13. Dānalakkhaṇādivinicchayakathā

69.Dānavissāsaggāhehilābhassa pariṇāmananti ettha tāva dānanti attano santakassa cīvarādiparikkhārassa saddhivihārikādīsu yassa kassaci dānaṃ. Tatridaṃ dānalakkhaṇaṃ – ‘‘idaṃ tuyhaṃ demi dadāmi dajjāmi oṇojemi pariccajāmi vissajjāmī’’ti vā ‘‘itthannāmassa demi…pe… vissajjāmī’’ti vā vadati, sammukhāpi parammukhāpi dinnaṃyeva hoti. ‘‘Tuyhaṃ gaṇhāhī’’ti vutte ‘‘mayhaṃ gaṇhāmī’’ti vadati, sudinnaṃ suggahitañca. ‘‘Tava santakaṃ karohi, tava santakaṃ hotu, tava santakaṃ hotī’’ti vutte ‘‘mama santakaṃ karomi, mama santakaṃ hotu, mama santakaṃ karissāmī’’ti vadati, dudinnaṃ duggahitañca. Neva dātā dātuṃ jānāti, na itaro gahetuṃ, sace pana ‘‘tava santakaṃ karohī’’ti vutte ‘‘sādhu, bhante, mayhaṃ gaṇhāmī’’ti gaṇhāti, suggahitaṃ. Sace pana eko ‘‘idaṃ cīvaraṃ gaṇhāhī’’ti vadati, itaro ‘‘na gaṇhāmī’’ti vadati, puna so ‘‘dinnaṃ mayā tuyhaṃ, gaṇhāhī’’ti vadati, itaropi ‘‘na mayhaṃ iminā attho’’ti vadati, tato purimopi ‘‘mayā dinna’’nti dasāhaṃ atikkāmeti, pacchimopi ‘‘mayā paṭikkhitta’’nti, kassa āpattīti? Na kassaci. Yassa pana ruccati, tena adhiṭṭhahitvā paribhuñjitabbaṃ. ‘‘Itthannāmassa dehī’’ti dinnaṃ yāva parassa hatthaṃ na pāpuṇāti, tāva yo pahiṇati, tasseva santakaṃ, ‘‘itthannāmassa dammī’’ti dinnaṃ pana yassa pahīyati, tassa santakaṃ. Tasmā bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘idaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dehī’’ti. So antarāmagge yo pahiṇati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, suggahitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, duggahitaṃ.

Bhikkhu (mahāva. 378-379) bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dehī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘yo pahiṇati, so kālakato’’ti, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, svādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, duggahitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dehī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘yassa pahīyati, so kālakato’’ti, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, dvādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yo pahiṇati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, suggahitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dehī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘ubho kālakatā’’ti, yo pahiṇati, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, svādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, dvādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dammī’’ti. So antarāmagge yo pahiṇati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, duggahitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, suggahitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dammī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘yo pahiṇati, so kālakato’’ti, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, dvādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, suggahitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dammī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘yassa pahīyati, so kālakato’’ti, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, svādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yo pahiṇati, tassa vissāsā gaṇhāti, duggahitaṃ. Bhikkhu bhikkhussa hatthe cīvaraṃ pahiṇati ‘‘imaṃ cīvaraṃ itthannāmassa dammī’’ti. So antarāmagge suṇāti ‘‘ubho kālakatā’’ti. Yo pahiṇati, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, dvādhiṭṭhitaṃ. Yassa pahīyati, tassa matakacīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhāti, svādhiṭṭhitaṃ.

Pariccajitvā dinnaṃ puna kenaci kāraṇena kupito āharāpetuṃ na labhati. Attanā dinnampi hi cīvaraṃ sakasaññāya acchindato nissaggiyaṃ, aññaṃ parikkhāraṃ antamaso sūcimpi acchindato dukkaṭaṃ. Sace pana ‘‘bhante, tumhākaṃ idaṃ sāruppa’’nti sayameva deti, gahetuṃ vaṭṭati. Atha pana ‘‘āvuso, mayaṃ tuyhaṃ ‘vattapaṭivattaṃ karissati, amhākaṃ santike upajjhaṃ gaṇhissati, dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇissatī’ti cīvaraṃ adamhā, so dāni tvaṃ na vattaṃ karosi, na upajjhaṃ gaṇhāsi, na dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāsī’’ti evamādīni vutto ‘‘bhante, cīvaratthāya maññe bhaṇatha, idaṃ vo cīvara’’nti deti, evampi vaṭṭati. Disāpakkamantaṃ vā pana daharaṃ ‘‘nivattetha na’’nti bhaṇati, so na nivattati, cīvare gahetvā nirundhathāti, evañce nivattati, sādhu. Sace ‘‘pattacīvaratthāya maññe tumhe bhaṇatha, gaṇhatha na’’nti deti, evampi vaṭṭati. Vibbhamantaṃ vā disvā ‘‘mayaṃ tuyhaṃ ‘vattaṃ karissatī’ti pattacīvaraṃ adamhā, so dāni tvaṃ vibbhamitvā carasī’’ti vadati, itaro ‘‘gaṇhatha tumhākaṃ pattacīvara’’nti deti, evampi vaṭṭati. ‘‘Mama santike upajjhaṃ gaṇhantasseva demi, aññattha gaṇhantassa na demi, vattaṃ karontasseva demi, akarontassa na demi, dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇantasseva demi, apariyāpuṇantassa na demi, avibbhamantasseva demi, vibbhamantassa na demī’’ti evaṃ pana dātuṃ na vaṭṭati, dadato dukkaṭaṃ, āharāpetuṃ pana vaṭṭati, vissajjetvā dinnaṃ acchinditvā gaṇhanto bhaṇḍagghena kāretabbo. Ayaṃ tāva dāne vinicchayo.

70.Vissāsaggāhalakkhaṇaṃ pana iminā suttena jānitabbaṃ –

‘‘Anujānāmi , bhikkhave, pañcahaṅgehi samannāgatassa vissāsaṃ gahetuṃ sandiṭṭho ca hoti, sambhatto ca, ālapito ca, jīvati ca, gahite ca attamano hotī’’ti (mahāva. 356).

Tattha (pārā. aṭṭha. 1.131) sandiṭṭhoti diṭṭhamattakamitto. Sambhattoti daḷhamitto. Ālapitoti ‘‘mama santakaṃ yaṃ icchasi, taṃ gaṇheyyāsi, āpucchitvā gahaṇe kāraṇaṃ natthī’’ti vutto. Jīvatīti anuṭṭhānaseyyāya sayitopi yāvajīvitindriyupacchedaṃ na pāpuṇāti. Gahite ca attamanoti gahite tuṭṭhacitto hoti. ‘‘Evarūpassa santakaṃ gahite me attamano bhavissatī’’ti jānantena gahetuṃ vaṭṭati. Anavasesapariyādānavasena cetāni pañcaṅgāni vuttāni, vissāsaggāho pana tīhi aṅgehi ruhati sandiṭṭho, jīvati, gahite attamano, sambhatto, jīvati, gahite attamano, ālapito, jīvati, gahite attamanoti. Yo pana na jīvati, na ca gahite attamano hoti, tassa santakaṃ vissāsaggāhena gahitampi puna dātabbaṃ. Dadamānena ca matakadhanaṃ tāva ye tassa dhane issarā gahaṭṭhā vā pabbajitā vā, tesaṃ dātabbaṃ. Anattamanassa santakaṃ tasseva dātabbaṃ, yo pana paṭhamaṃyeva ‘‘suṭṭhu kataṃ tayā mama santakaṃ gaṇhantenā’’ti vacībhedena vā cittuppādamattena vā anumoditvā pacchā kenaci kāraṇena kupito, paccāharāpetuṃ na labhati, yopi adātukāmo, cittena pana adhivāseti, na kiñci vadati, sopi puna paccāharāpetuṃ na labhati. Yo pana ‘‘mayā tumhākaṃ santakaṃ gahitaṃ vā paribhuttaṃ vā’’ti vutte ‘‘gahitaṃ vā hotu paribhuttaṃ vā, mayā pana taṃ kenacideva karaṇīyena ṭhapitaṃ, taṃ pākatikaṃ kātuṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti vadati, ayaṃ paccāharāpetuṃ labhati. Ayaṃ vissāsaggāhe vinicchayo.

71.Lābhassa pariṇāmananti idaṃ pana aññesaṃ atthāya pariṇatalābhassa attano aññassa vā pariṇāmanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ. Tatrāyaṃ vinicchayo (pārā. aṭṭha. 2.659-660) – saṅghassa pariṇataṃ sahadhammikānaṃ vā gihīnaṃ vā antamaso mātusantakampi ‘‘idaṃ mayhaṃ dehī’’ti saṅghassa pariṇatabhāvaṃ ñatvā attano pariṇāmetvā gaṇhantassa nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ, ‘‘imassa bhikkhuno dehī’’ti evaṃ aññassa pariṇāmentassa suddhikapācittiyaṃ. Tasmā yopi vassikasāṭikasamaye mātugharepi saṅghassa pariṇataṃ vassikasāṭikaṃ ñatvā attano pariṇāmeti, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ, parassa pariṇāmeti, suddhikapācittiyaṃ. Manussā ‘‘saṅghabhattaṃ karissāmā’’ti sappitelādīni āharanti, gilāno cepi bhikkhusaṅghassa pariṇatabhāvaṃ ñatvā kiñci yācati, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyameva. Sace pana so ‘‘tumhākaṃ sappiādīni ābhatāni atthī’’ti pucchitvā ‘‘āma, atthī’’ti vutte ‘‘mayhampi dethā’’ti vadati, vaṭṭati. Athāpi naṃ kukkuccāyantaṃ upāsakā vadanti ‘‘saṅghopi amhehi dinnameva labhati, gaṇhatha, bhante’’ti, evampi vaṭṭati.

Ekasmiṃ vihāre saṅghassa pariṇataṃ aññavihāraṃ uddisitvā ‘‘asukasmiṃ nāma vihāre saṅghassa dethā’’ti pariṇāmeti, ‘‘kiṃ saṅghassa dānena, cetiyassa pūjaṃ karothā’’ti evaṃ cetiyassa vā pariṇāmeti, dukkaṭaṃ. Cetiyassa pariṇataṃ aññacetiyassa vā saṅghassa vā gaṇassa vā puggalassa vā pariṇāmeti, dukkaṭameva. Niyametvā aññacetiyassa atthāya ropitamālāvacchato aññacetiyamhi pupphampi āropetuṃ na vaṭṭati, ekassa cetiyassa pana chattaṃ vā paṭākaṃ vā āropetvā ṭhitaṃ disvā sesaṃ aññacetiyassa dāpetuṃ vaṭṭati. Antamaso sunakhassapi pariṇataṃ ‘‘imassa sunakhassa mā dehi, etassa dehī’’ti evaṃ aññapuggalassa pariṇāmeti, dukkaṭaṃ. Sace pana dāyakā ‘‘mayaṃ saṅghabhattaṃ kātukāmā, cetiyapūjaṃ kātukāmā, ekassa bhikkhuno parikkhāraṃ dātukāmā, tumhākaṃ ruciyā dassāma, bhaṇatha kattha demā’’ti vadanti, evaṃ vutte tena bhikkhunā ‘‘yattha icchatha, tattha dethā’’ti vattabbā. Sace pana kevalaṃ ‘‘kattha demā’’ti pucchanti, ‘‘yattha tumhākaṃ deyyadhammo paribhogaṃ vā labheyya, paṭisaṅkhāraṃ vā labheyya, ciraṭṭhitiko vā assa, yattha vā pana tumhākaṃ cittaṃ pasīdati, tattha dethā’’ti vattuṃ vaṭṭati.

Iti pāḷimuttakavinayavinicchayasaṅgahe

Dānalakkhaṇādivinicchayakathā samattā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayasaṅgaha-aṭṭhakathā >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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