3. Aniyatakaṇḍaṃ

1. Paṭhamaaniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā

443. Puttasaddena sāmaññaniddesato ekasesanayena vā puttīpi gahitāti āha ‘‘bahū dhītaro cā’’ti. Dānappadānesūti khuddakesu ceva mahantesu ca dānesu. Chaṇaṃ nāma attano gehe kattabbamaṅgalanti āha ‘‘āvāhavivāhamaṅgalādīsū’’ti. Ettha ādi-saddena phagguṇamāsādīsu uttaraphagguṇādiabhilakkhitadivasesu saparijanānaṃ manussānaṃ maṅgalakaraṇampi saṅgaṇhāti. Antarussavesūti mahussavassa antarantarā pavattitaussavesu. Āsāḷhīpavāraṇanakkhattādīsūti ettha nakkhattasaddo paccekaṃ yojetabbo. Tattha āsāḷhīnakkhattanti vassūpagamanapūjādivasaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ, pavāraṇanakkhattanti pavāraṇapūjādivasaṃ sandhāya. Ādi-saddena yasmiṃ nakkhatte gāmanigamavāsino tayo satta vā divase nakkhattaghosanaṃ katvā yathāvibhavaṃ alaṅkatapaṭiyattā bhoge paribhuñjantā nakkhattakīḷaṃ kīḷanti, tampi saṅgaṇhāti. Imepi dārakāti attano dārake sandhāya vadanti. Tadanantaranti bhikkhūnaṃ bhojanānantaraṃ.

444-445.Taṃ kammanti taṃ ajjhācārakammaṃ. Bhikkhu nisinneti ettha bhikkhūti bhummatthe paccattavacanaṃ, bhummavacanassa vā lopaṃ katvā niddesoti āha ‘‘bhikkhumhi nisinne’’ti. Pāḷiyaṃ ‘‘sotassa raho’’ti idaṃ atthuddhāravasena vuttaṃ, ‘‘paṭicchanne āsane’’ti pana vacanato ‘‘sakkā hoti methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevitu’’nti ca vuttattā cakkhussa raho idhādhippetoti dassetuṃ ‘‘kiñcāpī’’tiādi vuttaṃ. Paricchedo veditabboti raho nisajjāpattiyā paricchedo vavatthānaṃ veditabbaṃ. Idāni cakkhussa raheneva āpattiṃ paricchinditvā dassento ‘‘sacepi hī’’tiādimāha. Pihitakavāṭassāti iminā paṭicchannabhāvato cakkhussa rahosabbhāvaṃ dasseti. Apihitakavāṭassāti iminā appaṭicchannabhāvaṃ dasseti. Appaṭicchanne ca dutiyasikkhāpade āgatanayena sotassa rahavasenapi paricchedo veditabboti āha ‘‘antodvādasahatthepi okāse’’ti . ‘‘Antodvādasahatthe’’ti hi idaṃ sotassa rahābhāvaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Yadi hi cakkhusseva rahābhāvaṃ sandhāya vadeyya , ‘‘antodvādasahatthe’’ti na vadeyya appaṭicchanne tato dūratare nisinnepi cakkhussa rahāsambhavato. Yasmā nisīditvā niddāyanto kapimiddhapareto kañci kālaṃ cakkhūni ummīleti, kañci kālaṃ nimīleti, na ca mahāniddaṃ okkamati, tasmā ‘‘niddāyantopi anāpattiṃ karotī’’ti vuttaṃ. Nipajjitvā niddāyanto pana tādiso na hotīti āha ‘‘nipajjitvā niddāyanto na karotī’’ti, anāpattiṃ na karotīti attho.

Paṭiladdhasotāpattiphalāti antimaparicchedato ariyasāvikaṃ dasseti. Paṭividdhacatusaccāti sotāpattimaggena paṭividdhacatusaccā. Tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ aññatarena kāretabboti nisajjaṃ paṭijānamānassa tiṇṇaṃ dhammānaṃ aññatarasamāyogo hotiyevāti vuttaṃ. Pārājikena pana saṅghādisesena ca pācittiyena ca tenākārena nisajjaṃ paṭijānamānova kāretabbo. Na appaṭijānamānoti alajjīpi appaṭijānamāno āpattiyā na kāretabboti avisesena vuttaṃ. So hi yāva na paṭijānāti, tāva neva suddho, na asuddhoti vā vattabbo, vattānusandhinā pana kāretabbo. Vuttañhetaṃ –

‘‘Paṭiññā lajjīsu katā, alajjīsu evaṃ na vijjati;

Bahumpi alajjī bhāseyya, vattānusandhitena kāraye’’ti. (pari. 359);

Yena vā sā saddheyyavacasā upāsikā vadeyya, tena so bhikkhu kāretabboti ettha ‘‘paṭijānamāno’’ti avuttepi adhikārattā ‘‘paṭijānamānova tena so bhikkhu kāretabbo’’ti vuttaṃ. Tathārūpāya upāsikāya vacanena aññathattābhāvato diṭṭhaṃ nāma tathāpi hoti, aññathāpi hotīti dassanena aññathattasambhavaṃ dasseti. Evaṃ mahiddhikā nāma…pe… vadāpethāti idaṃ ‘‘evaṃ mahiddhikāpi tumhe evarūpe āsaṅkanīye ṭhāne kasmā anupaparikkhitvā nisinnattha, tumhādisehi nāma antaraghare nisīdantehi upaparikkhitvā patirūpe ṭhāne nisīditabba’’nti theraṃ ovadanto āha, na pana asaddahanto. Thero attano anupaparikkhitvā anisinnabhāvaṃ dassento ‘‘antaragharasseveso āvuso doso’’ti āha. Evamakāsinti attano nigūhitabbampi guṇaṃ pakāsento evaṃ viya iddhipāṭihāriyaṃ akāsiṃ. Rakkheyyāsi manti ‘‘mā maṃ aññepi evaṃ jānantū’’ti attano guṇaṃ ajānāpetukāmo vadati.

446-451.Mātugāmassa methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevantoti ettha ‘‘magge’’ti pāṭhaseso daṭṭhabboti āha ‘‘mātugāmassa magge’’ti. Raho nisajjassādassa asatipi methunarāgabhāve tappaṭibaddhakilesattā vuttaṃ ‘‘methunadhammasannissitakileso vuccatī’’ti, teneva sannissitaggahaṇaṃ kataṃ. Taṃ sandhāya agatepi asuddhacittena gatattā ‘‘assāde uppanne pācittiya’’nti vuttaṃ. Rahassādo uppajjati anāpattīti suddhacittena gantvā nisinnattā cittuppādamattenettha āpatti na hotīti vuttaṃ. Ayaṃ dhammo aniyatoti ettha tiṇṇaṃ āpattīnaṃ yaṃ āpattiṃ vā vatthuṃ vā paṭijānāti, tassa vasena kāretabbatāya aniyatoti ayamattho pākaṭoyevāti na vutto. Yaṃ āpattiṃ paṭijānāti, tassā vasenettha aṅgabhedo veditabbo.

Paṭhamaaniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

2. Dutiyaaniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā

452. ‘‘Eko’’ti vuttattā ‘‘nisajjaṃ kappetuṃ paṭikkhitta’’nti iminā sambandho na ghaṭatīti āha ‘‘yaṃ eko…pe… sambandho veditabbo’’ti. Etaṃ paccattavacananti ‘‘eko’’ti idaṃ paccattavacanaṃ.

453.Bahi parikkhittanti bahi pākārādinā parikkhittaṃ. Pariveṇaṅgaṇanti pariveṇamāḷakaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Itthīpi purisopīti ettha paṭhame kasmā itthisatampi anāpattiṃ na karoti, idha ekāpi kasmā anāpattiṃ karotīti? Vuccate – paṭhamasikkhāpadaṃ ‘‘sakkā hoti methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevitu’’nti vuttattā methunadhammavasena āgataṃ, na ca methunassa mātugāmo dutiyo hoti. Itthiyo hi aññamaññissā vajjaṃ paṭicchādenti, teneva vesāliyaṃ mahāvane dvāraṃ vivaritvā nipanne bhikkhumhi sambahulā itthiyo yāvadatthaṃ katvā pakkamiṃsu, tasmā tattha ‘‘itthisatampi anāpattiṃ na karotī’’ti vuttaṃ. Idaṃ pana sikkhāpadaṃ duṭṭhullavācāvasena āgataṃ ‘‘alañca kho hoti mātugāmaṃ duṭṭhullāhi vācāhi obhāsitu’’nti vuttattā. Duṭṭhullavācañca sutvā mātugāmopi na paṭicchādeti. Teneva duṭṭhullavācāsikkhāpade yā tā itthiyo hirimanā, tā nikkhamitvā bhikkhū ujjhāpesuṃ, tasmā idha ‘‘itthīpi anāpattiṃ karotī’’ti vuttaṃ. Idha appaṭicchannattā itthīpi anāpattiṃ karoti, tattha paṭicchannattā itthisatampi anāpattiṃ na karotīti ca vadanti.

Kāyasaṃsaggavasena anandho vutto, duṭṭhullavācāvasena abadhiro. Antodvādasahatthe okāseti sotassa rahābhāvo vutto, etena ‘‘sotassa raho dvādasahatthena paricchinditabbo’’ti dasseti . Tasmā dvādasahatthato bahi nisinno anāpattiṃ na karoti satipi cakkhussa rahābhāve sotassa rahasabbhāvato. Imasmiñhi sikkhāpade appaṭicchannattā sotassa rahoyeva adhippeto. Pāḷiyaṃ pana ‘‘cakkhussa raho’’ti atthuddhāravasena vuttaṃ. Kenaci pana ‘‘dvepi rahā idha adhippetā’’ti vuttaṃ, taṃ na gahetabbaṃ. Na hi appaṭicchanne okāse cakkhussa raho sambhavati dvādasahatthato bahi dassanavisaye dūratare nisinnassapi daṭṭhuṃ sakkuṇeyyabhāvato. Niddāyantopīti iminā ‘‘nipajjitvā niddāyantopi gahitoyevā’’ti tīsupi gaṇṭhipadesuvuttaṃ. ‘‘Nipajjitvā niddāyantepi satipi cakkhussa rahe abadhirattā sotassa raho natthī’’ti gaṇṭhipadakārānaṃ adhippāyo. Yathā pana nipajjitvā niddāyanto andho viya kiñci na passatīti cakkhussa raho sambhavati, tathā badhiro viya kiñci saddaṃ na suṇātīti sotassa rahopi sambhavatīti sakkā vattuṃ. Aṭṭhakathāyañca ṭhito vā nisinno vāti ettakameva vuttaṃ, paṭhamasikkhāpade viya ‘‘nipajjitvā niddāyantopi anāpattiṃ na karotī’’ti idaṃ pana na vuttaṃ, tasmā vīmaṃsitvā yathā na virujjhati, tathā gahetabbaṃ.

Sotassa rahasseva idhādhippetattā ‘‘badhiro pana cakkhumāpī’’ti vuttaṃ. Andhassa appaṭicchannampi paṭicchannapakkhaṃ bhajatīti paṭhamasikkhāpadassa visayattā vuttaṃ ‘‘andho vā abadhiropi na karotī’’ti. Yatheva hi tattha apihitakavāṭassa gabbhassa anto samīpepi ṭhito andho anāpattiṃ na karoti, evamayampīti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Ubhayatthāpīti dvīsupi aniyatesu. Yasmā dvīhi sikkhāpadehi udāyittheraṃ ārabbha visuṃ paññattā kāci āpatti nāma natthi, tasmā tassa tassa sikkhāpadassa ādikammike sandhāya ādikammikānaṃ anāpatti vuttā. Upanandattherādayo hi raho nisajjādīnaṃ ādikammikā. Bhagavatā pana paṭhamaṃ paññattasikkhāpadāniyeva gahetvā upanandavatthusmiṃ aniyatakkamo dassito. Yadi imehi sikkhāpadehi visuṃ paññattā āpatti nāma natthi, atha kasmā bhagavatā aniyatadvayaṃ paññattanti? Evarūpāyapi upāsikāya vuccamāno paṭijānamānoyeva āpattiyā kāretabbo, na appaṭijānamānoti dassentena bhagavatā yāya kāyaci āpattiyā yena kenaci codite paṭiññātakaraṇaṃyeva daḷhaṃ katvā vinayavinicchayalakkhaṇaṃ ṭhapitaṃ. Atha bhikkhunīnaṃ aniyataṃ kasmā na vuttanti? Idameva lakkhaṇaṃ sabbattha anugatanti na vuttaṃ.

Dutiyaaniyatasikkhāpadavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Iti samantapāsādikāya vinayaṭṭhakathāya sāratthadīpaniyaṃ

Aniyatavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā) >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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* Source Tipitaka.org - Based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute

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