11. Pañcasatikakkhandhakaṃ

Saṅgītinidānakathāvaṇṇanā

437. Pañcasatikakkhandhake pāvāya kusināranti (dī. ni. aṭṭha. 2.231) pāvānagare piṇḍāya caritvā kusināraṃ gamissāmīti addhānamaggappaṭipanno. Mandāravapupphaṃ gahetvāti mahācāṭippamāṇaṃ pupphaṃ āgantukadaṇḍake ṭhapetvā chattaṃ viya gahetvā. Addasaṃ khoti āgacchantaṃ dūratova addasaṃ. Disvā ca pana ‘‘pucchissāmi naṃ bhagavato pavatti’’nti cittaṃ uppādetvā ‘‘sace kho pana nisinnakova pucchissāmi, satthari agāravo kato bhavissatī’’ti uṭṭhahitvā ṭhitaṭṭhānato apakkamma chaddanto nāgarājā maṇicammaṃ viya dasabaladattiyaṃ meghavaṇṇapaṃsukūlacīvaraṃ pārupitvā dasanakhasamodhānasamujjalaṃ añjaliṃ sirasmiṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā satthari katena gāravena ājīvakassa abhimukho hutvā ‘‘apāvuso amhākaṃ satthāraṃ jānāsī’’ti āha. Kiṃ pana satthu parinibbānaṃ jānanto pucchi ajānantoti? Āvajjanappaṭibaddhaṃ khīṇāsavānaṃ jānanaṃ. Anāvajjitattā panesa ajānanto pucchīti eke. Thero samāpattibahulo rattiṭṭhānadivāṭṭhānaleṇamaṇḍapādīsu niccaṃ samāpattiphaleneva yāpeti. Kulasantakampi gāmaṃ pavisitvā dvāre samāpajjitvā samāpattito vuṭṭhitova bhikkhaṃ gaṇhāti. Thero kira ‘‘iminā me pacchimena attabhāvena mahājanānuggahaṃ karissāmi, ye mayhaṃ bhikkhaṃ vā denti, gandhamālādīhi vā sakkāraṃ karonti, tesaṃ taṃ mahapphalaṃ hotū’’ti evaṃ karoti. Tasmā samāpattibahulatāya na jāni. Iti ajānantova pucchīti vadanti, taṃ na gahetabbaṃ. Na hettha ajānanakāraṇaṃ atthi. Abhilakkhitaṃ satthu parinibbānaṃ ahosi dasasahassilokadhātukampanādīhi nimittehi. Therassa pana parisāya kehici bhikkhūhi bhagavā diṭṭhapubbo, kehici na diṭṭhapubbo. Tattha yehi diṭṭhapubbo, tepi passitukāmāva. Yehipi adiṭṭhapubbo, tepi passitukāmāva. Tattha yehi na diṭṭhapubbo, te abhidassanakāmatāya gantvā ‘‘kuhiṃ bhagavā’’ti pucchantā ‘‘parinibbuto’’ti sutvā sandhāretuṃ na sakkhissanti. Cīvaraṃ chaḍḍetvā ekavatthā vā dunnivatthā vā urāni paṭipisantā parodissanti. Tattha manussā ‘‘mahākassapena saddhiṃ āgatapaṃsukūlikā sayampi itthiyo viya parodanti, te kiṃ amhe samassāsentī’’ti mayhaṃ dosaṃ dassanti. Idaṃ pana suññaṃ mahāraññaṃ, idha yathā tathā rodantesu doso natthi. Purimataraṃ sutvā nāma sokopi tanuko hotīti bhikkhūnaṃ satuppādalābhatthaṃ jānantova pucchi.

Ajja sattāhaparinibbutoti ajja divasato paṭilomato sattame ahani parinibbuto. Tato me idanti tato samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbutaṭṭhānato. Avītarāgāti puthujjanā ceva sotāpannasakadāgāmino ca. Tesañhi domanassaṃ appahīnaṃ, tasmā tepi bāhā paggayha kandanti, ubho hatthe sīse ṭhapetvā rodanti. Chinnapātaṃ papatantīti chinnānaṃ pāto viya chinnapāto, taṃ chinnapātaṃ, bhāvanapuṃsakaniddesoyaṃ, majjhe chinnā viya hutvā yato vā tato vā patantīti attho. Āvaṭṭantīti abhimukhabhāvena vaṭṭanti. Yattha patitā, tato katipayaratanaṭṭhānaṃ vaṭṭanavaseneva gantvā puna yathāpatitameva ṭhānaṃ vaṭṭanavasena āgacchanti. Vivaṭṭantīti yattha patitā, tato nivaṭṭanti, patitaṭṭhānato parabhāgaṃ vaṭṭamānā gacchantīti attho. Apica purato vaṭṭanaṃ āvaṭṭanaṃ, passato pacchato ca vaṭṭanaṃ vivaṭṭanaṃ. Tasmā dve pāde pasāretvā sakiṃ purato sakiṃ pacchato sakiṃ vāmato sakiṃ dakkhiṇato samparivaṭṭamānāpi āvaṭṭanti vivaṭṭantīti vuccanti. Vītarāgāti pahīnadomanassā iṭṭhāniṭṭhesu nibbikāratāya silāthambhasadisā anāgāmikhīṇāsavā. Kāmañhi domanasse asatipi ekacco rāgo hotiyeva, rāge pana asati domanassassa asambhavoyeva. Tadekaṭṭhabhāvato hi rāgappahānena pahīnadomanassā vuttā, na khīṇāsavā eva.

Sabbeheva piyehītiādīsu piyāyitabbato piyehi manavaḍḍhanato manāpehi mātāpitābhātābhaginīādikehi. Nānābhāvoti jātiyā nānābhāvo, jātianurūpagamanena visuṃ bhāvo, asambaddhabhāvoti attho. Vinābhāvoti maraṇena vinābhāvo, cutiyā tenattabhāvena apunapavattanato vippayogoti attho. Aññathābhāvoti bhavena aññathābhāvo, bhavantaraggahaṇena ‘‘kāmāvacarasatto rūpāvacaro hotī’’tiādinā tatthāpi ‘‘manusso devo hotī’’tiādinā ca purimākārato aññākāratāti attho. Tanti tasmā. Kutettha labbhāti kuto kuhiṃ kasmiṃ nāma ṭhāne ettha etasmiṃ khandhappavatte yaṃ taṃ jātaṃ…pe… mā palujjīti laddhuṃ sakkā, na sakkā eva tādisassa kāraṇassa abhāvato. Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yasmā sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo, tasmā dasa pāramiyo pūretvāpi sambodhiṃ patvāpi dhammacakkaṃ pavattetvāpi yamakapāṭihāriyaṃ dassetvāpi devorohaṇaṃ katvāpi yaṃ taṃ jātaṃ bhūtaṃ saṅkhataṃ palokadhammaṃ, tañca tathāgatassapi sarīraṃ mā palujjīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati, rodantenapi kandantenapi na sakkā taṃ kāraṇaṃ laddhunti.

Tena kho panāvuso, samayena subhaddo nāma vuḍḍhapabbajitotiādīsu yaṃ vattabbaṃ, taṃ nidānavaṇṇanāyaṃ(sārattha. ṭī. 1.paṭhamamahāsaṅgītikathā) vuttanayameva.

Saṅgītinidānakathāvaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Khuddānukhuddakasikkhāpadakathāvaṇṇanā

441.Samūhaneyyāti ākaṅkhamāno samūhanatu, yadi icchati, samūhaneyyāti attho. Kasmā pana ‘‘samūhanathā’’ti ekaṃseneva avatvā ‘‘ākaṅkhamāno samūhaneyyā’’ti vikappavacaneneva bhagavā ṭhapesīti? Mahākassapassa ñāṇabalassa diṭṭhattā. Passati hi bhagavā ‘‘samūhanathāti vuttepi saṅgītikāle kassapo na samūhanissatī’’ti, tasmā vikappeneva ṭhapesi. Yadi asamūhananaṃ diṭṭhaṃ, tadeva ca icchitaṃ, atha kasmā bhagavā ‘‘ākaṅkhamāno samūhanatū’’ti avocāti? Tathārūpapuggalajjhāsayavasena. Santi hi keci khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samādāya vattituṃ anicchantā, tesaṃ tathā avuccamāne bhagavati vighāto uppajjeyya, taṃ tesaṃ bhavissati dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya. Tathā pana vutte tesaṃ vighāto na uppajjeyya, amhākamevāyaṃ doso, yato amhesuyeva keci samūhananaṃ na icchantīti . Keci ‘‘sakalassa pana sāsanassa saṅghāyattabhāvakaraṇatthaṃ tathā vutta’’nti vadanti. Yaṃ kiñci satthārā sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ, taṃ samaṇā sakyaputtiyā sirasā sampaṭicchitvā jīvitaṃ viya rakkhanti. Tathā hi te ‘‘khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni ākaṅkhamāno saṅgho samūhanatū’’ti vuttepi na samūhaniṃsu. Aññadatthu purato viya tassa accayepi rakkhiṃsuyevāti satthu sāsanassa saṅghassa ca mahantabhāvadassanatthampi tathā vuttanti daṭṭhabbaṃ. Tathā hi āyasmā ānando aññepi vā bhikkhū ‘‘katamaṃ pana, bhante, khuddakaṃ, katamaṃ anukhuddaka’’nti na pucchiṃsu samūhanajjhāsayasseva abhāvato, teneva ekasikkhāpadampi apariccajitvā sabbesaṃ anuggahetabbabhāvadassanatthaṃ ‘‘cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakānī’’tiādimāhaṃsu. Evañhi vadantehi ‘‘khuddānukhuddakā ime nāmā’’ti avinicchitattā sabbesaṃ anuggahetabbabhāvo dassito hoti.

442.Athakho āyasmā mahākassapo saṅghaṃ ñāpesīti ettha pana keci vadanti ‘‘bhante nāgasena, katamaṃ khuddakaṃ, katamaṃ anukhuddakanti milindaraññā pucchite ‘dukkaṭaṃ mahārāja, khuddakaṃ, dubbhāsitaṃ anukhuddaka’nti (mi. pa. 4.2.1) vuttattā nāgasenatthero khuddānukhuddakaṃ jāni, mahākassapatthero pana taṃ ajānanto ‘suṇātu me āvuso’tiādinā kammavācaṃ sāvesī’’ti, na taṃ evaṃ gahetabbaṃ. Nāgasenatthero hi paresaṃ vādapathopacchedanatthaṃ saṅgītikāle dhammasaṅgāhakamahātherehi gahitakoṭṭhāsesu antimakoṭṭhāsameva gahetvā milindarājānaṃ saññāpesi, mahākassapatthero pana ekasikkhāpadampi asamūhanitukāmatāya tathā kammavācaṃ sāvesi.

Tattha gihigatānīti gihipaṭisaṃyuttānīti vadanti. Gihīsu gatāni, tehi ñātāni gihigatānīti evaṃ panettha attho daṭṭhabbo. Dhūmakālo etassāti dhūmakālikaṃ citakadhūmavūpasamato paraṃ appavattanato. Appaññattantiādīsu (dī. ni. aṭṭha. 2.136; a. ni. aṭṭha. 3.7.23) navaṃ adhammikaṃ katikavattaṃ vā sikkhāpadaṃ vā bandhantā appaññattaṃ paññapenti nāma purāṇasanthatavatthusmiṃ sāvatthiyaṃ bhikkhū viya. Uddhammaṃ ubbinayaṃ sāsanaṃ dīpentā paññattaṃ samucchindanti nāma vassasataparinibbute bhagavati vesālikā vajjiputtakā viya. Khuddānukhuddakā pana āpattiyo sañcicca vītikkamantā yathāpaññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya na vattanti nāma assajipunabbasukā viya. Navaṃ pana katikavattaṃ vā sikkhāpadaṃ vā abandhantā, dhammato vinayato sāsanaṃ dīpentā, khuddānukhuddakampi ca sikkhāpadaṃ asamūhanantā appaññattaṃ na paññapenti, paññattaṃ na samucchindanti, yathāpaññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattanti nāma āyasmā upaseno viya āyasmā yaso kākaṇḍakaputto viya ca.

443.Bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāneti vesāliṃ nissāya cāpāle cetiye viharantena bhagavatā –

‘‘Ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenacetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakacetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambacetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtacetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadacetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālacetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho pana, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’’ti (dī. ni. 2.166) –

Evaṃ oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne.

Mārena pariyuṭṭhitacittoti mārena ajjhotthaṭacitto. Māro hi yassa sabbena sabbaṃ dvādasa vipallāsā appahīnā, tassa cittaṃ pariyuṭṭhāti. Therassa ca cattāro vipallāsā appahīnā, tenassa māro cittaṃ pariyuṭṭhāsi. So pana cittapariyuṭṭhānaṃ karonto kiṃ karotīti? Bheravaṃ rūpārammaṇaṃ vā dasseti, saddārammaṇaṃ vā sāveti, tato sattā taṃ disvā vā sutvā vā satiṃ vissajjetvā vivaṭamukhā honti, tesaṃ mukhena hatthaṃ pavesetvā hadayaṃ maddati, tato visaññāva hutvā tiṭṭhanti . Therassa panesa mukhena hatthaṃ pavesetuṃ kiṃ sakkhissati, bheravārammaṇaṃ pana dassesi, taṃ disvā thero nimittobhāsaṃ na paṭivijjhi.

Khuddānukhuddakasikkhāpadakathāvaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

Brahmadaṇḍakathāvaṇṇanā

445.Ujjavanikāyāti paṭisotagāminiyā. Rajoharaṇanti rajopuñchanī. Na kulavaṃ gamentīti niratthakavināsanaṃ na gamenti. Kucchito lavo kulavo, anayavināsoti vuttaṃ hoti. ‘‘Dhammavinayasaṅgītiyā’’ti vattabbe saṅgītiyā vinayappadhānattā ‘‘vinayasaṅgītiyā’’ti vuttaṃ. Vinayappadhānā saṅgīti vinayasaṅgīti. Sesamettha suviññeyyamevāti.

Pañcasatikakkhandhakavaṇṇanā niṭṭhitā.

 

* Bài viết trích trong Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā) >> Tīkā, nguồn Tipitaka.org. Tải sách PDF tại đây.

 

 

 

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