṃ nivāraṇaṃ;

Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūhi, kena sotā pidhīyare’’ti.

‘‘Yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, [ajitāti bhagavā]

Sati tesaṃ nivāraṇaṃ;

Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhīyare’’ti.

‘‘Savanti sabbadhi sotā, sotānaṃ kiṃ nivāraṇa’’nti pañhe ‘‘yāni sotāni lokasmiṃ, sati tesaṃ nivāraṇa’’nti bhagavā padaṃ sodheti, no ca ārambhaṃ. ‘‘Sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūhi, kena sotā pidhīyare’’ti pañhe ‘‘sotānaṃ saṃvaraṃ brūmi, paññāyete pidhīyare’’ti suddho ārambho. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘yāni sotāni lokasmi’’nti.

‘‘Paññā ceva sati ca, [iccāyasmā ajito]

Nāmarūpañca [nāmaṃ rūpañca (ka.) passa su. ni. 1042] mārisa;

Etaṃ me puṭṭho pabrūhi, katthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

Pañhe

‘‘Yametaṃ pañhaṃ apucchi, ajita taṃ vadāmi te;

Yattha nāmañca rūpañca, asesaṃ uparujjhati;

Viññāṇassa nirodhena, etthetaṃ uparujjhatī’’ti.

Suddho ārambho. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘yametaṃ pañhaṃ apucchī’’ti. Yattha evaṃ suddho ārambho, so pañho visajjito bhavati. Yattha pana ārambho asuddho, na tāva so pañho visajjito bhavati. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘vissajjitamhi pañhe’’ti.

Niyutto sodhano hāro.

14. Adhiṭṭhānahāravibhaṅgo

46. Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno hāro? ‘‘Ekattatāya dhammā, yepi ca vemattatāya niddiṭṭhā’’ti.

Ye tattha niddiṭṭhā, tathā te dhārayitabbā.

‘‘Dukkha’’nti ekattatā. Tattha katamaṃ dukkhaṃ? Jāti dukkhā, jarā dukkhā, byādhi dukkho, maraṇaṃ dukkhaṃ, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo dukkho, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā, rūpā dukkhā, vedanā dukkhā, saññā dukkhā, saṅkhārā dukkhā, viññāṇaṃ dukkhaṃ. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Dukkhasamudayo’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo dukkhasamudayo? Yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobhavikā [ponobbhavikā (ka.)] nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī. Seyyathidaṃ, kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Dukkhanirodho’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo dukkhanirodho? Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamā dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṃ, sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Maggo’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo maggo? Nirayagāmī maggo tiracchānayonigāmī maggo pettivisayagāmī maggo asurayoniyo [asurayonigāmiyo (sī.), asurayonigāmīniyo (ka.)] maggo saggagāmiyo maggo manussagāmī maggo nibbānagāmī maggo. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Nirodho’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo nirodho? Paṭisaṅkhānirodho appaṭisaṅkhānirodho anunayanirodho paṭighanirodho mānanirodho makkhanirodho paḷāsanirodho issānirodho macchariyanirodho sabbakilesanirodho. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Rūpa’’nti ekattatā. Tattha katamaṃ rūpaṃ? Cātumahābhūtikaṃ [cātummahābhūtikaṃ (sī.)] rūpaṃ catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpassa paññatti. Tattha katamāni cattāri mahābhūtāni? Pathavīdhātu [paṭhavīdhātu (sī.)] āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātu.

47. Dvīhi ākārehi dhātuyo pariggaṇhāti saṅkhepena ca vitthārena ca. Kathaṃ vitthārena dhātuyo pariggaṇhāti? Vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti, dvādasahi ākārehi āpodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti, catūhi ākārehi tejodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti, chahi ākārehi vāyodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti.

Katamehi vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti? Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco, maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ [aṭṭhimiñjā (sī.)] vakkaṃ, hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ, antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ matthake matthaluṅganti imehi vīsatiyā ākārehi pathavīdhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti.

Katamehi dvādasahi ākārehi āpodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti? Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttanti imehi dvādasahi ākārehi āpodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti.

Katamehi catūhi ākārehi tejodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti? Yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati [jīrati (sī.), jīrayati (ka.), passa ma. ni. 3.351], yena ca pariḍayhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchati, imehi catūhi ākārehi tejodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti.

Katamehi chahi ākārehi vāyodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti? Uddhaṅgamā vātā, adhogamā vātā, kucchisayā vātā, koṭṭhāsayā [koṭṭhasayā (sī.)] vātā, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā, assāso passāso iti, imehi chahi ākārehi vāyodhātuṃ vitthārena pariggaṇhāti.

Evaṃ imehi dvācattālīsāya ākārehi vitthārena dhātuyo sabhāvato upalakkhayanto tulayanto parivīmaṃsanto pariyogāhanto paccavekkhanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passati kāyaṃ vā kāyapadesaṃ vā, yathā candanikaṃ pavicinanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passeyya, yathā saṅkāraṭṭhānaṃ pavicinanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passeyya, yathā vaccakuṭiṃ pavicinanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passeyya, yathā sivathikaṃ [sīvathikaṃ (sī.)] pavicinanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passeyya. Evameva imehi dvācattālīsāya ākārehi evaṃ vitthārena dhātuyo sabhāvato upalakkhayanto tulayanto parivīmaṃsanto pariyogāhanto paccavekkhanto na kiñci gayhūpagaṃ passati kāyaṃ vā kāyapadesaṃ vā. Tenāha bhagavā yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu [nevesāhaṃ (sī. ka.) passa ma. ni. 3.349], yā ca bāhirā pathavīdhātu, pathavīdhāturevesā. Taṃ ‘‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ, evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā pathavīdhātuyā nibbindati, pathavīdhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā āpodhātu, yā ca bāhirā āpodhātu…pe… yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā tejodhātu, yā ca bāhirā tejodhātu…pe… yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā vāyodhātu, yā ca bāhirā vāyodhātu, vāyodhāturevesā. Taṃ ‘‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ, evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā vāyodhātuyā nibbindati, vāyodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

48. ‘‘Avijjā’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamā avijjā? Dukkhe aññāṇaṃ, dukkhasamudaye aññāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe aññāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya aññāṇaṃ, pubbante aññāṇaṃ, aparante aññāṇaṃ, pubbantāparante aññāṇaṃ, idappaccayatāpaṭiccasamuppannesu dhammesu aññāṇaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ aññāṇaṃ adassanaṃ anabhisamayo ananubodho asambodho appaṭivedho asallakkhaṇā anupalakkhaṇā apaccupalakkhaṇā asamavekkhaṇaṃ [asamavekkhanaṃ (ka.)] apaccakkhakammaṃ dummejjhaṃ bālyaṃ asampajaññaṃ moho pamoho sammoho avijjā avijjogho avijjāyogo avijjānusayo avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṃ avijjālaṅgī moho akusalamūlaṃ. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Vijjā’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamā vijjā? Dukkhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ, pubbante ñāṇaṃ, aparante ñāṇaṃ, pubbantāparante ñāṇaṃ, idappaccayatāpaṭiccasamuppannesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ, yā evarūpā paññā pajānanā vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo saṃlakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā paṇḍiccaṃ kosallaṃ nepuññaṃ vebhabyā [vebhavyā (sī.)] cintā upaparikkhā bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṃ patodo paññā paññindriyaṃ paññābalaṃ paññāsatthaṃ paññāpāsādo paññāāloko paññāobhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṃ amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo maggaṅgaṃ maggapariyāpannaṃ. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Samāpattī’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamā samāpatti? Saññāsamāpatti asaññāsamāpatti, nevasaññānāsaññāsamāpatti. Vibhūtasaññāsamāpatti nirodhasamāpattīti. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Jhāyī’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo jhāyī? Atthi sekkho jhāyī, atthi asekkho jhāyī, nevasekkhanāsekkho jhāyī, ājāniyo jhāyī, assakhaluṅko jhāyī, diṭṭhuttaro jhāyī, taṇhuttaro jhāyī, paññuttaro jhāyī. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Samādhī’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo samādhi? Saraṇo samādhi, araṇo samādhi, savero samādhi, avero samādhi, sabyāpajjo [sabyāpajjho (sī.)] samādhi, abyāpajjo samādhi, sappītiko samādhi, nippītiko samādhi, sāmiso samādhi, nirāmiso samādhi, sasaṅkhāro samādhi, asaṅkhāro samādhi, ekaṃsabhāvito samādhi, ubhayaṃsabhāvito samādhi, ubhayato bhāvitabhāvano samādhi, savitakkasavicāro samādhi, avitakkavicāramatto samādhi, avitakkaavicāro samādhi, hānabhāgiyo samādhi, ṭhitibhāgiyo samādhi, visesabhāgiyo samādhi, nibbedhabhāgiyo samādhi, lokiyo samādhi, lokuttaro samādhi, micchāsamādhi, sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Paṭipadā’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamā paṭipadā? Āgāḷhapaṭipadā [āgaḷhā paṭipadā (sī.) aṭṭhakathā oloketabbā], nijjhāmapaṭipadā, majjhimapaṭipadā, akkhamā paṭipadā, khamā paṭipadā, samā paṭipadā, damā paṭipadā , dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā, dukkhā paṭipadā khippābhiññā, sukhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā, sukhā paṭipadā khippābhiññāti. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

‘‘Kāyo’’ti ekattatā. Tattha katamo kāyo? Nāmakāyo rūpakāyo ca. Tattha katamo rūpakāyo? Kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru [nahāru (sī.)] aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ matthaluṅganti – ayaṃ rūpakāyo. Nāmakāyo nāma vedanā saññā cetanā cittaṃ phasso manasikāroti – ayaṃ nāmakāyoti. Ayaṃ vemattatā.

Evaṃ yo dhammo yassa dhammassa samānabhāvo, so dhammo tassa dhammassa ekattatāya ekī bhavati. Yena yena vā pana vilakkhaṇo, tena tena vemattaṃ gacchati. Evaṃ sutte vā veyyākaraṇe vā gāthāyaṃ vā pucchitena vīmaṃsayitabbaṃ, kiṃ ekattatāya pucchati, udāhu vemattatāyāti. Yadi ekattatāya pucchitaṃ, ekattatāya visajjayitabbaṃ. Yadi vemattatāya pucchitaṃ, vemattatāya visajjayitabbaṃ. Yadi sattādhiṭṭhānena pucchitaṃ, sattādhiṭṭhānena visajjayitabbaṃ. Yadi dhammādhiṭṭhānena pucchitaṃ, dhammādhiṭṭhānena visajjayitabbaṃ. Yathā yathā vā pana pucchitaṃ, tathā tathā visajjayitabbaṃ. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘ekattatāya dhammā’’ti.

Niyutto adhiṭṭhāno hāro.

15. Parikkhārahāravibhaṅgo

49. Tattha katamo parikkhāro hāro? ‘‘Ye dhammā yaṃ dhammaṃ janayantī’’ti.

Yo dhammo yaṃ dhammaṃ janayati, tassa so parikkhāro. Kiṃlakkhaṇo parikkhāro? Janakalakkhaṇo parikkhāro. Dve dhammā janayanti hetu ca paccayo ca. Tattha kiṃlakkhaṇo hetu, kiṃlakkhaṇo paccayo? Asādhāraṇalakkhaṇo hetu, sādhāraṇalakkhaṇo paccayo. Yathā kiṃ bhave? Yathā aṅkurassa nibbattiyā bījaṃ asādhāraṇaṃ, pathavī āpo ca sādhāraṇā. Aṅkurassa hi pathavī āpo ca paccayo sabhāvo hetu. Yathā vā pana ghaṭe duddhaṃ pakkhittaṃ dadhi bhavati, na catthi ekakālasamavadhānaṃ duddhassa ca dadhissa ca. Evamevaṃ natthi ekakālasamavadhānaṃ hetussa ca paccayassa ca.

Ayañhi saṃsāro sahetu sappaccayo nibbatto. Vuttaṃ hi avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, evaṃ sabbo paṭiccasamuppādo. Iti avijjā avijjāya hetu ayoniso manasikāro paccayo. Purimikā avijjā pacchimikāya avijjāya hetu. Tattha purimikā avijjā avijjānusayo pacchimikā avijjā avijjāpariyuṭṭhānaṃ, purimiko avijjānusayo pacchimikassa avijjāpariyuṭṭhānassa hetubhūto paribrūhanāya, bījaṅkuro viya samanantarahetutāya. Yaṃ pana yattha phalaṃ nibbattati, idamassa paramparahetutāya hetubhūtaṃ. Duvidho hi hetu samanantarahetu paramparahetu ca, evaṃ avijjāyapi duvidho hetu samanantarahetu paramparahetu ca.

Yathā vā pana thālakañca vaṭṭi ca telañca padīpassa paccayabhūtaṃ na sabhāvahetu, na hi sakkā thālakañca vaṭṭiñca telañca anaggikaṃ dīpetuṃ padīpassa paccayabhūtaṃ. Padīpo viya sabhāvo hetu hoti. Iti sabhāvo hetu, parabhāvo paccayo. Ajjhattiko hetu, bāhiro paccayo. Janako hetu, pariggāhako paccayo. Asādhāraṇo hetu, sādhāraṇo paccayo.

Avupacchedattho santati attho, nibbatti attho phalattho, paṭisandhi attho punabbhavattho, palibodhattho pariyuṭṭhānattho, asamugghātattho anusayattho, asampaṭivedhattho avijjattho, apariññātattho viññāṇassa bījattho. Yattha avupacchedo tattha santati, yattha santati tattha nibbatti , yattha nibbatti tattha phalaṃ, yattha phalaṃ tattha paṭisandhi, yattha paṭisandhi tattha punabbhavo, yattha punabbhavo tattha palibodho, yattha palibodho tattha pariyuṭṭhānaṃ, yattha pariyuṭṭhānaṃ tattha asamugghāto. Yattha asamugghāto tattha anusayo, yattha anusayo tattha asampaṭivedho, yattha asampaṭivedho tattha avijjā, yattha avijjā tattha sāsavaṃ viññāṇaṃ apariññātaṃ, yattha sāsavaṃ viññāṇaṃ apariññātaṃ tattha bījattho.

Sīlakkhandho samādhikkhandhassa paccayo, samādhikkhandho paññākkhandhassa paccayo, paññākkhandho vimuttikkhandhassa paccayo, vimuttikkhandho vimuttiñāṇadassanakkhandhassa paccayo. Titthaññutā pītaññutāya paccayo, pītaññutā pattaññutāya paccayo, pattaññutā attaññutāya paccayo.

Yathā vā pana cakkhuñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññāṇaṃ. Tattha cakkhu ādhipateyyapaccayatāya paccayo, rūpā ārammaṇapaccayatāya paccayo. Āloko sannissayatāya paccayo, manasikāro sabhāvo hetu . Saṅkhārā viññāṇassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Nāmarūpaṃ saḷāyatanassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Saḷāyatanaṃ phassassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Phasso vedanāya paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Vedanā taṇhāya paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Taṇhā upādānassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Upādānaṃ bhavassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Bhavo jātiyā paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Jāti jarāmaraṇassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Jarāmaraṇaṃ sokassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Soko paridevassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Paridevo dukkhassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Dukkhaṃ domanassassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Domanassaṃ upāyāsassa paccayo, sabhāvo hetu. Evaṃ yo koci upanissayo sabbo so parikkhāro. Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘ye dhammā yaṃ dhammaṃ janayantī’’ti.

Niyutto parikkhāro hāro.

16. Samāropanahāravibhaṅgo

50. Tattha katamo samāropano hāro? ‘‘Ye dhammā yaṃmūlā, ye cekatthā pakāsitā muninā’’ti.

Ekasmiṃ padaṭṭhāne yattakāni padaṭṭhānāni otaranti, sabbāni tāni samāropayitabbāni. Yathā āvaṭṭe hāre bahukāni padaṭṭhānāni otarantīti. Tattha samāropanā catubbidhā padaṭṭhānaṃ, vevacanaṃ, bhāvanā, pahānamiti.

Tattha katamā padaṭṭhānena samāropanā?

‘‘Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā;

Sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsana’’nti.

Tassa kiṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ? Tīṇi sucaritāni – kāyasucaritaṃ vacīsucaritaṃ manosucaritaṃ – idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ; tattha yaṃ kāyikañca vācasikañca sucaritaṃ, ayaṃ sīlakkhandho. Manosucarite yā anabhijjhā abyāpādo ca, ayaṃ samādhikkhandho. Yā sammādiṭṭhi, ayaṃ paññākkhandho. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, tattha sīlakkhandho ca samādhikkhandho ca samatho, paññākkhandho vipassanā. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, tattha samathassa phalaṃ rāgavirāgā cetovimutti, vipassanā phalaṃ avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ.

Vanaṃ vanathassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. Kiñca vanaṃ? Ko ca vanatho? Vanaṃ nāma pañca kāmaguṇā, taṇhā vanatho. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vanaṃ nāma nimittaggāho ‘‘itthī’’ti vā ‘‘puriso’’ti vā. Vanatho nāma tesaṃ tesaṃ aṅgapaccaṅgānaṃ anubyañjanaggāho ‘‘aho cakkhu, aho sotaṃ, aho ghānaṃ, aho jivhā, aho kāyo, iti. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vanaṃ nāma cha ajjhattikabāhirāni āyatanāni apariññātāni. Yaṃ tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ, ayaṃ vanatho. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Vanaṃ nāma anusayo. Vanatho nāma pariyuṭṭhānaṃ. Idaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘chetvā vanañca vanathañcā’’ti. Ayaṃ padaṭṭhānena samāropanā.

51. Tattha katamā vevacanena samāropanā? Rāgavirāgā cetovimutti sekkhaphalaṃ; avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti asekkhaphalaṃ. Idaṃ vevacanaṃ. Rāgavirāgā cetovimutti anāgāmiphalaṃ; avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti aggaphalaṃ arahattaṃ. Idaṃ vevacanaṃ. Rāgavirāgā cetovimutti kāmadhātusamatikkamanaṃ; avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti tedhātusamatikkamanaṃ. Idaṃ vevacanaṃ. Paññindriyaṃ, paññābalaṃ, adhipaññāsikkhā, paññākkhandho, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo, ñāṇaṃ, sammādiṭṭhi, tīraṇā, santīraṇā, hirī, vipassanā, dhamme ñāṇaṃ, sabbaṃ, idaṃ vevacanaṃ. Ayaṃ vevacanena samāropanā.

Tattha katamā bhāvanāya samāropanā? Yathāha bhagavā ‘‘tasmātiha tvaṃ bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharāhi, ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ’’. Ātāpīti vīriyindriyaṃ. Sampajānoti paññindriyaṃ. Satimāti satindriyaṃ. Vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassanti samādhindriyaṃ. Evaṃ kāye kāyānupassino viharato cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Kena kāraṇena? Ekalakkhaṇattā catunnaṃ indriyānaṃ. Catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu bhāviyamānesu cattāro sammappadhānā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Catūsu sammappadhānesu bhāviyamānesu cattāro iddhipādā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Catūsu iddhipādesu bhāviyamānesu pañcindriyāni bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Evaṃ sabbe . Kena kāraṇena? Sabbe hi bodhaṅgamā dhammā bodhipakkhiyā niyyānikalakkhaṇena ekalakkhaṇā, te ekalakkhaṇattā bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchanti. Ayaṃ bhāvanāya samāropanā.

Tattha katamā pahānena samāropanā? Kāye kāyānupassī viharanto ‘‘asubhe subha’’nti vipallāsaṃ pajahati, kabaḷīkāro cassa āhāro pariññaṃ gacchati, kāmupādānena ca anupādāno bhavati, kāmayogena ca visaṃyutto bhavati, abhijjhākāyaganthena ca vippayujjati, kāmāsavena ca anāsavo bhavati, kāmoghañca uttiṇṇo bhavati, rāgasallena ca visallo bhavati, rūpūpikā [rūpupikā (ka.) evamuparipi] cassa viññāṇaṭṭhiti pariññaṃ gacchati, rūpadhātuyaṃ cassa rāgo pahīno bhavati, na ca chandāgatiṃ gacchati.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharanto ‘‘dukkhe sukha’’nti vipallāsaṃ pajahati, phasso cassa āhāro pariññaṃ gacchati, bhavūpādānena ca anupādāno bhavati, bhavayogena ca visaṃyutto bhavati, byāpādakāyaganthena ca vippayujjati, bhavāsavena ca anāsavo bhavati, bhavoghañca uttiṇṇo bhavati, dosasallena ca visallo bhavati, vedanūpikā cassa viññāṇaṭṭhiti pariññaṃ gacchati, vedanādhātuyaṃ cassa rāgo pahīno bhavati, na ca dosāgatiṃ gacchati.

Citte cittānupassī viharanto ‘‘anicce nicca’’nti vipallāsaṃ pajahati, viññāṇaṃ cassa āhāro pariññaṃ gacchati, diṭṭhupādānena ca anupādāno bhavati, diṭṭhiyogena ca visaṃyutto bhavati, sīlabbataparāmāsakāyaganthena ca vippayujjati, diṭṭhāsavena ca anāsavo bhavati, diṭṭhoghañca uttiṇṇo bhavati, mānasallena ca visallo bhavati, saññūpikā cassa viññāṇaṭṭhiti pariññaṃ gacchati, saññādhātuyaṃ cassa rāgo pahīno bhavati, na ca bhayāgatiṃ gacchati.

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharanto ‘‘anattani [anattaniye (sī.) passa a. ni. 4.49] attā’’ti vipallāsaṃ pajahati, manosañcetanā cassa āhāro pariññaṃ gacchati, attavādupādānena ca anupādāno bhavati, avijjāyogena ca visaṃyutto bhavati, idaṃsaccābhinivesakāyaganthena ca vippayujjati, avijjāsavena ca anāsavo bhavati, avijjoghañca uttiṇṇo bhavati, mohasallena ca visallo bhavati , saṅkhārūpikā cassa viññāṇaṭṭhiti pariññaṃ gacchati, saṅkhāradhātuyaṃ cassa rāgo pahīno bhavati, na ca mohāgatiṃ gacchati. Ayaṃ pahānena samāropanā.

Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano –

‘‘Ye dhammā yaṃ mūlā, ye cekatthā pakāsitā muninā;

Te samāropayitabbā, esa samāropano hāro’’ti.

Niyutto samāropano hāro.

Niṭṭhito ca hāravibhaṅgo.

1. Desanāhārasampāto

52.

‘‘Soḷasa hārā paṭhamaṃ, disalocanato disā viloketvā.

Saṅkhipiya aṅkusena hi, nayehi tīhi niddise sutta’’nti.

Vuttā, tassā niddeso kuhiṃ daṭṭhabbo? Hārasampāte. Tattha katamo desanāhārasampāto?

‘‘Arakkhitena cittena [kāyena (udā. 32)], micchādiṭṭhihatena ca;

Thinamiddhābhibhūtena, vasaṃ mārassa gacchatī’’ti.

Arakkhitena cittenāti kiṃ desayati, pamādaṃ taṃ maccuno padaṃ. Micchādiṭṭhihatena cāti micchādiṭṭhihataṃ nāma vuccati yadā ‘‘anicce nicca’’nti passati, so vipallāso. So pana vipallāso kiṃlakkhaṇo? Viparītaggāhalakkhaṇo vipallāso. So kiṃ vipallāsayati? Tayo dhamme saññaṃ cittaṃ diṭṭhimiti. So kuhiṃ vipallāsayati? Catūsu attabhāvavatthūsu, rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ, attani vā rūpaṃ, rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ. Evaṃ vedanaṃ…pe… saññaṃ…pe… saṅkhāre…pe… viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati, viññāṇavantaṃ vā attānaṃ, attani vā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇasmiṃ vā attānaṃ.

Tattha rūpaṃ paṭhamaṃ vipallāsavatthu ‘‘asubhe subha’’nti. Vedanā dutiyaṃ vipallāsavatthu ‘‘dukkhe sukha’’nti. Saññā saṅkhārā ca tatiyaṃ vipallāsavatthu ‘‘anattani attā’’ti. Viññāṇaṃ catutthaṃ vipallāsavatthu ‘‘anicce nicca’’nti. Dve dhammā cittassa saṃkilesā – taṇhā ca avijjā ca. Taṇhānivutaṃ cittaṃ dvīhi vipallāsehi vipallāsīyati ‘‘asubhe subha’’nti ‘‘dukkhe sukha’’nti. Diṭṭhinivutaṃ cittaṃ dvīhi vipallāsehi vipallāsīyati ‘‘anicce nicca’’nti ‘‘anattani attā’’ti.

Tattha yo diṭṭhivipallāso, so atītaṃ rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, atītaṃ vedanaṃ…pe… atītaṃ saññaṃ, atīte saṅkhāre…pe… atītaṃ viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati. Tattha yo taṇhāvipallāso, so anāgataṃ rūpaṃ abhinandati, anāgataṃ vedanaṃ…pe… anāgataṃ saññaṃ, anāgate saṅkhāre, anāgataṃ viññāṇaṃ abhinandati. Dve dhammā cittassa upakkilesā – taṇhā ca avijjā ca. Tāhi visujjhantaṃ cittaṃ visujjhati. Tesaṃ avijjānīvaraṇānaṃ taṇhāsaṃyojanānaṃ pubbā koṭi na paññāyati sandhāvantānaṃ saṃsarantānaṃ sakiṃ nirayaṃ sakiṃ tiracchānayoniṃ sakiṃ pettivisayaṃ sakiṃ asurakāyaṃ sakiṃ deve sakiṃ manusse.

Thinamiddhābhibhūtenāti. Thinaṃ [thīnaṃ (sī.)] nāma yā cittassa akallatā akammaniyatā; middhaṃ nāma yaṃ kāyassa līnattaṃ. Vasaṃ mārassa gacchatīti kilesamārassa ca sattamārassa ca vasaṃ gacchati, so hi nivuto saṃsārābhimukho hoti. Imāni bhagavatā dve saccāni desitāni dukkhaṃ samudayo ca. Tesaṃ bhagavā pariññāya ca pahānāya ca dhammaṃ deseti dukkhassa pariññāya samudayassa pahānāya. Yena ca parijānāti yena ca pajahati, ayaṃ maggo. Yaṃ taṇhāya avijjāya ca pahānaṃ, ayaṃ nirodho. Imāni cattāri saccāni. Tenāha bhagavā ‘‘arakkhitena cittenā’’ti. Tenāhāyasmā mahākaccāyano ‘‘assādādīnavatā’’ti.

Niyutto desanā hārasampāto.

2. Vicayahārasampāto

53. Tattha katamo vicayo hārasampāto? Tattha taṇhā duvidhā kusalāpi akusalāpi. Akusalā saṃsāragāminī, kusalā apacayagāminī pahānataṇhā. Mānopi duvidho kusalopi akusalopi. Yaṃ mānaṃ nissāya mānaṃ pajahati, ayaṃ māno kusalo. Yo pana māno dukkhaṃ nibbattayati, ayaṃ māno akusalo. Tattha yaṃ nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ kudāssunāmāhaṃ taṃ āyatanaṃ sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissaṃ yaṃ ariyā santaṃ āyatanaṃ sacchikatvā upasampajja viharantīti tassa uppajjati pihā, pihāpaccayā domanassaṃ, ayaṃ taṇhā kusalā rāgavirāgā cetovimutti, tadārammaṇā kusalā avijjāvirāgā paññāvimutti.

Tassā ko pavicayo? Aṭṭha maggaṅgāni sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. So kattha daṭṭhabbo? Catutthe jhāne pāramitāya. Catutthe hi jhāne aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ cittaṃ bhāvayati parisuddhaṃ pariyodātaṃ anaṅgaṇaṃ vigatūpakkilesaṃ mudu kammaniyaṃ ṭhitaṃ āneñjappattaṃ. So tattha aṭṭhavidhaṃ adhigacchati cha abhiññā dve ca visese, taṃ cittaṃ yato parisuddhaṃ, tato pariyodātaṃ, yato pariyodātaṃ , tato anaṅgaṇaṃ, yato anaṅgaṇaṃ, tato vigatūpakkilesaṃ, yato vigatūpakkilesaṃ, tato mudu, yato mudu, tato kammaniyaṃ, yato kammaniyaṃ, tato ṭhitaṃ, yato ṭhitaṃ, tato āneñjappattaṃ. Tattha aṅgaṇā ca upakkilesā ca tadubhayaṃ taṇhāpakkho. Yā ca iñjanā yā ca cittassa aṭṭhiti, ayaṃ diṭṭhipakkho.

Cattāri indriyāni dukkhindriyaṃ domanassindriyaṃ sukhindriyaṃ somanassindriyañca catutthajjhāne nirujjhanti, tassa upekkhindriyaṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ bhavati. So uparimaṃ samāpattiṃ santato manasikaroti, tassa uparimaṃ samāpattiṃ santato manasikaroto catutthajjhāne oḷārikā saññā saṇṭhahati ukkaṇṭhā ca paṭighasaññā, so sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘‘anantaṃ ākāsa’’nti ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiṃ sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Abhiññābhinīhāro rūpasaññā vokāro nānattasaññā samatikkamati paṭighasaññā cassa abbhatthaṃ gacchati, evaṃ samādhi tassa samāhitassa obhāso antaradhāyati dassanañca rūpānaṃ, so samādhi chaḷaṅgasamannāgato paccavekkhitabbo . Anabhijjhāsahagataṃ me mānasaṃ sabbaloke, abyāpannaṃ me cittaṃ sabbasattesu, āraddhaṃ me vīriyaṃ paggahitaṃ, passaddho me kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ me cittaṃ avikkhittaṃ, upaṭṭhitā me sati asammuṭṭhā [appammuṭṭhā (sī.)], tattha yañca anabhijjhāsahagataṃ mānasaṃ sabbaloke yañca abyāpannaṃ cittaṃ sabbasattesu yañca āraddhaṃ vīriyaṃ paggahitaṃ yañca samāhitaṃ cittaṃ avikkhittaṃ, ayaṃ samatho. Yo passaddho kāyo asāraddho, ayaṃ samādhiparikkhāro. Yā upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā ayaṃ vipassanā.

54. So samādhi pañcavidhena veditabbo. Ayaṃ samādhi ‘‘paccuppannasukho’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi ‘‘āyatiṃ sukhavipāko’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi ‘‘ariyo nirāmiso’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi ‘‘akāpurisasevito’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi ‘‘santo ceva paṇīto ca paṭippassaddhiladdho ca ekodibhāvādhigato ca na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato [sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritavato (sī.), sasaṅkhāraniggayhavārivāvaṭo (ka.)] cā’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati. Taṃ kho panimaṃ samādhiṃ ‘‘sato samāpajjāmi sato vuṭṭhahāmī’’ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati. Tattha yo ca samādhi paccuppannasukho yo ca samādhi āyatiṃ sukhavipāko ayaṃ samatho. Yo ca samādhi ariyo nirāmiso, yo ca samādhi akāpurisasevito, yo ca samādhi santo ceva paṇīto paṭippassaddhiladdho ca ekodibhāvādhigato ca na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato ca yañcāhaṃ taṃ kho panimaṃ samādhiṃ sato samāpajjāmi sato vuṭṭhahāmīti, ayaṃ vipassanā.

So samādhi pañcavidhena veditabbo pītipharaṇatā sukhapharaṇatā cetopharaṇatā ālokapharaṇatā paccavekkhaṇānimittaṃ. Tattha yo ca pītipharaṇo yo ca sukhapharaṇo yo ca cetopharaṇo, ayaṃ samatho. Yo ca ālokapharaṇo yañca paccavekkhaṇānimittaṃ. Ayaṃ vipassanā.

55. Dasa kasiṇāyatanāni pathavīkasiṇaṃ āpokasiṇaṃ tejokasiṇaṃ vāyokasiṇaṃ nīlakasiṇaṃ pītakasiṇaṃ lohitakasiṇaṃ odātakasiṇaṃ ākāsakasiṇaṃ viññāṇakasiṇaṃ. Tattha yañca pathavīkasiṇaṃ yañca āpokasiṇaṃ evaṃ sabbaṃ, yañca odātakasiṇaṃ. Imāni aṭṭha kasiṇāni samatho. Yañca ākāsakasiṇaṃ yañca viññāṇakasiṇaṃ, ayaṃ vipassanā. Evaṃ sabbo ariyo maggo yena yena ākārena vutto, tena tena samathavipassanena yojayitabbo. Te tīhi dhammehi saṅgahitā aniccatāya dukkhatāya anattatāya. So samathavipassanaṃ bhāvayamāno tīṇi vimokkhamukhāni bhāvayati. Tīṇi vimokkhamukhāni bhāvayanto tayo khandhe bhāvayati. Tayo khandhe bhāvayanto ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvayati.

Rāgacarito puggalo animittena vimokkhamukhena niyyāti [nīyāti (sī.)] adhicittasikkhāya sikkhanto lobhaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pajahanto sukhavedanīyaṃ phassaṃ anupagacchanto sukhaṃ vedanaṃ parijānanto rāgamalaṃ pavāhento rāgarajaṃ niddhunanto rāgavisaṃ vamento rāgaggiṃ nibbāpento rāgasallaṃ uppāṭento rāgajaṭaṃ vijaṭento. Dosacarito puggalo appaṇihitena vimokkhamukhena niyyāti adhisīlasikkhāya sikkhanto dosaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pajahanto dukkhavedanīyaṃ phassaṃ anupagacchanto dukkhavedanaṃ parijānanto dosamalaṃ pavāhento dosarajaṃ niddhunanto dosavisaṃ vamento dosaggiṃ nibbāpento dosasallaṃ uppāṭento dosajaṭaṃ vijaṭento. Mohacarito puggalo suññatavimokkhamukhena niyyāti adhipaññāsikkhāya sikkhanto mohaṃ akusalamūlaṃ pajahanto adukkhamasukhavedanīyaṃ phassaṃ anupagacchanto adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ parijānanto mohamalaṃ pavāhento moharajaṃ niddhunanto mohavisaṃ vamento mohaggiṃ nibbāpento mohasallaṃ uppāṭento mohajaṭaṃ vijaṭento.

Tattha suññatavimokkhamukhaṃ paññākkhandho, animittavimokkhamukhaṃ samādhikkhandho, appaṇihitavimokkhamukhaṃ sīlakkhandho. So tīṇi vimokkhamukhāni bhāvayanto tayo khandhe bhāvayati, tayo khandhe bhāvayanto ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvayati. Tattha yā ca sammāvācā yo ca sammākammanto yo ca sammāājīvo, ayaṃ sīlakkhandho, yo ca sammāvāyāmo yā ca sammāsati yo ca sammāsamādhi, ayaṃ samādhikkhandho, yā ca sammādiṭṭhi yo ca sammāsaṅkappo, ayaṃ paññākkhandho.

Tattha sīlakkhandho ca samādhikkhandho ca samatho, paññākkhandho vipassanā. Yo samathavipassanaṃ bhāveti, tassa dve bhavaṅgāni bhāvanaṃ gacchanti kāyo cittañca, bhavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā dve padāni sīlaṃ samādhi ca. So hoti bhikkhu bhāvitakāyo bhāvitasīlo bhāvitacitto bhāvitapañño. Kāye bhāviyamāne dve dhammā bhāvanaṃ gacchanti sammākammanto sammāvāyāmo ca, sīle bhāviyamāne dve dhammā bhāvanaṃ gacchanti sammāvācā sammāājīvo ca, citte bhāviyamāne dve dhammā bhāvanaṃ gacchanti sammāsati sammāsamādhi ca, paññāya bhāviyamānāya dve dhammā bhāvanaṃ gacchanti sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo ca.

Tattha yo ca sammākammanto yo ca sammāvāyāmo siyā kāyiko siyā cetasiko, tattha yo kāyasaṅgaho, so kāye bhāvite bhāvanaṃ gacchati, yo cittasaṅgaho, so citte bhāvite bhāvanaṃ gacchati. So samathavipassanaṃ bhāvayanto pañcavidhaṃ adhigamaṃ gacchati [adhigacchati (sī.)] khippādhigamo ca hoti, vimuttādhigamo ca hoti, mahādhigamo ca hoti, vipulādhigamo ca hoti, anavasesādhigamo ca hoti. Tattha samathena khippādhigamo ca mahādhigamo ca vipulādhigamo ca hoti, vipassanāya vimuttādhigamo ca anavasesādhigamo ca hoti.

56. Tattha yo desayati, so dasabalasamannāgato satthā ovādena sāvake na visaṃvādayati. So tividhaṃ idaṃ karotha iminā upāyena karotha idaṃ vo kurumānānaṃ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati, so tathā ovadito tathānusiṭṭho tathākaronto tathāpaṭipajjanto taṃ bhūmiṃ na pāpuṇissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. So tathā ovadito tathānusiṭṭho sīlakkhandhaṃ aparipūrayanto taṃ bhūmiṃ anupāpuṇissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. So tathā ovadito tathānusiṭṭho sīlakkhandhaṃ paripūrayanto taṃ bhūmiṃ anupāpuṇissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

Sammāsambuddhassa te sato ime dhammā anabhisambuddhāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Sabbāsavaparikkhīṇassa te sato ime āsavā aparikkhīṇāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Yassa te atthāya dhammo desito, so na niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Sāvako kho pana te dhammānudhammappaṭipanno sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī so pubbena aparaṃ uḷāraṃ visesādhigamaṃ na sacchikarissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.

Ye kho pana dhammā antarāyikā, te paṭisevato nālaṃ antarāyāyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Ye kho pana dhammā aniyyānikā, te niyyanti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Ye kho pana dhammā niyyānikā, te niyyanti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Sāvako kho pana te saupādiseso anupādisesaṃ nibbānadhātuṃ anupāpuṇissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.

Diṭṭhisampanno mātaraṃ jīvitā voropeyya hatthehi vā pādehi vā suhataṃ kareyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puthujjano mātaraṃ jīvitā voropeyya hatthehi vā pādehi vā suhataṃ kareyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Evaṃ pitaraṃ, arahantaṃ, bhikkhuṃ. Diṭṭhisampanno puggalo saṅghaṃ bhindeyya saṅghe vā saṅgharājiṃ janeyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puthujjano saṅghaṃ bhindeyya saṅghe vā saṅgharājiṃ janeyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati, diṭṭhisampanno tathāgatassa duṭṭhacitto lohitaṃ uppādeyya, parinibbutassa vā tathāgatassa duṭṭhacitto thūpaṃ bhindeyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Puthujjano tathāgatassa duṭṭhacitto lohitaṃ uppādeyya, parinibbutassa vā tathāgatassa duṭṭhacitto thūpaṃ bhindeyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Diṭṭhisampanno aññaṃ satthāraṃ apadiseyya api jīvitahetūti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puthujjano aññaṃ satthāraṃ apadiseyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Diṭṭhisampanno ito bahiddhā aññaṃ dakkhiṇeyyaṃ pariyeseyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puthujjano ito bahiddhā aññaṃ dakkhiṇeyyaṃ pariyeseyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati, diṭṭhisampanno kutūhalamaṅgalena suddhiṃ pacceyyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Puthujjano kutūhalamaṅgalena suddhiṃ pacceyyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

57. Itthī rājā cakkavattī siyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso rājā cakkavattī siyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati; itthī sakko devānamindo siyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso sakko devānamindo siyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati; itthī māro pāpimā siyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso māro pāpimā siyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati; itthī mahābrahmā siyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso mahābrahmā siyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati; itthī tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho siyāti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, puriso tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho siyāti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

Dve tathāgatā arahanto sammāsambuddhā apubbaṃ acarimaṃ ekissā lokadhātuyā uppajjeyyuṃ vā dhammaṃ vā deseyyunti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, ekova tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho ekissā lokadhātuyā uppajjissati vā dhammaṃ vā desessatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

Tiṇṇaṃ duccaritānaṃ iṭṭho kanto piyo manāpo vipāko bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, tiṇṇaṃ duccaritānaṃ aniṭṭho akanto appiyo amanāpo vipāko bhavissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati . Tiṇṇaṃ sucaritānaṃ aniṭṭho akanto appiyo amanāpo vipāko bhavissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, tiṇṇaṃ sucaritānaṃ iṭṭho kanto piyo manāpo vipāko bhavissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati.

Aññataro samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā kuhako lapako nemittako kuhanalapananemittakattaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ katvā pañca nīvaraṇe appahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu anupaṭṭhitassati [anupaṭṭhitasati (sī.)] viharanto satta bojjhaṅge abhāvayitvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, aññataro samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā sabbadosāpagato pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu upaṭṭhitassati viharanto satta bojjhaṅge bhāvayitvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhissatīti ṭhānametaṃ vijjati. Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso idaṃ vuccati ṭhānāṭṭhānañāṇaṃ paṭhamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

Iti ṭhānāṭṭhānagatā sabbe khayadhammā vayadhammā virāgadhammā nirodhadhammā keci saggūpagā keci apāyūpagā keci nibbānūpagā, evaṃ bhagavā āha –

58.

Sabbe sattā [passa saṃ. ni. 1.133] marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ.

Yathākammaṃ gamissanti, puññapāpaphalūpagā;

Nirayaṃ pāpakammantā, puññakammā ca suggatiṃ;

Apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavāti [parinibbanti anāsavāti (sī. ka.)].

Sabbesattāti ariyā ca anariyā ca sakkāyapariyāpannā ca sakkāyavītivattā ca. Marissantīti dvīhi maraṇehi dandhamaraṇena ca adandhamaraṇena ca, sakkāyapariyāpannānaṃ adandhamaraṇaṃ sakkāyavītivattānaṃ dandhamaraṇaṃ. Maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitanti khayā āyussa indriyānaṃ uparodhā jīvitapariyanto maraṇapariyanto. Yathākammaṃ gamissantīti kammassakatā. Puññapāpaphalūpagāti kammānaṃ phaladassāvitā ca avippavāso ca.

Nirayaṃ pāpakammantāti apuññasaṅkhārā. Puññakammā ca suggatinti puññasaṅkhārā sugatiṃ gamissanti. Apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavāti sabbasaṅkhārānaṃ samatikkamanaṃ. Tenāha bhagavā – ‘‘sabbe…pe… nāsavā’’ti.

‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ. Yathākammaṃ gamissanti, puññapāpaphalūpagā. Nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti āgāḷhā ca nijjhāmā ca paṭipadā. ‘‘Apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavā’’ti majjhimā paṭipadā. ‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ, yathākammaṃ gamissanti, puññapāpaphalūpagā, nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti ayaṃ saṃkileso. Evaṃ saṃsāraṃ nibbattayati. ‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti…pe… nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti ime tayo vaṭṭā dukkhavaṭṭo kammavaṭṭo kilesavaṭṭo. ‘‘Apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavā’’ti tiṇṇaṃ vaṭṭānaṃ vivaṭṭanā. ‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti…pe… nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti ādīnavo, ‘‘puññakammā ca suggati’’nti assādo, ‘‘apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavā’’ti nissaraṇaṃ. ‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti…pe… nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti hetu ca phalañca, pañcakkhandhā phalaṃ, taṇhā hetu, ‘‘apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavā’’ti maggo ca phalañca. ‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ. Yathākammaṃ gamissanti, puññapāpaphalūpagā, nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti ayaṃ saṃkileso, so saṃkileso tividho taṇhāsaṃkileso diṭṭhisaṃkileso duccaritasaṃkilesoti.

59. Tattha taṇhāsaṃkileso tīhi taṇhāhi niddisitabbo – kāmataṇhāya bhavataṇhāya vibhavataṇhāya. Yena yena vā pana vatthunā ajjhosito, tena teneva niddisitabbo, tassā vitthāro chattiṃsāya taṇhāya jāliniyā vicaritāni. Tattha diṭṭhisaṃkileso ucchedasassatena niddisitabbo, yena yena vā pana vatthunā diṭṭhivasena abhinivisati, ‘‘idameva saccaṃ moghamañña’’nti tena teneva niddisitabbo, tassā vitthāro dvāsaṭṭhi diṭṭhigatāni. Tattha duccaritasaṃkileso cetanā cetasikakammena niddisitabbo, tīhi duccaritehi kāyaduccaritena vacīduccaritena manoduccaritena, tassā vitthāro dasa akusalakammapathā. Apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavāti idaṃ vodānaṃ.

Tayidaṃ vodānaṃ tividhaṃ; taṇhāsaṃkileso samathena visujjhati, so samatho samādhikkhandho, diṭṭhisaṃkileso vipassanāya visujjhati, sā vipassanā paññākkhandho, duccaritasaṃkileso sucaritena visujjhati, taṃ sucaritaṃ sīlakkhandho.

‘‘Sabbe sattā marissanti, maraṇantaṃ hi jīvitaṃ, yathākammaṃ gamissanti, puññapāpaphalūpagā, nirayaṃ pāpakammantā’’ti apuññappaṭipadā, ‘‘puññakammā ca suggati’’nti puññappaṭipadā, ‘‘apare ca maggaṃ bhāvetvā, parinibbantināsavā’’ti puññapāpasamatikkamappaṭipadā, tattha yā ca puññappaṭipadā yā ca apuññappaṭipadā, ayaṃ ekā paṭipadā sabbatthagāminī ekā apāyesu, ekā devesu, yā ca puññapāpasamatikkamā paṭipadā ayaṃ tattha tattha gāminī paṭipadā.

Tayo rāsī – micchattaniyato rāsi, sammattaniyato rāsi, aniyato rāsi, tattha yo ca micchattaniyato rāsi yo ca sammattaniyato rāsi ekā paṭipadā tattha tattha gāminī, tattha yo aniyato rāsi, ayaṃ sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā. Kena kāraṇena? Paccayaṃ labhanto niraye upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto tiracchānayonīsu upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto pettivisayesu upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto asuresu upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto devesu upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto manussesu upapajjeyya, paccayaṃ labhanto parinibbāyeyya, tasmāyaṃ sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā, yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso, idaṃ vuccati sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā ñāṇaṃ dutiyaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

Iti sabbatthagāminī paṭipadā anekadhātuloko, tattha tattha gāminī paṭipadā nānādhātuloko. Tattha katamo anekadhātuloko? Cakkhudhātu rūpadhātu cakkhuviññāṇadhātu, sotadhātu saddadhātu sotaviññāṇadhātu, ghānadhātu gandhadhātu ghānaviññāṇadhātu, jivhādhātu rasadhātu jivhāviññāṇadhātu, kāyadhātu phoṭṭhabbadhātu kāyaviññāṇadhātu, manodhātu dhammadhātu manoviññāṇadhātu, pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu, ākāsadhātu, viññāṇadhātu, kāmadhātu, byāpādadhātu, vihiṃsādhātu, nekkhammadhātu, abyāpādadhātu, avihiṃsādhātu, dukkhadhātu, domanassadhātu , avijjādhātu, sukhadhātu, somanassadhātu, upekkhādhātu, rūpadhātu, arūpadhātu, nirodhadhātu, saṅkhāradhātu, nibbānadhātu, ayaṃ anekadhātuloko.

Tattha katamo nānādhātuloko? Aññā cakkhudhātu, aññā rūpadhātu, aññā cakkhuviññāṇadhātu. Evaṃ sabbā. Aññā nibbānadhātu. Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso, idaṃ vuccati anekadhātu nānādhātu ñāṇaṃ tatiyaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

60. Iti anekadhātu nānādhātukassa lokassa yaṃ yadeva dhātuṃ sattā adhimuccanti, taṃ tadeva adhiṭṭhahanti abhinivisanti, keci rūpādhimuttā, keci saddādhimuttā, keci gandhādhimuttā, keci rasādhimuttā, keci phoṭṭhabbādhimuttā, keci dhammādhimuttā, keci itthādhimuttā, keci purisādhimuttā, keci cāgādhimuttā, keci hīnādhimuttā , keci paṇītādhimuttā, keci devādhimuttā, keci manussādhimuttā, keci nibbānādhimuttā. Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso, ayaṃ veneyyo, ayaṃ na veneyyo, ayaṃ saggagāmī, ayaṃ duggatigāmīti, idaṃ vuccati sattānaṃ nānādhimuttikatā ñāṇaṃ catutthaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

Iti te yathādhimuttā ca bhavanti, taṃ taṃ kammasamādānaṃ samādiyanti. Te chabbidhaṃ kammaṃ samādiyanti – keci lobhavasena, keci dosavasena, keci mohavasena, keci saddhāvasena, keci vīriyavasena, keci paññāvasena. Taṃ vibhajjamānaṃ duvidhaṃ – saṃsāragāmi ca nibbānagāmi ca.

Tattha yaṃ lobhavasena dosavasena mohavasena ca kammaṃ karoti, idaṃ kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇhavipākaṃ. Tattha yaṃ saddhāvasena kammaṃ karoti, idaṃ kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukkavipākaṃ. Tattha yaṃ lobhavasena dosavasena mohavasena saddhāvasena ca kammaṃ karoti, idaṃ kammaṃ kaṇhasukkaṃ kaṇhasukkavipākaṃ. Tattha yaṃ vīriyavasena paññāvasena ca kammaṃ karoti, idaṃ kammaṃ akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ akaṇhaasukkavipākaṃ kammuttamaṃ kammaseṭṭhaṃ kammakkhayāya saṃvattati.

Cattāri kammasamādānāni. Atthi kammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhaṃ āyatiṃ dukkhavipākaṃ, atthi kammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhaṃ āyatiṃ sukhavipākaṃ, atthi kammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhañceva āyatiṃ ca dukkhavipākaṃ, atthi kammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhañceva āyatiṃ ca sukhavipākaṃ. Yaṃ evaṃ jātiyaṃ kammasamādānaṃ, iminā puggalena akusalakammasamādānaṃ upacitaṃ avipakkaṃ vipākāya paccupaṭṭhitaṃ na ca bhabbo abhinibbidhā gantunti taṃ bhagavā na ovadati. Yathā devadattaṃ kokālikaṃ sunakkhattaṃ licchaviputtaṃ, ye vā panaññepi sattā micchattaniyatā imesañca puggalānaṃ upacitaṃ akusalaṃ na ca tāva pāripūriṃ gataṃ, purā pāripūriṃ gacchati. Purā phalaṃ nibbattayati, purā maggamāvārayati, purā veneyyattaṃ samatikkamatīti te bhagavā asamatte ovadati. Yathā puṇṇañca govatikaṃ acelañca kukkuravatikaṃ.

61. Imassa ca puggalassa akusalakammasamādānaṃ paripūramānaṃ maggaṃ āvārayissati purā pāripūriṃ gacchati, purā phalaṃ nibbattayati, purā maggamāvārayati, purā veneyyattaṃ samatikkamatīti taṃ bhagavā asamattaṃ ovadati. Yathā āyasmantaṃ aṅgulimālaṃ.

Sabbesaṃ mudumajjhādhimattatā. Tattha mudu āneñjābhisaṅkhārā majjhaṃ avasesakusalasaṅkhārā, adhimattaṃ akusalasaṅkhārā, yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso, idaṃ diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ upapajjavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ aparāpariyavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ nirayavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ tiracchānavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ pettivisayavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ asuravedanīyaṃ, idaṃ devavedanīyaṃ, idaṃ manussavedanīyanti, idaṃ vuccati atītānāgatapaccuppannānaṃ kammasamādānānaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso vipākavemattatā ñāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

62. Iti tathā samādinnānaṃ kammānaṃ samādinnānaṃ jhānānaṃ vimokkhānaṃ samādhīnaṃ samāpattīnaṃ ayaṃ saṃkileso, idaṃ vodānaṃ, idaṃ vuṭṭhānaṃ, evaṃ saṃkilissati, evaṃ vodāyati, evaṃ vuṭṭhahatīti ñāṇaṃ anāvaraṇaṃ.

Tattha kati jhānāni? Cattāri jhānāni. Kati vimokkhā? Ekādasa ca aṭṭha ca satta ca tayo ca dve ca. Kati samādhī? Tayo samādhī – savitakko savicāro samādhi, avitakko vicāramatto samādhi, avitakko avicāro samādhi. Kati samāpattiyo? Pañca samāpattiyo – saññāsamāpatti asaññāsamāpatti nevasaññānāsaññāsamāpatti vibhūtasaññāsamāpatti [vibhūtasamāpatti (sī. ka.)] nirodhasamāpatti.

Tattha katamo saṃkileso? Paṭhamajjhānassa kāmarāgabyāpādā saṃkileso. Ye ca kukkuṭajhāyī dve paṭhamakā yo vā pana koci hānabhāgiyo samādhi, ayaṃ saṃkileso. Tattha katamaṃ vodānaṃ, nīvaraṇapārisuddhi, paṭhamassa jhānassa ye ca kukkuṭajhāyī dve pacchimakā yo vā pana koci visesabhāgiyo samādhi, idaṃ vodānaṃ. Tattha katamaṃ vuṭṭhānaṃ? Yaṃ samāpattivuṭṭhānakosallaṃ, idaṃ vuṭṭhānaṃ. Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso, idaṃ vuccati sabbesaṃ jhānavimokkhasamādhisamāpattīnaṃ saṃkilesavodānavuṭṭhānañāṇaṃ chaṭṭhaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

63. Iti tasseva samādhissa tayo dhammā parivārā indriyāni balāni vīriyamiti, tāniyeva indriyāni vīriyavasena balāni bhavanti, ādhipateyyaṭṭhena indriyāni, akampiyaṭṭhena balāni, iti tesaṃ mudumajjhādhimattatā ayaṃ mudindriyo ayaṃ majjhindriyo ayaṃ tikkhindriyoti. Tattha bhagavā tikkhindriyaṃ saṃkhittena ovādena ovadati, majjhindriyaṃ bhagavā saṃkhittavitthārena ovadati, mudindriyaṃ bhagavā vitthārena ovadati. Tattha bhagavā tikkhindriyassa mudukaṃ dhammadesanaṃ upadisati, majjhindriyassa bhagavā mudutikkhadhammadesanaṃ upadisati, mudindriyassa bhagavā tikkhaṃ dhammadesanaṃ upadisati. Tattha bhagavā tikkhindriyassa samathaṃ upadisati, majjhindriyassa bhagavā samathavipassanaṃ upadisati, mudindriyassa bhagavā vipassanaṃ upadisati. Tattha bhagavā tikkhindriyassa nissaraṇaṃ upadisati, majjhindriyassa bhagavā ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca upadisati, mudindriyassa bhagavā assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca upadisati. Tattha bhagavā tikkhindriyassa adhipaññāsikkhāya paññāpayati, majjhindriyassa bhagavā adhicittasikkhāya paññāpayati, mudindriyassa bhagavā adhisīlasikkhāya paññāpayati.

Yaṃ ettha ñāṇaṃ hetuso ṭhānaso anodhiso ayaṃ imaṃ bhūmiṃ bhāvanañca gato, imāya velāya imāya anusāsaniyā evaṃ dhātuko cāyaṃ ayaṃ cassa āsayo ayañca anusayo iti, idaṃ vuccati parasattānaṃ parapuggalānaṃ indriyaparopariyattavemattatā ñāṇaṃ sattamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

Iti tattha yaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. Seyyathidaṃ, ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṃsampi jātiyo cattārīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekānipi jātisatāni anekānipi jātisahassāni anekānipi jātisatasahassāni anekepi saṃvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe. Amutrāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṃ. Tatrāpāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapannoti, iti sākāraṃ sauddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati.

64. Tattha saggūpagesu ca sattesu manussūpagesu ca sattesu apāyūpagesu ca sattesu imassa puggalassa lobhādayo ussannā alobhādayo mandā, imassa puggalassa alobhādayo ussannā lobhādayo mandā, ye vā pana ussannā ye vā pana mandā imassa puggalassa imāni indriyāni upacitāni imassa puggalassa imāni indriyāni anupacitāni amukāya vā kappakoṭiyaṃ kappasatasahasse vā kappasahasse vā kappasate vā kappe vā antarakappe vā upaḍḍhakappe vā saṃvacchare vā upaḍḍhasaṃvacchare vā māse vā pakkhe vā divase vā muhutte vā iminā pamādena vā pasādena vāti. Taṃ taṃ bhavaṃ bhagavā anussaranto asesaṃ jānāti, tattha yaṃ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannā.

Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannā, tattha saggūpagesu ca sattesu manussūpagesu ca sattesu apāyūpagesu ca sattesu iminā puggalena evarūpaṃ kammaṃ amukāya kappakoṭiyaṃ upacitaṃ kappasatasahasse vā kappasahasse vā kappasate vā kappe vā antarakappe vā upaḍḍhakappe vā saṃvacchare vā upaḍḍhasaṃvacchare vā māse vā pakkhe vā divase vā muhutte vā iminā pamādena vā pasādena vāti. Imāni bhagavato dve ñāṇāni – pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇañca dibbacakkhu ca aṭṭhamaṃ navamaṃ tathāgatabalaṃ.

Iti tattha yaṃ sabbaññutā pattā viditā sabbadhammā virajaṃ vītamalaṃ uppannaṃ sabbaññutañāṇaṃ nihato māro bodhimūle, idaṃ bhagavato dasamaṃ balaṃ sabbāsavaparikkhayaṃ ñāṇaṃ. Dasabalasamannāgatā hi buddhā bhagavantoti.

Niyutto vicayo hārasampāto.

3. Yuttihārasampāto

65.

Tattha katamo yuttihārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro;

Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro, ñatvāna udayabbayaṃ;

Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhu, sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti.

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti rakkhitacittassa sammāsaṅkappagocaro bhavissatīti yujjati, sammāsaṅkappagocaro sammādiṭṭhi bhavissatīti yujjati, sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro viharanto udayabbayaṃ paṭivijjhissatīti yujjati, udayabbayaṃ paṭivijjhanto sabbā duggatiyo jahissatīti yujjati. Sabbā duggatiyo jahanto sabbāni duggativinipātabhayāni samatikkamissatīti yujjatīti.

Niyutto yuttihārasampāto.

4. Padaṭṭhānahārasampāto

66. Tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassā’’ti tiṇṇaṃ sucaritānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti samathassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro’’ti vipassanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Ñatvāna udayabbaya’’nti dassanabhūmiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhū’’ti vīriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti bhāvanāya padaṭṭhānaṃ.

Niyutto padaṭṭhāno hārasampāto.

5. Lakkhaṇahārasampāto

67. Tattha katamo lakkhaṇo hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti idaṃ satindriyaṃ, satindriye gahite gahitāni bhavanti pañcindriyāni. ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro’’ti sammādiṭṭhiyā gahitāya gahito bhavati ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Taṃ kissa hetu? Sammādiṭṭhito hi sammāsaṅkappo pabhavati, sammāsaṅkappato sammāvācā pabhavati, sammāvācāto sammākammanto pabhavati, sammākammantato sammāājīvo pabhavati, sammāājīvato sammāvāyāmo pabhavati, sammāvāyāmato sammāsati pabhavati, sammāsatito sammāsamādhi pabhavati, sammāsamādhito sammāvimutti pabhavati, sammāvimuttito sammāvimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ pabhavati.

Niyutto lakkhaṇo hārasampāto.

6. Catubyūhahārasampāto

68. Tattha katamo catubyūho hārasampāto.

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassā’’ti rakkhitaṃ paripālīyatīti esā nirutti. Idha bhagavato ko adhippāyo? Ye duggatīhi parimuccitukāmā bhavissanti, te dhammacārino bhavissantīti ayaṃ ettha bhagavato adhippāyo. Kokāliko hi sāriputtamoggallānesu theresu cittaṃ padosayitvā mahāpadumaniraye upapanno. Bhagavā ca satiārakkhena cetasā samannāgato, suttamhi vuttaṃ ‘‘satiyā cittaṃ rakkhitabba’’nti.

Niyutto catubyūho hārasampāto.

7. Āvaṭṭahārasampāto

69. Tattha katamo āvaṭṭo hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti samatho [ayaṃ samatho (sī. ka.)]. ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro’’ti vipassanā. ‘‘Ñatvāna udayabbaya’’nti dukkhapariññā. ‘‘Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhū’’ti samudayapahānaṃ. ‘‘Sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti nirodho [ayaṃ nirodho (sī. ka.)]. Imāni cattāri saccāni.

Niyutto āvaṭṭo hārasampāto.

8. Vibhattihārasampāto

70. Tattha katamo vibhattihārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. Kusalapakkho kusalapakkhena niddisitabbo. Akusalapakkho akusalapakkhena niddisitabbo.

Niyutto vibhattihārasampāto.

9. Parivattanahārasampāto

71. Tattha katamo parivattano hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. Samathavipassanāya bhāvitāya nirodho phalaṃ, pariññātaṃ dukkhaṃ, samudayo pahīno, maggo bhāvito paṭipakkhena.

Niyutto parivattano hārasampāto.

10. Vevacanahārasampāto

72. Tattha katamo vevacano hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassā’’ti cittaṃ mano viññāṇaṃ manindriyaṃ manāyatanaṃ vijānanā vijānitattaṃ, idaṃ vevacanaṃ. ‘‘Sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti nekkhammasaṅkappo abyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṃsāsaṅkappo, idaṃ vevacanaṃ. ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro’’ti sammādiṭṭhi nāma paññāsatthaṃ paññākhaggo paññāratanaṃ paññāpajjoto paññāpatodo paññāpāsādo, idaṃ vevacanaṃ.

Niyutto vevacano hārasampāto.

11. Paññattihārasampāto

73. Tattha katamo paññattihārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassā’’ti padaṭṭhānapaññatti satiyā. ‘‘Sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti bhāvanāpaññatti samathassa. ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro, ñatvāna udayabbaya’’nti dassanabhūmiyā nikkhepapaññatti. ‘‘Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhū’’ti samudayassa anavasesappahānapaññatti, ‘‘sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti bhāvanāpaññatti maggassa.

Niyutto paññattihārasampāto.

12. Otaraṇahārasampāto

74. Tattha katamo otaraṇo hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. ‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ . ‘‘Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro’’ti sammādiṭṭhiyā gahitāya gahitāni bhavanti pañcindriyāni, ayaṃ indriyehi otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva indriyāni vijjā, vijjuppādā avijjānirodho, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho, evaṃ sabbaṃ, ayaṃ paṭiccasamuppādena otaraṇā.

Tāniyeva pañcindriyāni tīhi khandhehi saṅgahitāni – sīlakkhandhena samādhikkhandhena paññākkhandhena. Ayaṃ khandhehi otaraṇā.

Tāni yeva pañcindriyāni saṅkhārapariyāpannāni. Ye saṅkhārā anāsavā no ca bhavaṅgā, te saṅkhārā dhammadhātusaṅgahitā, ayaṃ dhātūhi otaraṇā.

Sā dhammadhātu dhammāyatanapariyāpannā, yaṃ āyatanaṃ anāsavaṃ no ca bhavaṅgaṃ, ayaṃ āyatanehi otaraṇā.

Niyutto otaraṇo hārasampāto.

13. Sodhanahārasampāto

75. Tattha katamo sodhano hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. Yattha ārambho suddho, so pañho visajjito bhavati. Yattha pana ārambho na suddho, na tāva so pañho visajjito bhavati.

Niyutto sodhano hārasampāto.

14. Adhiṭṭhānahārasampāto

76. Tattha katamo adhiṭṭhāno hārasampāto?

Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaroti gāthā. Tasmā rakkhitacittassāti ekattatā. Cittaṃ mano viññāṇaṃ, ayaṃ vemattatā. Sammāsaṅkappagocaroti ekattatā. Nekkhammasaṅkappo abyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṃsāsaṅkappo ayaṃ vemattatā. Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāroti ekattatā. Sammādiṭṭhi nāma yaṃ dukkhe ñāṇaṃ dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ magge ñāṇaṃ hetumhi ñāṇaṃ hetusamuppannesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ paccaye ñāṇaṃ paccayasamuppannesu dhammesu ñāṇaṃ, yaṃ tattha tattha yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ abhisamayo sampaṭivedho saccāgamanaṃ, ayaṃ vemattatā. Ñatvāna udayabbayanti ekattatā, udayena avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ, evaṃ sabbaṃ samudayo bhavati. Vayena avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho, evaṃ sabbaṃ nirodho hoti, ayaṃ vemattatā. Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhūti ekattatā, thinaṃ nāma yā cittassa akallatā akammaniyatā, middhaṃ nāma yaṃ kāyassa līnattaṃ, ayaṃ vemattatā. Sabbā duggatiyo jaheti ekattatā, devamanusse vā upanidhāya apāyā duggati, nibbānaṃ vā upanidhāya sabbā upapattiyo duggati, ayaṃ vemattatā.

Niyutto adhiṭṭhāno hārasampāto.

15. Parikkhārahārasampāto

77. Tattha katamo parikkhāro hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro’’ti gāthā. Ayaṃ samathavipassanāya parikkhāro.

Niyutto parikkhāro hārasampāto.

16. Samāropanahārasampāto

78. Tattha katamo samāropano hārasampāto?

‘‘Tasmā rakkhitacittassa, sammāsaṅkappagocaro;

Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāro, ñatvāna udayabbayaṃ;

Thinamiddhābhibhū bhikkhu, sabbā duggatiyo jahe’’ti.

Tasmā rakkhitacittassāti tiṇṇaṃ sucaritānaṃ padaṭṭhānaṃ, citte rakkhite taṃ rakkhitaṃ bhavati kāyakammaṃ vacīkammaṃ manokammaṃ. Sammādiṭṭhipurekkhāroti sammādiṭṭhiyā bhāvitāya bhāvito bhavati ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Kena kāraṇena? Sammādiṭṭhito hi sammāsaṅkappo pabhavati, sammāsaṅkappato sammāvācā pabhavati, sammāvācāto sammākammanto pabhavati, sammākammantato sammāājīvo pabhavati, sammāājīvato sammāvāyāmo pabhavati, sammāvāyāmato sammāsati pabhavati, sammāsatito sammāsamādhi pabhavati, sammāsamādhito sammāvimutti pabhavati, sammāvimuttito sammāvimuttiñāṇadassanaṃ pabhavati. Ayaṃ anupādiseso puggalo anupādisesā ca nibbānadhātu.

Niyutto samāropano hārasampāto.

Tenāha āyasmā mahākaccāyano –

‘‘Soḷasa hārā paṭhamaṃ, disalocanato disā viloketvā;

Saṅkhipiya aṅkusena hi, nayehi tīhi niddise sutta’’nti.

Niyutto hārasampāto.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Khuddakanikāya >> Suttapiṭaka >> Tipiṭaka (Mūla), nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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BQT trang Theravāda cố gắng sưu tầm thông tin tài liệu Dhamma trợ duyên quý độc giả tìm hiểu về Dhamma - Giáo Pháp Bậc Giác Ngộ thuyết giảng suốt 45 năm sau khi Ngài chứng đắc trở thành Đức Phật Chánh Đẳng Chánh Giác vào đêm Rằm tháng 4, tìm hiểu thêm phương pháp thực hành thiền Anapana, thiền Vipassana qua các tài liệu, bài giảng, pháp thoại từ các Thiền Sư, các Bậc Trưởng Lão, Bậc Thiện Trí.

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